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Dewey,  Melvil 


Decimal  classification  and 
relative  index...  17th  ed. 


New  York 


1965 


BIBLIOGRAPHIC  RECORD  TARGET 


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Dewey,  Melvil,  *d  1851-1931.  H 

Decimal  classification  and  relative  index.  1 

17th  ed.  ...  1 

New  York,  *b  Forest  Press,  +C  1965.  f 

2  V.  *c  25  cm.  1 

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19980607 
Lang:   eng 
Ctry :   nyu 


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PRESERVATION  RESOURCES 

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/A  /r  9^ 


GUIDE  TO  CONTENTS 


Dewey  Decimal  Classification 

1876-1979 


Reel  No. 


Edition/Year 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


13th  ed. 
14th  ed. 
15th  ed. 
16th  ed. 


16th  ed. 


1932)  -  V.  1  Tables,  v.  2  Index 

1942)  -  V.  1  Tables,  v.  2  Index 

1951)  -  Standard  (15th)  Edition 

1958)  -  V.  1  Tables 

1958)  -  V.  2  Index 


GUIDE  TO  CONTENTS 


Dewey  Decimal  Classification 

1876-1979 


Reel  No. 
11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


17th  ed. 
18th  ed. 


18th  ed. 
19th  ed. 


19th  ed. 


Edition/Year 

1965)  -   V.I  Tables,  v.  2  Index 

1971)  -   V.  1  Introduction/Tables 

V.  2  Schedules 

1971)  -   V.  3  Index 


1979)  - 


V.  1  Introduction/Tables 
V.  2  Schedules 


1979)  -   V.  3  Index 


THIS  REEL  CONTAINS 


17th  ed.  (1965) 


V.  1 
V.  2 


Tables 
Index 


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DEWEY 

Decimal  Classification 

Edition  17 


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DEWEY 

Decimal  Classification® 


DEWEY 


Decimal  Classification 

and 
Relative  Index 


Devised  by 
MELVIL  DEWEY 


Edition  1 7 


Volume  1 

Introduction 
General  Tables 


FOREST  PRESS,  INC. 

OF 

LAKE  PLACID  CLUB  EDUCATION  FOUNDATION 

LAKE    PLACID    CLUB 
NEW    YORK      12948      U.S.A. 

1965 


Copyright  1876,  1885,  1911,  1913,  1915,  1919* 

by  Melvil  Dewey 

Copyright  1888,  1891,  1894,  1899 

by  Library  Bureau 

Copyright  1922,  1927,  1932,  1942,  1952,  ©  1958 

by  Lake  Placid  Club  Education  Foundation 

Copyright  1951,  ©  1965 

by  Forest  Press,  Inc. 


Dewey,  Melvfl,  1851-1931. 

Dewey  decimal  classification  and  relative  index.  Ed.  17.  Lake 
Placid  Club,  N.Y.,  Forest  Press,  Inc.  of  Lake  Placid  Club  Educa- 
tion Foundation,  1965. 

2  V,  ( ix,  2153  p. )  26  cm. 

Contents. — v.  1.  Introduction.  General  tables. — v.  2.  Auxiliary  tables. 
Relative  index. 


1.  Classification,  Decimal,  i.  Title. 
Z696 


025.43 


Library  of  Congress  catalog  card  number:  65-10445 


THIS   BOOK   WAS   COMPOSED,    PRINTED   AND   BOUND 

IN    THE    UNITED    STATES    OF    AMERICA 
AT   KINGSPORT    PRESS,    INC.,    KINGSPORT,    TENNESSEE 


Contents 


Volume  1 


Publisher's  Foreword 


Preface 

Editor's 

1. 

2. 

2.1 

2.2 

2.21 

2.22 

2.3 

2.4 

2.5 

3. 

3.1 

3.2 

3.3 

3.31 

3.32 

3.33 

3.34 

3.35 

3.351 

3.352 

3.353 

3.353 

3.353 

3.354 

3.355 

3.36 

3.37 

3.38 

3.4 

3.41 

3.42 


Introduction 

Book  classification 

Dewey  Decimal  Classification 

History 
Basic  plan 

Discipline 

Hierarchy 
Memory  aids  and  synthesis  of  notation 
Versatility  and  flexibiUty 
Faults  and  virtues 
How  to  use  DC 
Preliminaries 
Analysis  of  a  book 
Selection  of  class  number 

Approach 

Headings 

Definitions  and  scope  notes 

Inclusion  notes 
Instruction  notes 

Optional  provision 

Use  of  more  than  one  0  in  standard  subdivisions 

Synthesis  of  notation 

1  Area  notation 

2  Division 

Priorities  of  arrangement 

Relocations 
Cross  references 
Standard  subdivisions 
Subject  not  provided  for 
Compound  and  complex  subjects 
More  than  one  subject 
More  than  one  aspect 


5 

5 
7 
1 

8 

9 
11 
13 

15 

15 

18 

18 

19 

20 

20 

21 

21 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

23 

24 

26 

26 

27 

29 

29 

29 

30 


/ 


Decimal  Classification 


3.43  Centered  headings  - '  \ 

3.44  Applications 

3.5  Reduction 

3.6  Index 

3.7  General  suggestions 

'  4.  Variations  from  recommended  practice 

4. 1  Principle  of  usefulness 

4.2  OflBcially  recognized  variations 

4.21  Options 

4.22  Optional  alphabetical  arrangement 

4.23  Artificial  digits 

4.3  UnoflBcial  variations 

4.31  Attraction 

4.32  Expansion 

4.33  Alphabetical  arrangement 

4.34  Relocations 

4.35  Standard  subdivisions 

4.36  Dropping  digits 

5.  Features  of  Edition  17 

5.1  Subject  integrity 

5.11  Structure 

5.12  Division  by  more  than  one  principle 

5.13  Relocation 

5.2  Degree  of  expansion 

5.3  Standard  subdivisions  and  area  table 

5.4  Use  outside  United  States 

5.5  Index 

5.6  Relation  to  Edition  16  and  DC6- 

5.7  Spelling 

6.  Toward  Edition  18 

7.  Acknowledgments 
■8.  Conclusion 

Melvil  Dewey's  Introduction 

Description 
Orijin  and  growth 
Extent  of  use 
What  is  the  sistem? 
Notation 
Best  known  decimal  form 

vi 


31 

31 
31 
33 
36 
38 
38 
38 
38 
39 
40 
40 
40 
40 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
45 
45 
52 
54 
55 
56 
56 
57 
58 
59 
61 

63 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 


Contents 


: 


Relativ  subject  index 

What  relativ  index  includes 

Tables 

Coordination 

New  subjects 

Choice  and  arranjement  of  beds 

Sequence  of  allyd  subjects 

Cachtitles 

Form  distinctions 

Minute  clasing 

Tentativ  tables 

Nemonics 

Decimalism 

Relativ  location 

Sizes  on  shelvs 

Catalogs 
Name  catalog 
Shelflist 
Clast  catalog 
Dictionary  catalog 

Advantajes 
Shelvs 
Shelflist 
Accession  book 
Pamflets 
Sale  duphcates 
Charjing  sistem 
Subject  references 
Recataloging  or  reclasifying 
Adaptability 
Arabic  numerals 

Endowment  of  special  departments 
Summary 

Sugjestions  to  uzers 
Numeration 
Plan  of  book 

Familiarity  with  clasification 
Subject  of  a  book 
Assyning  clas  numbers 
Number  of  figures  uzed  in  clas  number 

vii 


67 
69 
69 
71 
71 
71 
71 
72 
72 
73 
74 
74 
76 
77 
79 

79 
79 
79 
79 
80 

81 

81 

81 

81 

81 

81 

82 

82 

82 

82 

83 

83 

83 

84 
84 
84 
85 
85 
86 
88 


Decimal  Classification 


Decimal  Classification 


Bilding  numbers 
Book  numbers 

Variations  practicabl 
Cautions 
Letter  or  simbol  notations  for  chanjes  or  aditions 

Fiction 

Juvenils 

Biografy 

Paralel  libraries 

Combining  languaj  and  literature 

Reference  library 
Contractions  for  specialists 
Use  of  alfabet  or  cronolojy  for  final  subdivisions 
Broken  order 
Pro  and  con  division  of  topics 

Bibliografic  modifications 
Accretion  syn  + 
Cupling  syn  — 
Relation  syn  : 
Form  syn  (0) 
Universality  syn  oo 
Place  syn  (3)-(9) 
Languaj  syn  = 
Time  syn  "  " 

Jeneral  points  of  view  syn  00 
AtoZ 
Sequence 

Other  uses 
Bookstores 
Offis  files 
Scrapbooks 
Index  rerums 
Topical  indexes 

Acknowlejments 
Future  of  D  C 

Summaries 
General  Tables 


89 
90 

91 
91 
93 
93 
94 
94 
95 
95 
95 
96 
97 
97 
98 

99 
100 
100 
100 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
101 
102 
102 

102 
102 
102 
103 
103 
105 

105 
107 

109 
123 


Volume  2 


Table  of  Standard  Subdivisions 
Area  Table 
Synthesis  of  Notation 
Abbreviations  Used  in  the  Index 
Relative  Index 


1255 
1263 
1505 
1519 
1521 


viii 


tx 


Publisher's  Foreword 

Agreeably  to  the  plan  announst  when  the  16th  edition  appeared  in 
1958,  this  17th  edition  of  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classification  (DC)  is 
publisht  on  schedule  in  June  1965.  In  conformity  with  the  same  plans  its 
preparation  has  respected  "integrity  of  numbers"  to  the  fullest  extent 
compatible  with  "keeping  pace  with  knowledge."  More  than  its  predeces- 
sors, too,  it  reflects  not  only  the  needs  of  libraries  thruout  the  worlds 
but  also  the  increasingly  universal  scope  of  American  libraries. 

This  is  likewise  the  first  edition  of  DC  to  reflect  the  consolidation  of  the 
editorial  work  in  the  same  office  with  the  application  of  the  Classification 
to  a  large  and  important  representation  of  current  publications.  The  4th 
to  6th,  11th  and  12th  editions  were  prepared  in  the  New  York  State 
Library  at  Albany,  where  Melvil  Dewey  had  gone  in  1888  as  State 
Librarian  and  whither  he  had  transferred  the  library  school  from  Columbia 
University,  while  the  7th  to  10th  editions  were  prepared  at  Lake  Placid. 
But  in  1927,  in  anticipation  of  an  arrangement  for  printing  DC  numbers 
on  Library  of  Congress  catalog  cards,  the  editorial  office  was  moved  to 
Washington  and  given  space  in  the  Library  of  Congress,  with  the  motive, 
as  expresst  by  Mr.  Dewey  of  "extending  stil  further  the  [Library's]  al- 
ready great  servises  to  the  cuntry  at  larj." 

The  arrangement  for  printing  DC  numbers  on  the  Library  of  Congress 
catalog  cards  became  a  reality  in  1930  when  the  American  Library  As- 
sociation establisht  at  the  Library  of  Congress  its  ALA  Office  for  DC 
Numbers  on  LC  Cards,  at  the  head  of  which  was  Mr.  David  J.  Haykin, 
who  was  later  to  become  the  first  editor  of  the  16th  edition  of  DC.  This 
OflBce  was  so  successful  (in  three  and  a  quarter  years  it  added  DC 
numbers  to  102,282  cards)  that  in  1933  the  Library  of  Congress  took 
over  the  work  which  it  has  continued  ever  since  as  a  self-supporting 
operation,  part  of  the  catalog  card  distribution  activity. 

Meanwhile  the  editorial  work,  pursued  under  the  same  roof  tho  still 
directed  by  the  Lake  Placid  Club  Education  Foundation  (a  nonprofit 
body  to  which  Mr.  Dewey  had  entrusted  the  DC  in  1924),  produced  the 
13th,  14th,  15th  editions  in  1932,  1942,  1951  respectively. 

In  1953  the  Library  of  Congress,  under  a  contractual  arrangement 
with  the  Foundation,  undertook  the  preparation  of  the  16th  edition  of 
DC,  and  for  this  purpose  took  over  the  staff  and  files  of  the  Editorial 
Office.  Tho  carried  on  in  separate  offices,  the  editorial  activity  and 
the  assignment  of  DC  numbers  to  LC  cards  were  thus  united  in  tlie 
same  organization. 


Decimal  Classification 


But  its  own  experience  convinst  the  Library  of  Congress  that  these 
two  operations  could  be  most  effectively  executed  by  a  single  staff.  Ac- 
cordingly, when  the  agreement  between  the  Foundation  and  the  Library 
was  renewed  in  1958  to  cover  the  preparation  of  the  17th  edition,  it  was 
planned  that  the  Editorial  Office  and  the  DC  Section  of  the  Library's 
Subject  Cataloging  Division  should  be  amalgamated.  The  consolidation, 
effected  on  November  24,  1958,  gave  birth  to  the  present  Decimal  Classi- 
fication Office  and  was  announst  by  the  Library  as  expected  to  result 
in  the  assignment  of  DC  numbers  "to  a  progressively  larger  portion  of 
the  titles  for  which  the  Library  of  Congress  prints  cards,  and  to  produce 
future  editions  of  the  classffication  solidly  rooted  in  daily  experience  in 
applying  it  to  books."  The  17th  edition  is  the  product  of  this  new  Office. 

Increasingly  in  recent  years  those  concerned  with  the  preparation  and 
publication  of  the  DC  have  needed  first  hand  information  regarding  the 
manner  in  which  it  is  used  abroad  and  the  wants  of  its  users  there.  To 
supply  this  information  a  Field  Survey  of  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classi- 
fication Abroad  was  planned  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Library 
Association  vidth  assistance  from  the  Asia  Foundation,  the  Council  on 
Library  Resources  and  Forest  Press.  As  reported  in  the  Preface  by  Mr. 
Wright,  the  Siuvey  became  a  reality  in  1964.  Its  final  report  is  now 
being  written,  and  the  major  portion  of  its  recommendations  must  await 
consideration  in  connection  with  the  preparation  of  the  18th  edition. 

Still  another  development,  during  the  period  covered  by  the  prepara- 
tion of  this  edition,  was  intended  to  improve  the  responsiveness  of  the 
Classification  to  the  needs  of  its  users.  In  1961  the  Lake  Placid  Club 
Education  Foundation  delegated  to  its  non-profit  subsidiary,  Forest  Press 
(whose  directors,  serving  without  compensation,  are  drawn  from  activi- 
ties supporting  library  work)  substantial  autonomy  with  respect  to  the 
publication  of  the  DC. 

The  17th  edition  reflects  the  collaborative  work  of  many  hands.  In  it 
the  advisory  contributions  of  the  American  Library  Association,  the 
(British)  Library  Association  and  the  Catholic  Library  Association 
support  the  editorial  activity  of  the  Library  of  Congress  and  the  pub- 
lishing activity  of  the  Lake  Placid  Club  Education  Foundation  thru  For- 
est Press.  In  his  Introduction  the  Editor  has  named  a  number  of  individ- 
uals to  whom  this  edition  is  indebted.  To  all  of  these,  and  to  still  others 
not  named,  Melvil  Dewey  gave  a  task — and  with  it  a  reward. 


/«?  April  iq6s 


Preface 


In  the  preparation  of  this  17th  edition  of  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classi- 
fication the  editorial  criteria  that  were  adopted  for  the  16th  edition  have 
been  largely  continued.  A  moderate  amount  of  change,  hopefully  not 
more  than  will  be  found  acceptable  in  tlie  majority  of  libraries  has  been 
authorized  to  bring  certain  sections  into  line  with  modem  thought  A 
classification  that  does  not  keep  reasonably  abreast  of  current  thmkmg 
must  in  time  die,  but  one  that  imposes  on  its  users  the  tremendous  costs 
of  reclassffication  too  recklessly  will  die  also.  The  Decimal  Classification 
Editorial  Policy  Committee  hopes  that  this  edition  will  be  found  to  have 

avoided  both  extremes. 

The  provision  of  the  new  area  table,  which  divorces  the  geographical 
subdivision  of  all  classes  from  the  confining  limits  of  history,  is  perhaps 
the  most  far-reaching  change  in  this  new  edition;  it  is  hoped  that  it  will 
greatly  simplify  the  process  of  number-building  thruout  the  sched- 
ules The  revision  of  the  schedule  of  standard  subdivisions  both  adds  to 
the  consistency  of  the  schedule  itself  and  provides  an  opportunity  to 
make  more  consistent  the  application  of  these  numbers  under  various 
subjects.  Other  changes  made  in  the  main  schedules  have  served  to 
update  some  of  the  more  obsolescent  classes. 

During  the  year  1964  Miss  Sarah  K.  Vann,  assisted  by  Miss  Paulme  A. 
Seely   visited  23  countries  thruout  the  world  to  discuss  with  librarians 
in  the  field  the  deficiencies  of  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classification  that 
have  been  discovered  by  users  outside  the  United  States.  A  number  of 
the    suggestions   received    from    these    sources    had   already   been    m- 
corporated  into  the  new  edition;  most  of  them,  because  of  the  advanst 
state  of  the  editorial  work  when  the  survey  was  undertaken,  will  have  to 
await  the  preparation  of  the  18th  edition.  The  Committee  is  deeply  ap- 
preciative of  the  work  of  the  two  surveyors  and  the  many  librarians  who 
gave  liberally  of  their  time  and  thought  in  making  the  classification  a 
better  instrument  for  libraries  everywhere. 

Classification  shares  with  other  human  productions  the  attribute  ot 
imperfection.  The  Committee  hopes  that  this  edition  will  be  found  bet- 

3 


Decimal  Classification 


ter  than  its  predecessors.  It  also  hopes  that  future  editions  will  be 
better  still. 

Members  of  the  Decimal  Classification  Editorial  Policy  Committee 
during  the  preparation  of  this  edition  have  been  EHzabeth  C.  Borden, 
Edwin  B.  Colburn,  Godfrey  Dewey,  Virginia  Drewry,  Carlyle  J,  Frarey, 
Bertha  M.  Frick,  Harriet  D.  MacPherson,  Lucile  M.  Morsch,  Esther  J. 
Piercy,  Joseph  W.  Rogers,  Pauline  A.  Seely,  Marietta  Daniels  Shepard, 
and  Wyllis  E.  Wright. 

Wyllis  E.  Wright 

CHAIRMAN,    DECIMAL    CLASSIFICATION 
EDITORIAL   POLICY    COMMITTEE 

Williamstown,  Massachusetts 
ij  March  ip6^ 


5  : 


Tip  this  sheet  in  Dewey  Decimal  Classification,  Edition  17 y  volume  1, 
facing  page  5 


Use  of  Editor's  Introduction  with  Revised  Index 

All  references  in  this  introduction  to  the  index  are  to  the  index  in 
the  original  volume  2.  Chief  among  these  references  are  sections  3.31 
(p.  20-21),  3.6  (p.  33-36),  and  5.5  (p.  56).  For  full  information  on  the 
revised  index  the  user  should  consult  volume  2  revised,  pages  1531-1535. 


Editor's  Introduction 


1.  Book  classification 

A  major  objective  of  libraries  is  to  see  that  optimum  use  is  made  of  their 
collections,  to  bring  the  right  reader  to  each  book  and  the  right  book  to 
each  reader.  As  an  aid  to  the  achievement  of  this  purpose,  nearly  all 
libraries  find  it  helpful,  indeed  necessary,  to  impose  upon  their  books  and 
other  materials  one  or  more  forms  of  subject  control. 

One  such  form  is  classification.  To  classify  a  collection  of  objects  or 
concepts  is  to  place  together  in  "classes"  those  objects  or  concepts  which 
have  certain  characteristics  in  common  and  to  separate  from  them  the 
objects  or  concepts  which  do  not  have  those  characteristics.  For  instance, 
one  might  classify  a  collection  of  postage  stamps  according  to  countries  of 
issue,  each  of  which  would  be  a  separate  class,  e.g.,  stamps  issued  by 
Canada,  by  Italy,  by  Japan.  Or  one  might  choose  another  principle  as  the 
basis  of  division:  color,  size,  shape,  subject  pictured,  or  for  that  matter  any 
other  characteristic  that  has  significance  for  the  utilization  and  enjoyment 
of  a  specific  collection.  If  division  were  by  country  of  issue,  one  might 
then  classify  the  stamps  of  each  country  by  monetary  denomination,  each 
of  which  would  be  a  subclass,  e.g.,  one-cent,  two-cent,  five-cent,  one- 
dollar  stamps  issued  by  Canada;  and  each  of  these  might  then  be  further 
separated  into  subsubclasses  according  to  date  of  issue. 

A  system  of  "notation,"  while  not  an  essential  part  of  a  classification 
system,  is  a  major  convenience,  ( 1 )  in  designating  briefly  the  different 
classes  and  subclasses,  especially  if  there  are  a  great  many  of  them  in  a 
complex  pattern  of  relationships,  (2)  in  identifying  the  objects  that 
belong  in  the  various  classes,  and  (3)  in  determining,  for  some  categories 
of  objects,  the  slots,  bins,  envelopes,  or  shelves  where  they  belong 
according  to  a  desired  and  usually  systematic  sequence. 

Libraries  classify  their  "books"  or  "works"— in  this  introduction,  either 
term  is  used  to  mean  all  printed  and  written  forms,  sound  recordings, 
films,  slides,  pictures,  prints,  globes,  and  other  mediums  of  information 
and  communication  collected  by  Hbraries  and  related  institutions— ac- 
cording to  various  kinds  of  characteristics.  For  example,  because  of 


Decimal  Classification 


I 


differing  problems  of  shelving,  handling,  and  giving  service,  they  usually 
separate  recordings,  films,  atlases,  newspapers,  and  the  like  from  bound 
volumes  of  more  or  less  conventional  size;  in  this  case  the  characteristic  of 
division  is  physical  form.  Libraries  of  rare  books  often  classify  their  works 
according  to  date  and  place  of  publication.  Another  common  characteris- 
tic upon  which  division  is  based  is  specific  kind  of  use,  so  that  reference 
books,  children's  books,  books  in  specific  languages,  books  for  popular 
reading  collections,  books  of  current  interest  may  be  set  aside  in  separate 
groups.  But  most  commonly,  either  overall  or  within  such  categories  as 
those  named  above,  libraries  classify  books  according  to  subject.  Such  an 
arrangement  is  most  useful  for  maximum  retrieval  of  the  kind  of 
information  wanted  by  the  majority  of  patrons  and  the  librarians  serving 
them. 

Like  the  amateur  stamp  collector,  the  librarian  may  develop  his  own 
system  of  subject  classification  for  the  book  collection  for  which  he  is 
responsible,  catering  to  the  special  needs  of  its  users.  In  the  past  a  good 
many  librarians  did  just  this,  and  some,  usually  in  special  libraries,  still  do. 
(Numerous  public  libraries  have  recently  organized  their  collections  of 
current  popular  interest  in  somewhat  heterogeneous  groups  according  to  a 
"reader-interest"  arrangement,  rearranging  titles  and  developing  new 
categories  as  interests  of  patrons  shift.  Practical  as  this  has  proved  to  be, 
it  is  not  classification  by  subject,)  However,  the  development  of  an 
integrated  plan  that  will  provide  systematically  for  the  tens  and  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  subjects  on  which  books  are  and  may  be  written  in  this 
age  of  multiversity  and  specialization  is  no  part-time  occupation  or 
avocation.  It  requires  the  intense  efforts  of  specialists  in  librarianship,  in 
subject  classification,  and  in  the  countless  disciplines  of  which  the  world 
of  knowledge  is  composed,  from  religion  to  mathematics  to  musicology  to 
pubHc  administration  to  aeronautical  engineering.  For  this  reason, 
librarians  have  generally  found  it  advantageous  to  follow,  with  local 
adaptations  where  necessary  to  meet  local  needs,  one  or  another  of  the 
commonly  used  book  classification  systems,  among  the  best  known  of 
which  are  BHss's  Bibliographic  Classification,  Ranganathan  s  Colon  Clas- 
sification, Dewey's  Decimal  Classification,  Cutter's  Expansive  Classifica- 
tion, the  Library  of  Congress  Classification,  Brown's  Subject  Classifica- 
tion, and  the  Universal  Decimal  Classification. 


2.  Dewey  Decimal  Classification 

Of  all  these,  Dewey's  Decimal  Classification— or,  more  commonly,  the 
Dewey  Decimal  Classification,  or  merely  the  Decimal  Classification,  or 
the  DDC  or  the  DC;  we  shall  call  it  all  of  these  in  this  introduction— is  the 
oldest  and  most  widely  used.  In  the  United  States  it  is  the  system  followed 
by  perhaps  90%  of  all  libraries,  including  nearly  all  pubHc  libraries,  and 
school  libraries  virtually  without  exception;  in  other  English-speaking 
countries  and  countries  now  or  formerly  part  of  the  British  Common- 
wealth it  is  followed  by  a  majority  of  libraries;  elsewhere,  it  has  adherents 
in  almost  every  nation  on  the  globe.  It  has  been  translated,  with  or  without 
abridgment,  expansion,  adaptation,  into  scores  of  languages,  from  Span- 
ish, Danish,  and  Turkish  to  Japanese,  Sinhalese,  and  Portuguese. 

2.1  History     Devised   by   Melvil   Dewey   for   the   Amherst   College 
Librar>%  it  first  appeared,  anonymously,  in  1876  as  A  Classification  and 
Subject  Index  for  Cataloguing  and  Arranging  the  Books  and  Pamphlets  of 
a  Library.  The  second  edition,  "revised  and  greatly  enlarged,"  appeared 
in  1885,  carrying  Dewey's  name  and  the  title  Decimal  Classification  and 
Relativ  Index.  Between  1888  and  1959  came  fourteen  more  full  editions 
and  eight  abridgments.  From  the  beginning  DCs  acceptance  by  the 
library  profession  and  others  was  widespread  and  rapid,  and,  even  today, 
for  every  library  that  abandons  it  for  another  system,  many  new  ones 
adopt  it  and  old  ones  turn  to  it.  In  1930,  because  of  popular  demand,  the 
Library  of  Congress,  which  uses  its  own  classification  system,  nevertheless 
set  up  an  office  solely  for  the  purpose  of  assigning  centrally  and  printing 
on  its  widely  distributed  catalog  cards  DC  numbers  for  the  majority  of 
titles  that  American  libraries  using  the  system  might  be  expected  to 
acquire.  At  present  the  system  is  used,  in  one  form  or  another,  by  such 
varied  current  services  as  the  American  Library  Association's  Booklist;  the 
H.  W.  Wilson  Company's  Standard  Catalog  Series,  Book  Review  Digest, 
and  catalog  cards;  the  R.  R.  Bowker  Company's  Publishers    Weekly, 
American  Book  Publishing  Record,  and  Libros  en  Venta;  the  British 
National  Bibliography  and  the  Indian  National  Bibliography.  Titles  in 
thousands  of  reading  lists,  book  guides,  and  bibliographies  have  been 
arranged  or  their  subjects  identified  by  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classifica- 
tion. 

In  1895  the  forerunner  of  todays  International  Federation  for  Docu- 
mentation (FID),  by  agreement  with  Melvil  Dewey  as  to  concordance 


Decimal  Classification 


and  bibliographic  use,  adopted  the  Decimal  Classification  as  the  basis  for 
its  international  subject  index;  this  grew  into  the  Classification  Decimale, 
otherwise  known  as  the  Brussels  Classification  or,  now,  as  the  Universal 
Decimal  Classification  (UDC),  which  has  itself  been  translated  into  many 
languages.  Differences  between  DDC  and  UDC  have  appeared  in  the 
intervening  years,  due  in  part  to  the  more  complex  requirements  of  a 
bibliographic  classification,  but,  even  with  the  substantial  revisions  now 
under  consideration  for  the  UDC,  the  foundation  of  the  two  remains 
recognizably  the  same. 

2.2  Basic  plan  The  Dewey  Decimal  Classification  arranges  all  knowl- 
edge as  represented  by  books  within  ten  "classes"  numbered  0,  1,  2,  thru 
9.  Class  0  is  used  for  works  like  general  newspapers  and  encyclopedias 
that  are  on  many  subjects  from  many  points  of  view,  and  also  for  certain 
specialized  disciplines  that  deal  with  knowledge  generally,  such  as 
information  theory,  library  science,  and  journalism.  Classes  1-9  consist 
each  of  a  major  discipline  or  group  of  related  disciplines,  and  together 
with  class  0  they  embrace  the  whole  of  human  knowledge  and  intellectual 
endeavor.  Thus,  class  1  consists  of  philosophy  and  related  disciplines, 
class  2  of  religion,  class  3  of  the  social  sciences,  class  5  of  the  pure  sciences, 
class  6  of  the  applied  sciences.  The  notation  used  to  designate  each  class 
consists  of  100  tliree-digit  numbers,  e.g.,  000-099  for  generalities,  300-399 
for  social  sciences,  600-699  for  applied  sciences.  Each  class  is  divided  into 
ten  subclasses,  or  "divisions,"  with  the  first  division  being  devoted  to 
general  works  on  the  entire  class.  Thus,  600-609  is  given  over  to  general 
works  on  the  applied  sciences,  610-619  to  the  medical  sciences,  620-629  to 
engineering  and  allied  operations,  630-639  to  agriculture  and  agricultural 
industries,  640-649  to  domestic  arts  and  sciences.  Again,  each  division  is 
separated  into  ten  subsubclasses,  or  "sections,"  with  the  first  section 
devoted  to  general  works  on  the  entire  division.  Thus,  630  is  assigned  to 
agriculture  and  agricultural  industries  in  general,  631  to  farming  activi- 
ties, 632  to  plant  diseases  and  pests  and  their  control,  633  to  production  of 
field  crops,  636  to  livestock  and  domestic  animals.  The  system  permits 
further  subdivision  to  any  degree  desired,  with  a  continued  decimal 
notation,  which  consists  of  the  addition,  following  any  set  of  three  digits 
from  000  to  999,  of  a  decimal  point  and  as  many  more  digits  as  may  be 
required.  Thus,  631  Farming  is  divided  into  631.2  for  farm  structures, 
631.3  for  farm  tools,  machinery,  appliances,  631.5  for  crop  production,  and 
others ;  63 1 . 5  is  further  divided  into  63 1 . 5 1  for  tillage,  63 1 .  53  for 
propagation  methods,  631.55  for  harvesting,  and  others. 


8 


Editors  introduction 


No  notation  is  ever  less  than  three  digits,  zero  (0)  being  used  with  its 
normal  arithmetical  value  to  fill  vacant  digital  positions.  Hence  the 
notation  for  class  6  Applied  sciences  is  600. 

Preceding  the  full  classification  "tables"  or  "schedules" — this  introduc- 
tion uses  both  terms — are  three  summaries,  showing  the  ten  classes,  the 
100  divisions,  and  the  almost  1000  sections.  These  start  on  page  109. 

Every  book  acquired  by  a  library  may  be  assigned  to  one  of  the  classes, 
divisions,  sections,  or  sub- (to  whatever  degree ) -sections  provided  by  the 
tables  of  the  DDC,  and  may  be  identified  as  belonging  to  its  specific  class 
by  use  of  the  appropriate  notation.  ( From  this  point  forward,  the  word 
"class"  will  be  used  to  refer  to  a  subdivision  of  any  degree;  the  10  major 
classes  will  be  called  "major"  or  "main"  classes.)  The  notation,  or 
"number,"  designates  the  book's  class;  when  written  on  the  book  and  on 
the  cards  that  describe  the  book,  it  provides  a  shorthand  identification  of 
the  book's  subject,  and  determines  its  relative  position  within  the  library's 
entire  collection  and  within  the  appropriate  discipline. 

This  class  number  and  the  book  number  used  by  most  libraries  together 
constitute  the  call  number,  which  is  unique  for  each  book  and  distin- 
guishes it  from  all  others  in  the  library.  The  book  number  usually  is  based 
on  authorship,  but  may,  as  in  biography,  be  based  on  alphabetical 
subarrangement  of  individual  subjects  within  the  class  notation.  For  the 
use  and  construction  of  book  numbers  the  reader  should  consult  Bertha  R. 
Barden's  Book  Numbers  (Chicago,  American  Library  Association,  1937). 
Most  libraries  follow  the  Cutter  or  Cutter-Sanbom  alphabetic-order 
tables,  or  the  Library  of  Congress  author  numbers.  A  special  book  number 
arrangement  for  works  by  and  about  William  Shakespeare,  which  may  be 
adapted  for  use  with  any  specific  author,  appears  in  the  DC  tables  that 
follow,  under  class  822.33.  Other  systems  frequently  used  for  arrangement 
within  classes  are  by  authors'  surnames  spelled  out,  by  initials  of  authors' 
surnames,  and  by  dates  of  publication. 

A  class  is  not  necessarily  limited  to  a  specific  subject.  Altho  many 
subjects  have  their  own  numbers,  e.g.,  representative  democracy  as  a 
political  entity  321.8,  many  other  specific  notations  denote  groups  or 
collections  of  specific  subjects,  e.g.,  aristocracy,  oligarchy,  theocracy, 
plutocracy  as  poHtical  entities  all  321.5.  The  extent  to  which  the  system 
provides  specific  classes  for  specific  subjects  is  explained  in  section  5.2  of 
this  introduction. 

2.21  DISCIPLINE  The  concept  of  "discipline,"  or  field  of  specializa- 
tion, is  basic  to  an  understanding  of  Dewey's  system.  The  primary  basis 

9 


Decimal  Classification 


Editors  introduction 


for  DDC  arrangement  and  development  is  by  discipline,  while  subject, 
strictly  speaking,  is  secondary.  There  is  no  one  place  for  any  subject  in 
itself;  a  subject  many  appear  in  any  or  all  of  the  disciplines.  No  class  can 
be  said  to  cover  the  scope  of  marriage,  or  water,  or  tomatoes,  or  Brazil;  in 
common  parlance,  there  is  no  single  number  for  any  of  these  concepts  or 
subjects.   A  work  on   marriage  belongs  in   301    if  it   deals  with   the 
sociological  aspects  of  the  subject,  in  155  if  the  psychological,  in  173  if 
the  ethical,  in  234  or  265,  depending  on  the  aspect,  if  the  sacramental 
(Christian),  in  296  if  Jewish  and  297  if  Islamic;  in  390  if  it  deals  with 
marriage  customs,  in  613  if  hygiene;  in  700  or  800  if  it  deals  with  marriage 
as  a  subject  of  art  or  literature  (belles-lettres).  Similarly,  a  work  on  water 
may  fall  in  one  of  many  disciplines:  metaphysics,  religion,  economics, 
commerce,    physics,    chemistry,    geology,    oceanography,    meteorology, 
history,  and  various  others.  Tomatoes  may  fall  under  economics,  botany, 
horticulture,  cookery,  the  art  of  painting,  and  elsewhere.  Brazils  geogra- 
phy goes  in  918,  its  general  history  in  981,  its  social  situation  in  309,  its 
political  situation  in  320;  and  Brazil  may  turn  up  as  an  area  concept  under 
any  discipline,  such  as  arts  of  Brazil,  languages  of  Brazil,  paleozoology  of 
Brazil. 

No  other  feature  of  the  DDC  is  more  basic  than  this:  that  it  splits 
subjects  by  discipline.  This  becomes  quite  obvious  when  one  consults  the 
index,  which  appears  in  volume  2.  Here,  under  each  subject,  will  be  found 
the  places  to  class  it  according  to  its  "aspects,"  that  is,  the  disciplines 
under  which  it  may  fall.  Two  examples  will  suffice  here,  one  simple  and 
one  complex: 


Gambling 
customs 
ethics 

mathematics 
recreation 

Metals 
chemistry 
geology 

general  works 
mineralogy 
industries 
extractive 
metallurgy 
economics 
technology 
mining 
economics 
technology 


394.3 
175.9 

519.1 
795.01 

546.3 

553.1 
549.23-.25 


338.47-f- 
669 

338.27-f- 
622.34 


lO 


manufacturing 
economics 

338.47+ 

technology 

671 

properties 
chemistry 

546.3 

engineering 
metallography 

620.16 
669.95 

2.22  HIERARCHY  The  system  is  hierarchical  both  as  to  disciplinary 
and   subject  relationships   and,   with  certain  minor  exceptions,   as   to 

notation. 

2.221  Hierarchy  in  notation  means  that,  for  the  most  part,  each 
successive  division  of  the  discipline  or  subject  corresponds  to  a  lengthen- 
ing of  the  significant  notation  by  one  digit,  e.g., 


600 

630 

631 

631.5 

631.58 

631.587 

631.587  2 


Applied  sciences 

Agriculture  and  agricultural  industries 
Farming 

Crop  production 

Special  cultivation  methods 
Irrigation  farming 
By  furrow  system 


The  reader  will  observe  that  "600"  is  main  class  6  plus  two  zeroes  to  fill 
out  the  three-digit  number,  and  "630"  is  division  63  plus  one  such  zero.  He 
will  also  observe  the  space  between  the  sixth  and  seventh  digits  of  the 
last  number;  this  space  is  not  a  basic  part  of  the  notation,  but,  in  this 
book  for  ease  in  reading,  is  left  between  each  successive  set  of  three  digits 
after  the  decimal  point. 

The  digit  0  is  used  to  indicate  a  different  basis  for  division  of  the 
discipline  or  subject  represented  by  the  digits  preceding  the  0,  e.g.. 


500 

550 

551 

551.4 

551.46 

551.460 

551.460  1 

551.460  9 

551.461 

551.462 


Pure  sciences 
Earth  sciences 

Physical  and  dynamic  geology 
Geomorphology 

Oceans  and  sea  waters 

[Indicates  special  basis  for  division] 
Composition  and  properties  of  sea  water 
Special  oceanographic  forms 
North  Atlantic  Ocean 
Mediterranean  and  Black  Seas 

11 


I 


Decimal  Classification 


Here  the  reader  will  observe  that  551.460  1-.460  9  are  used  for  topical  (or 
"problem")  subdivisions  of  the  subject  oceans  and  sea  waters  in  general, 
and  551.461-.469  are  used  for  specific  oceans  and  seas.  0  is  never  used  as 
a  terminating  digit  following  the  decimal  point;  551.460  is  not  itself  used 
and  has  no  meaning. 

Sometimes,  it  will  be  found,  there  is  a  step  in  the  successive  divisions  of 
the  discipline  or  subject  for  which  a  position  in  the  lengthening  digital 
notation  is  not  available.  Such  steps  are  shown  in  the  tables  by  spans  of 
numbers;  these  are  called  "centered  headings."  For  example,  631-632 
deals  with  general  principles  of  agriculture,  633-635  with  production 
of  specific  crops,  636-638  with  animal  husbandry.  Each  of  these  ma- 
jor subdivisions  of  630  is  without  the  possibility  of  digital  expression  in 
the  notation,  and  is  shown  in  the  tables,  therefore,  by  a  centered  head- 
ing, e.g.: 


633 


.1 
.11 


633-635  Production  of  specific  crops 
Field  crops 
Cereal  grains 
Wheat 


In  a  few  instances  the  indention  is  "irregular,"  that  is,  the  notation  is  not 
hierarchically  expressive.  For  example,  in  583-584  there  are  scores  of 
botanical  orders,  all  equal  in  subject  value,  represented  by  numbers 
varying  in  length  from  four  to  six  digits.  The  tables  show  the  equality  of 
subject  value  by  printing  all  the  headings  at  the  same  indention.  Similar 
situations  exist  among  the  books  of  the  Bible  in  222-229,  among  the 
counties  under  some  U.S.  states  in  the  area  table,  and  at  a  few  other 

places. 

2.222  Hierarchy  in  disciplinary  and  subject  relationships  means,  for 
example,  that  whatever  appHes  to  or  is  true  of  600  applies  to  or  is  true 
of  all  its  subdivisions,  what  applies  to  630  appHes  to  all  its  subdivisions, 
what  applies  to  the  span  631-632  applies  to  all  its  subdivisions,  what 
applies  to  631  applies  to  all  its  subdivisions,  on  to  the  finest  subdivision. 
Hence  the  note  under  631.2  Farm  structmres,  "Description,  maintenance, 
use  and  place  in  farming,"  applies  to  each  subdivision:  to  631.21 
Farmhouses,  to  631.23  Granaries,  silos,  elevators,  to  631.27  Fences, 
walls,  hedges,  and  all  the  others.  Similarly,  the  instruction  under  631-632 
General  principles,  "Class  general  principles  applied  to  specific  crops  in 
633-635,"  applies  to  every  part  of  631-632;  consequently,  harvesting  corn 

12 


Editors  introduction 


should  be  placed  not  in  631.55  Harvesting  but  in  633.15  Corn,  and 
damage  to  cherry  trees  from  hail  not  in  632.14  but  in  634.23.  (By  the 
principle  of  hierarchy,  "in  634.23"  means  in  that  number  or  a  subdivision 
thereof,  as  will  be  shown  in  section  2.33.) 

2.3  Memory  aids  and  synthesis  of  notation  We  have  said  in  section  1 
that  notation  is  not  an  essential  part  of  a  classification  system.  However, 
arrangement  and  manipulation  of  a  system  without  notation  would  be 
most  difficult  and  awkward,  and  it  is,  in  fact,  Dewey's  notation  system 
rather  than  any  theoretical  excellence  of  his  arrangement  and  develop- 
ment of  the  world  of  knowledge  that  has  been  largely  responsible  for  the 
widespread  acceptance  and  usage  of  his  Decimal  Classification.  The 
notation  is  simple,  consisting  only  of  ten  digits  and  a  decimal  point,  is 
almost  universally  understood,  and  lends  itself  readily  to  subject  synthesis 
with  the  benefit  of  numerous  memory  aids,  or,  as  Dewey  called  them, 

mnemonics. 

2.31  Most  notable  memory  aid  is  the  constant  repetition  of  a  standard 
pattern  of  areal  arrangement.  In  nearly  all  areal  developments,  the  digits 
44,  for  instance,  stand  for  France,  45  for  Italy,  46  for  Spain,  52  for  Japan, 
73  for  United  States.  General  history  is  class  9  ( or  900  with  two  zeroes 
filling  in  the  empty  spaces ) ,  and  it  follows  that  944  is  general  history  of 
France,  945  of  Italy,  946  of  Spain,  952  of  Japan,  973  of  United  States; 
general  geography  is  division  91  (or  910  with  the  empty  space  filled),  and 
it  follows  that  (with  a  decimal  point  following  the  third  digit)  914.4  is 
general  geography  of  France,  914.5  of  Italy,  917.3  of  United  States; 
international  relations  is  327,  and  327.44  is  international  relations  of 
France,  327.73  of  United  States,  and  even  327.440  73  international 
relations  between  France  and  United  States;  distribution  of  precipitation 
is  551.577  2,  distribution  of  precipitation  in  France  551.577  244.  The  "area 
table"  appears  in  volume  2  on  page  1263. 

2.32  Another  common  repetition  is  that  of  the  arrangement  of 
languages  in  class  4.  Instead  of  a  more  or  less  systematic  sequence  by 
location  on  the  surface  of  the  earth  like  the  area  table,  this  sequence 
emphasizes,  by  bringing  forward  and  assigning  short  notation,  those 
languages,  races,  cultures  most  likely,  as  it  seemed  to  Dewey  in  1876,  to  be 
emphasized  in  American  libraries;  in  1965,  with  many  values  changed,  we 
may  regret  that  it  does  less  well  by  Russian  (917)  than  by  Proven9al  (49), 
Latin  (7),  and  Greek  (8),  but  the  classifier  will  find  that  it  is  not 
invariably  followed  to  the  hilt,  so  that  in  some  sequences  Russian  does 
manage   to   fare  better   than   it   does   under  linguistics,   e.g.,   general 

13 


Decimal  Classification 


periodicals  in  Russian  057.1,  in  Proven9al  054,91,  in  Latin  059.7.  The 
reader  will  observe  a  degree  of  repetition  and  memory  pattern  between 
the  language  sequence  and  that  for  European  countries  in  the  areal 
arrangement:  2  English  (and  Anglo-Saxon),  3  German  (and  Germanic), 
4  French  (and  related),  5  Italian  (and  related),  6  Spanish,  69  Portuguese, 
compared  with  42,  43,  44,  45,  46,  469  for  England  (and  Wales),  Germany 
(and  other  central  European  countries),  France,  Italy,  Spain,  Portugal, 
respectively.  In  most  occurrences  of  the  language  sequence  1  is  used  for 
either  United  States  or  United  States  and  Canadian.  Thus,  encyclopedias 
are  030  (03  plus  a  zero  to  fill  in),  and  United  States  and  Canadian 
English-language  encyclopedias  are  031,  other  English-language  032, 
Portuguese  036.9;  literature  (belles-lettres)  is  800  (8  plus  two  zeroes), 
and  American  literature  is  810  (81  plus  one  zero),  other  English- 
language  820,  Portuguese  869. 

2.33  Many  other  patterns  appear  in  full  development  at  one  place  with 
repetition  by  analogy  at  other  places.  To  name  but  a  few,  each  book  of 
the  Bible  is  given  the  same  development  as  the  Bible  as  a  whole  ("divided 
like"  220.1-220.9);  each  language  is  given  the  same  development  as 
English  ("divided  like"  421—428);  each  agricultural  crop  is  given  the  same 
development  as  the  general  principles  in  631-632,  so  that  damage  to 
cherry  trees  from  hail  (cited  in  section  2.22)  does,  indeed,  go  not  in 
634.23  itself  but  in  a  subdivision  based  on  the  division  of  634.23  like 
632.14.  In  fact,  some  topics,  among  them  bibliographies  and  catalogs  of 
specific  subjects  in  016  and  libraries  devoted  to  specific  subjects  in  026, 
are  given  the  same  development  as  the  whole  classification,  e.g.,  bibli- 
ography of  applied  sciences  016.6,  of  agriculture  and  agricultural  indus- 
tries 016.63,  of  irrigation  farming  016.631  587. 

2.34  Still  another  patterned  repetition  is  that  of  the  "standard 
subdivisions,"  the  table  of  which  appears  on  page  1255.  Virtually  any 
subject  or  discipline  may  be  presented  in  various  forms:  as  a  synopsis  or 
outline,  as  a  periodical,  as  a  collection  of  writings,  in  tables,  in  illus- 
trations. Similarly,  most  subjects  may  have  certain  modes  of  treatment  in 
common:  theory,  technique,  study  and  teaching,  history.  These  common 
forms  and  modes  are  known  collectively  as  the  "standard  subdivisions," 
and  may  be  applied  to  any  class  to  which  they  are  appropriate.  The 
notation  consists  of  two  or  more  digits,  of  which  the  first  is  zero,  e.g.,  05 
Serial  publications,  and  may  be  added  to  any  DC  notation  taken  or 
derived  from  the  main  tables,  e.g.,  serials  on  the  applied  sciences  605 
(class  6,  without  the  two  zeroes  that  fill  empty  spaces  in  600,  plus 

14 


Editors  introduction 


standard  subdivision  05),  serials  on  agriculture  and  agricultural  industries 
630.5  (division  63,  without  the  zero  that  fills  an  empty  space  in  630,  plus 
05,  with  a  decimal  point  following  the  third  digit),  serials  on  farming 
631.05,  on  crop  production  631.505,  on  harvesting  631.550  5. 

2.4  Versatility  and  flexibility  A  valuable  feature  of  the  DC  notation, 
not  shared  by  some  of  the  other  commonly  used  classification  systems,  is 
its  adaptability  to  the  needs  of  libraries  of  different  sizes  and  natures.  The 
DC  can  be  used  equally  well  for  broad  classification  and  for  close.  For 
example,  a  small  library  or  a  large  one  with  only  a  few  tides  on  the  subject 
can  class  the  production  of  field  crops  in  633  without  subdivision.  A 
somewhat  larger  library  can  class  general  works  in  633,  works  on 
production  of  cereal  crops  in  633.1,  of  forage  crops  in  633.2,  and  so  on. 
A  library  with  a  still  larger  collection  can  divide  its  books  into  such  detail 
as  it  requires.  As  any  library's  collection  increases  in  size,  it  can 
differentiate  its  books  to  a  finer  and  finer  degree  of  specificity  simply  by 
adding  further  digits  to  the  notation.  A  work  on  damage  to  cherry  trees 
from  hail  can  be  placed  in  634,  634.2,  634.23,  634.239,  634.239  1, 
634.239  14,  depending  on  the  degree  of  closeness  in  classification  re- 
quired. The  full  edition  of  the  DDC  may  be  used  by  general  libraries  of 
any  size,  from  the  largest,  which  may  follow  it  in  full  detail  at  least  in 
some  subjects,  to  the  smallest,  which  may  reduce  ("cut  back")  any  or  all 
schedules  to  the  degree  considered  desirable.  The  abridged  edition 
supplies  reduction  on  a  ready-made  basis  and  is  convenient  for  small 
libraries  to  use  on  that  account,  but,  except  at  its  own  level,  it  does  not 
allow  for  judicious  decision  on  what  schedules  to  reduce  and  how  far  to 
reduce  them  to  meet  specific  local  needs. 

2.5  Faults  and  virtues  The  faults  inherent  in  the  DDC  are  many.  No 
serious  student  of  classification  since  1876  has  failed  to  note  them,  and 
numerous  critics  have  arisen  to  attack  the  system  because  of  them.  Among 
the  more  important  are:  ( 1 )  its  weaknesses  in  overall  arrangement  of  the 
world  of  knowledge,  separating  general  history  from  social  sciences, 
language  from  literature,  political  science  from  public  administration  and 
law,  economics  from  commerce,  and  others;  (2)  its  failure  to  assemble  at 
one  point  all  that  a  student  or  reader  may  want  on  a  topic;  (3)  its 
preoccupation  with  decimal  notation  and  its  tailoring  of  subject  relation- 
ships to  the  rule  of  ten.  Brief  comment  on  each  of  these  criticisms 

follows. 
2.51    The  overall  arrangement  does  not  necessarily  follow  theoretical  or 

logical  concepts,  nor  did  Dewey  intend  it  to  do  so.  DDC's  aim  was  and  is 

^5 


II 


Decimal  Classification 


to  provide  a  practical  system  for  storage  and  retrieval  of  books.  Consist- 
ency it  must  have,  but  logic  not  necessarily;  for  example,  class  3, 
comprising  300-399,  must  be  consistent  in  containing  only  what  its 
heading  "The  social  sciences"  says  it  contains,  but  the  illogic  of  separating 
political  science  from  law  by  the  interposition  of  economics  is  of  less 
consequence.  As  to  language  and  literature,  it  may  be  argued  that,  while 
colleges  teach  them  together,  and  no  doubt  professors  would  find  it 
convenient  to  find  the  two  together  on  library  shelves,  language  has  no 
theoretical  aflBnity  with  literature,  is  in  fact  used  by  all  disciplines,  is  a 
basic  tool  of  communication,  and  therefore  falls  with  a  certain  reasonable- 
ness between  social  and  pure  sciences.  In  any  event,  no  library  of  any  size 
arranges  all  classes  in  one  grand  sequence  000-999,  not  even  the  Library 
of  Congress,  which  devised  its  own  classification  system  to  meet  its  own 
unique  requirements. 

2.52  No  system  of  classification  can  assemble  at  one  point  all  that  each 
student  or  reader  may  want  on  the  topic  of  his  current  interest,  because  no 
two  students  or  readers  are  alike.  And  no  linear  system  of  classification 
can  arrange  topics  in  a  schedule  or  books  on  the  shelves  so  as  to  display 
every  point  of  view  and  all  practical  and  theoretical  relationships. 

2.53  If  notation  is  one  of  the  DCs  weaknesses,  it  is  also  its  greatest 
strength.  Its  flexibility  and  memorability  have  already  been  mentioned; 
means  for  coping  with  its  occasionally  extreme  length  will  be  dealt  with  in 
section  5.2.  Dewey  was  never  as  fascinated  by  the  number  10  as  his  critics 
would  lead  one  to  think:  he  was  chiefly  concerned  with  practicality;  and 
his  successors  have  devised  ways  that  he  did  not  require  to  work  around 
the  limitations  of  but  ten  different  notational  symbols. 

2.54  In  short,  the  DDC  has  been  criticized  in  large  part  for  not  being 
what  it  does  not  set  out  to  be:  a  detailed  fully  logical  system  for  classified 
catalogs  and  classified  bibliographies,  with  specific  separate  provision  for 
every  minute  topic  on  which  books,  if  not  also  reports  and  articles,  have 
been  or  are  likely  to  be  written. 

As  W.  C.  B.  Sayers  says,  in  his  A  Manual  of  Classification  for  Librarians 
and  Bibliographers  (London,  Grafton,  1959.  p.  125) : 

No  one  now  rushes  to  defend  the  D.  C.  on  the  grounds  of  the  moder- 
nity of  its  order  or  the  brevity  of  its  notation.  The  curious  fact  remains 
that  more  and  more  libraries  throughout  the  world  continue  to  use  it, 
many  of  them  modifying  it;  somehow  it  works.  We  should  fail  in  our 
appreciation  of  services  rendered  if  we  did  not  say  that  a  scheme 
which  has  survived  for  eighty  years  in  ever-growing  currency  in  spite 

x6 


Editors  introduction 


of  merited  criticism  must  have  virtues  which  in  practice  outweigh 
our  theoretical  objections.  These  are  its  accessibility  and  the  ease  with 
which  it  may  be  applied  in  whole  or  in  part  to  collections  of  books 
and  other  material  of  any  size,  and  expanded  as  these  collections 
grow.  Even  if  the  order  of  the  main  classes  and  of  some  divisions  is 
unacceptable  to  many  minds,  there  is  in  ordinary  general  library 
practice  no  obvious  necessity  for  an  optimum  order,  although  such  an 
order  is  in  some  way  necessary  to  the  ideal  scheme,  which  should  be 
one  of  logical  classes  in  logical  relations. 


^7 


Decimal  Classification 


Editors  introduction 


to  provide  a  practical  system  for  storage  and  retrieval  of  books.  Consist- 
ency it  must  have,  but  logic  not  necessarily;  for  example,  class  3, 
comprising  300-399,  must  be  consistent  in  containing  only  what  its 
heading  "The  social  sciences"  says  it  contains,  but  the  illogic  of  separating 
political  science  from  law  by  the  interposition  of  economics  is  of  less 
consequence.  As  to  language  and  literature,  it  may  be  argued  that,  while 
colleges  teach  them  together,  and  no  doubt  professors  would  find  it 
convenient  to  find  the  two  together  on  library  shelves,  language  has  no 
theoretical  afiinity  with  literature,  is  in  fact  used  by  all  disciplines,  is  a 
basic  tool  of  communication,  and  therefore  falls  with  a  certain  reasonable- 
ness between  social  and  pure  sciences.  In  any  event,  no  library  of  any  size 
arranges  all  classes  in  one  grand  sequence  000-999,  not  even  the  Library 
of  Congress,  which  devised  its  own  classification  system  to  meet  its  own 
unique  requirements. 

2.52  No  system  of  classification  can  assemble  at  one  point  all  that  each 
student  or  reader  may  want  on  the  topic  of  his  current  interest,  because  no 
two  students  or  readers  are  alike.  And  no  linear  system  of  classification 
can  arrange  topics  in  a  schedule  or  books  on  the  shelves  so  as  to  display 
every  point  of  view  and  all  practical  and  theoretical  relationships. 

2.53  If  notation  is  one  of  the  DCs  weaknesses,  it  is  also  its  greatest 
strength.  Its  flexibility  and  memorability  have  already  been  mentioned; 
means  for  coping  with  its  occasionally  extreme  length  will  be  dealt  with  in 
section  5.2.  Dewey  was  never  as  fascinated  by  the  number  10  as  his  critics 
would  lead  one  to  think:  he  was  chiefly  concerned  with  practicality;  and 
his  successors  have  devised  ways  that  he  did  not  require  to  work  around 
the  limitations  of  but  ten  different  notational  symbols. 

2.54  In  short,  the  DDC  has  been  criticized  in  large  part  for  not  being 
what  it  does  not  set  out  to  be:  a  detailed  fully  logical  system  for  classified 
catalogs  and  classified  bibliographies,  with  specific  separate  provision  for 
every  minute  topic  on  which  books,  if  not  also  reports  and  articles,  have 
been  or  are  likely  to  be  written. 

As  W.  C.  B.  Sayers  says,  in  his  A  Manual  of  Classification  for  Librarians 

and  Bibliographers  (London,  Grafton,  1959.  p.  125) : 

No  one  now  rushes  to  defend  the  D,  C.  on  the  grounds  of  the  moder- 
nity of  its  order  or  the  brevity  of  its  notation.  The  curious  fact  remains 
that  more  and  more  libraries  throughout  the  world  continue  to  use  it, 
many  of  them  modifying  it;  somehow  it  works.  We  should  fail  in  our 
appreciation  of  services  rendered  if  we  did  not  say  that  a  scheme 

''  which  has  survived  for  eighty  years  in  ever-growing  currency  in  spite 

i6 


of  merited  criticism  must  have  virtues  which  in  practice  outweigh 
our  theoretical  objections.  These  are  its  accessibility  and  the  ease  with 
which  it  may  be  applied  in  whole  or  in  part  to  collections  of  books 
and  other  material  of  any  size,  and  expanded  as  these  collections 
grow.  Even  if  the  order  of  the  main  classes  and  of  some  divisions  is 
unacceptable  to  many  minds,  there  is  in  ordinary  general  library 
practice  no  obvious  necessity  for  an  optimum  order,  although  such  an 
order  is  in  some  way  necessary  to  the  ideal  scheme,  which  should  be 
one  of  logical  classes  in  logical  relations. 


i7 


3.  How  to  use  DC 

To  the  beginner,  whether  student  or  practitioner,  a  first  view  of  the 
Dewey  Decimal  Classification  may  be  somewhat  intimidating;  it  is  the 
purpose  of  this,  the  practical  part  of  the  introduction,  to  lay  open  DDC's 
fundamental  simplicity  by  presenting  advice  on  how  to  use  it  to  class  a 
book  or  classify  a  library.  What  follows  is  intentionally  didactic  in  form. 

3.1  Preliminaries  Before  you  try  to  use  it,  acquaint  yourself  with  the 
system.  Study  the  three  main  summaries  preceding  the  general  tables. 
Learn  the  ten  main  classes,  and  look  thru  the  sequence  of  divisions  and 
sections.  Then  leaf  thru  the  tables.  Observe  the  many  summaries  to 
specific  schedules.  Knowledge  of  the  pattern  will  come  rapidly  with  use, 
and  especially  so  if  the  tables  rather  than  the  index  are  consulted  first  in 
classifying.  Notice  the  effect  of  the  principle  of  hierarchy:  Each  entry 
except  the  ten  main  classes  is  a  part  of  and  governed  by  every  entry 
superior  to  it.  To  understand  the  full  meaning  and  force  of  631.587  2,  you 
must  view  it  as  a  part  of  631.587,  which,  in  turn,  is  a  part  of  631.58,  which 
is  a  part  of  631.5,  which  is  a  part  of  631,  which  is  a  part  of  631-632,  which 
is  a  part  of  630,  which  is  a  part  of  600.  ( This  is  known  colloquially  in  the 
Decimal  Classification  Office  as  the  "drip"  principle:  the  quahties  of  each 
superior  entry  "drip"  to  those  below  it. ) 

Do  not  fail  to  look  thru  the  special  tables  of  standard  subdivisions  and 

areas,  both  in  volume  2. 

Be  sure  also  to  observe  the  special  nature  of  main  classes  8  and  0.  In 
class  8,  subject  is  disregarded  for  works  of  belles-lettres,  e.g.,  a  play  about 
Julius  Caesar  and  Roman  history,  whether  by  Shakespeare  or  an  amateur, 
is  a  piece  of  imaginative  Hterature,  good,  bad,  or  indifferent,  and  belongs 
in  the  appropriate  part  of  800  instead  of  under  history  or  biography. 
Arrangement  of  belles-lettres  is  first  by  the  discipline  belles-lettres,  then 
by  original  language,  then  by  form,  then  by  period  of  composition  (but 
note  that  literature  itself  may  be  a  subject).  In  class  0,  general  encyclope- 
dias (030),  periodicals  (050),  newspapers  (071-079),  collections  and 
anthologies  ( 080 ) ,  and  general  pubUcations  of  general  societies 
(060-068)  have  no  specific  subject  and  form  part  of  no  one  discipline;  the 
most  significant  thing  about  them,  after  their  generality,  is  their  respective 
forms.  Arrangement  of  generahties  is  first  by  form,  then  by  language  or 
place  as  the  tables  provide.  In  all  other  classes  (including  000-029,  069, 
070.1-.9,  090)  arrangement  is  first  by  most  specific  discipline  and  most 

i8 


Editors  introduction 


specific  subject  under  it,  then  by  areal  specification  of  the  subject  if  the 
tables  permit,  then  by  temporal  specification  if  the  tables  permit,  then  by 
'  form  of  presentation. 

3.2  Analysis  of  a  book  Before  you  can  fit  a  book  into  the  system,  or 
"class"  it,  you  must  know  exactly  what  its  subject  is,  and  from  what  point 
of  view  and  in  what  form  that  subject  is  treated.  To  discover  this  is  not 
always  easy: 

Sometimes  the  title  indicates  what  the  book  is  about;  however,  it  is 
often  misleading,  and  some  further  method  should  always  be  used  as  a 
check. 

The  table  of  contents  is  usually  an  excellent  guide. 

If  there  is  no  table  of  contents,  chapter  headings  and  marginal  notes 
are  likely  to  give  a  good  indication  of  the  contents.  Clues  may  also  be 
provided  by  bibliographies  and  lists  of  sources  used  by  the  author. 

It  is  always  wise  to  scan  the  preface  for  the  author's  point  of  view,  even 
if  it  merely  verifies  a  decision  already  based  on  some  other  aid. 

If  tlie  sources  named  above  prove  unsatisfactory,  a  careful  examination 
of  the  text  may  be  necessary. 

If  the  subject  is  complex  or  unfamiliar  to  you,  you  may  have  to  go 
to  external  sources.  Information  regarding  the  subject  of  the  book  may  be 
obtained  from  bibliographies,  catalogs,  biographical  dictionaries,  histories 
of  literature,  encyclopedias,  reviews,  and  otlier  reference  books. 

Subject  experts  should  be  consulted  when  all  other  methods  fail,  and 
sometimes  for  verification  of  a  tentative  decision.  But  do  not  let  the 
subject  experts  who  are  not  also  book  classification  experts  occupy  your 
time  telling  you  how  to  remake  the  classification  tables;  what  you  need 
from  them  is  assistance  in  placing  given  books  on  difficult  subjects  within 
an  existing  scheme. 

Note  well  that  many  books  are  on  two  or  three  or  many  subjects, 
considered  separately  or  in  their  interrelationships;  and  that  many  books 
are  on  two  or  more  aspects  of  one  or  more  subjects,  that  is,  on  a  subject 
or  subjects  witliin  two  or  several  disciplines,  e.g.,  on  both  the  economics 
and  the  technology  of  the  textile  manufacturing  industry,  or  on  both 
nuclear  physics  and  nuclear  engineering,  or  on  both  architectural  design 
and  construction  principles  of  dwelling  houses,  or  on  the  sociological, 
ethical,  religious  aspects  of  divorce.  Note,  too,  the  current  trend  toward 
interdisciplinary  studies  in  depth,  particularly  in  the  social  sciences.  To 
become  a  good  classifier,  it  is  most  important  that  you  analyze  each  book 
carefully,  not  only  to  ascertain  its  subject  or  subjects  but  also  to  determine 
to  what  extent  it  crosses  traditional  lines  of  study. 

^9 


Decimal  Classification 


3.3  Selection  of  class  number  Before  becoming  involved  in  the  appli- 
cation of  the  tables  to  such  compound  and  complex  subjects  as  those 
just  mentioned,  we  shall  consider  the  procedures  for  classing  a  book  on 
one  subject  in  one  discipline. 

3.31  APPROACH  Having  determined  the  book's  subject,  and  the 
point  of  view  from  which  the  subject  is  treated,  you  are  ready  to  class  it. 
There  are  two  basic  approaches  to  the  classification  tables:  direct,  and 
thru  the  index.  Beginners  will  usually  find  the  latter  approach  speedier, 
but  it  is  not  recommended  because  it  delays  the  process  of  becoming  fully 
acquainted  with  the  system.  Note  that,  whether  you  are  beginner  or 
expert,  you  must  not  and,  in  fact,  you  cannot  class  directly  from  the  index. 
The  index  provides  leads  to  tlie  tables  but  is  not  exhaustive  and  can  never 
be  a  substitute  for  them.  In  any  event,  if  your  approach  in  a  given 
situation  is  thru  the  index,  find  first  the  subject  and  then  look  under  it  for 
the  proper  aspect.  If,  for  example,  your  book  is  on  metals,  you  will  find 
under  "Metals"  various  aspects,  most  with  subaspects  and  subsubaspects. 
Finding  the  one  that  characterizes  your  book,  you  can  then  turn  to  the 
correct  part  of  the  tables  and  analyze  the  specific  number  that  appears  to 
fit.  The  better  approach  is  to  go  direct  to  the  tables,  using  the  index  if 
necessary  to  locate  the  proper  discipline;  only  when  you  are  lost  in  the 
tables  is  it  recommended  that  you  turn  to  the  index  for  your  initial  sub- 
ject lead-in.  For  more  detailed  information  on  use  of  the  index,  see 
section  3.6. 

If  your  approach  is  direct,  first  determine  into  which  of  the  ten  major 
classes  the  book  falls.  If  the  subject  is  metals,  is  it  the  science  of  metals 
(class  5),  the  technology  (class  6),  the  economics  (class  3),  artistic  work 
in  or  on  metals  (class  7),  or  e\en  metals  in  the  Bible  (class  2)?  Having 
chosen  the  proper  major  class,  then,  as  if  there  were  no  other,  determine 
into  which  of  its  divisions  the  book  falls.  If  the  subject  is  metal  tech- 
nology, is  it  metals  as  engineering  materials  (division  62),  mining  of 
metals  (also  62),  treatment  (66),  fabrication  (67),  metals  in  hardware 
(68),  in  building  (69)?  Then  in  the  same  way  determine  the  proper 
section,  subsection,  and  subsubsection,  until  you  have  come  to  the  most 
specific  head  ( used  by  your  library )  that  will  encompass  the  subject  of 
the  book.  Even  if  that  head  is  less  specific  than  the  subject  of  the  book, 
you  have  arrived  at  the  right  place;  possibly  a  future  expansion  will  give 
you  an  even  more  detailed  number;  for  example,  a  book  on  education  of 
royalty  belongs  under  371.96,  even  tho  the  head  encompasses  other  topics 

20 


Editors  introduction 


as  well.  At  each  stop  on  the  way  look  carefully  at  the  notes  and  direc- 
tions, making  certain  that  you  have  not  followed  a  false  trail.  Do  not 
depend  solely  on  the  main  or  any  of  the  240  special  summaries;  they 
exist  only  to  speed  you  to  tentative  decisions  and  lack  the  fine  distinc- 
tions that  must  be  considered  before  any  decision  is  final. 

If  you  know  the  tables  well  or  if  you  come  to  them  via  the  index,  you 
may  start  at  once  with  a  specific  number.  In  that  case  it  is  most  important 
that  you  go  up  the  ladder,  testing  at  each  level  to  see  if  the  particular 
subject  of  your  book  belongs  within  the  concept  named  and  described. 
Whether  you  go  up  or  down,  analyze  every  step,  including  centered 
headings,  which  are  readily  spotted  by  the  inch-long  lines  preceding  them 
and  the  indicators  adjacent  to  them.  Read  every  heading,  note,  and  cross 
reference  carefully. 

3.32  HEADINGS  Each  heading  consists  of  a  word  or  phrase  so 
inclusive  that  it  covers  all  subordinate  topics  and  entries.  The  actual 
wording  may  be  incomplete,  because  the  heading  must  be  read  as  part  of 
the  larger  group  that  includes  it,  e.g.,  in  440  "French,  Provencal,  Catalan" 
means  those  languages,  but  in  840  the  same  heading  means  those 
literatures;  in  336.294  2  "On  persons"  means  incidence  (336.294)  of 
taxation  (336.2)  on  persons. 

3.33  DEFINITIONS  AND  SCOPE  NOTES  In  some  instances  a 
heading  requires,  for  complete  understanding,  the  qualifications  stated  in 
the  note  following,  e.g.,  336.274  Licenses:  "To  engage  in  specific  acts, 
businesses,  professions."  Others  are  followed  by  definitions,  e.g.,  330 
Economics:  "The  science  that  deals  with  production,  distribution,  con- 
sumption of  wealth."  ( Observe  that  this  definition,  and  the  one  at  300  The 
social  sciences,  "The  sciences  that  deal  with  social  activities  and  institu- 
tions," rule  out  home  economics  as  a  subdivision  of  330;  the  latter  is,  in 
fact,  an  applied  science,  is  defined  as  "Care  of  household,  family,  person," 
and  belongs  in  640. )  When  no  definition  is  given,  the  term  is  understood 
to  be  used  as  delimited  by  its  subdivisions,  or  as  defined  in  Webster's 
Third  New  International  Dictionary  or  in  other  general  unabridged 
dictionaries  of  the  English  language.  Still  other  headings  are  followed  by 
notes  enumerating  specific  qualifications  applicable  to  the  subject  and  its 
subdivisions,  e.g.,  631.2  Farm  structures:  "Description,  maintenance,  use 
and  place  in  farming"  of  farmhouses  (631.21 ),  bams  (631.22),  and  so  on, 
as  distinct  from  "design  and  construction"  (725-728)  of  the  same 
buildings  (728.67,  728.9).  Still  others  are  followed  by  notes  stating  the 
"scope,"  that  is,   subordinate  qualifications  not  obviously  part  of  the 

21 


Decimal  Classification 


heading  that  "drip"  down  thru  the  subdivisions,  e.g.,  362.2  welfare 
services'to  the  mentally  ill,  "Scope:  psychiatric  social  work,"  a  concept 
that  applies  to  each  subdivision  of  the  number. 

3.34  INCLUSION  NOTES  Notes  beginning  "Including"  do  not 
"drip";  they  are  enumerations  of  subordinate  topics  not  obviously  part  of 
the  heading  on  which  there  is  as  yet  insufficient  literature  to  justify 
separate  provision.  For  example,  301.428  Family  disorganization,  dissolu- 
tion adjustment  is  a  subject  with  four  named  subdivisions:  divorce  and 
remarriage  each  with  its  own  number,  death  and  separation  each  given 
"standing  room"  in  the  general  number. 

3.35  INSTRUCTION  NOTES     Notes  of  instruction  are  of  various 

kinds.  ,      , 

3.351  Optional  provision    If  you  desire  for  local  reasons  to  place  books 

in  numbers  other  than  those  provided  by  the  schedules,  you  will  do  so 
without  official  encouragement.  However,  a  few  official  alternatives  are 
provided  but  with  the  editors'  preference,  which  will  be  followed  by  the 
printed  catalog  card  service  of  the  Library  of  Congress,  always  clearly 
shown  For  example,  229.24  deuterocanonical  book  of  Judith:  "If  pre- 
ferred [i.e.,  if  you  prefer],  class  in  222.88";  222.88:  "(Optional;  [the 
editors]  prefer  229.24)."  Again,  901.9  Civilization:  "If  preferred,  class  m 
909";  909  World  history :  "  ( Optional :  civilization;  prefer  90 1 .9 ) ." 

3.352  Use  of  more  than  one  0  in  standard  subdivisions  As  stated  in 
section  2.34,  standard  subdivisions,  which  generally  consist  of  two  or  more 
digits  the  first  being  0,  may  be  used  with  any  number  at  any  level 
whenever  they  are  appropriate.  But  in  some  places,  for  various  reasons, 
notation  beginning  with  0  is  used  for  another  purpose,  in  which  case  you 
are  instructed  (for  example)  to  "Use  335.001-335.009  for  standard 
subdivisions,"  or,  sometimes,  to  "Use  361.001-361.008  for  standard 
subdivisions"  (the  concept  normally  belonging  in  09  being  otherwise 
provided  for ) .  On  occasion  you  are  instructed  to  use  three  or  even  four  0  s 
for  standard  subdivisions.  This  instruction  does  not  "drip";  it  applies  only 

exactly  as  stated. 

3  353  Synthesis  of  notation  Frequently  the  opportunity  is  presented  to 
expand  a  given  number  synthetically  without  enumerating  its  subdivi- 

sions.  ,  . 

3.353  1  Area  notation  When  a  given  heading  has  particular  geographic 
significance  and  there  are  numerous  books  dealing  with  the  subject  m  a 
given  continent,  country,  locality,  or  other  area,  provision  is  made  to  ex- 
pand the  number  for  that  heading  by  area.  For  example,  under  331.29 

22 


Editors  introduction 


Historical:  and  geographical  treatment  of  wages,  you  will  find  the  in- 
struction, "Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.29."  This  means  that  a  book  on 
wages  in  Japan  is  to  be  placed  in  331.295  2,  that  is,  331.29  plus  the  number 
52  for  Japan  from  the  area  table  on  page  1263.  Wages  in  Tokyo  would  fall 
in  331.295  213  5,  wages  in  rural  regions  in  general  in  331.291  734.  Observe 
that  wages  in  rural  regions  of  Japan  does  not  belong  in  331.291  734 
(because  under  area  1  appears  the  note,  "Not  limited  by  continent, 
country,  locality"),  but  rather  in  331.295  2;  an  optional  note  under  the 
centered  heading  for  areas  3-9  tells  you  that,  "if  desired,"  you  may  add 
009  to  the  number  for  Japan  or  any  other  continent,  country  or  locality 
and  divide  like  area  notation  1.  (Even  where  specific  provision  for  adding 
area  numbers  is  not  stated,  they  may  be  added  to  standard  subdivision  09, 
as  shown  in  the  table  of  standard  subdivisions,  e.g.,  special  education  in 
Japan  371.909  52.  For  full  information  see  section  3.37, )  The  instruction  to 
add  area  notations  does  not  "drip"  to  subdivisions  of  the  number  under 
which  it  appears;  instead  it  is  an  instrument  for  authorizing  the  formation 
of  those  subdivisions  without  explicitly  stating  them. 

3.353  2  Division  The  same  is  true  of  the  instruction  to  "divide  like"  an- 
other number  or  sequence.  This  is  another  important  basis  for  synthesis  of 
notation,  or  "number  building."  It  may  appear  under  a  single  number  or  a 
sequence  of  numbers,  and  it  directs  you  to  divide  that  number  or 
sequence  like  a  single  number  or  like  a  sequence.  Actually,  in  every  case, 
one  sequence,  the  primary  one,  is  to  be  divided  like  another  sequence,  the 
secondary  one.  Many  classifiers  have  found  the  procedure  confusing,  but 
it  need  not  be  so  if  one  works  methodically.  First,  determine  and  set  down 
the  full  span  of  the  secondary  sequence.  Second,  set  down  the  number 
from  that  sequence  that  is  appropriate  to  the  work  in  hand.  Third,  cancel 
the  repeating  digits  of  the  secondary  sequence,  i.e.,  the  digits  that  appear 
thruout  its  entire  length  without  change.  (There  may  be  none.)  Fourth, 
substitute  for  them  the  repeating  digits  of  the  primary  sequence.  Fifth, 
insert  the  decimal  point  appropriately  and  delete  any  terminal  O's.  For 
example,  class  infant  baptism  under  234.16,  and  "divide  like  265.1- 
265.7": 


1.  265.1-265.7 

2.  265.12 

3.  (265.)  12 

4.  (234.16)   12 

5.  234.1612 


Full  span  of  secondary  sequence. 
Number  in  this  span  for  infant  baptism. 
Cancel  all  repeating  digits  of  secondary  sequence. 
Substitute  repeating  digits  of  primary  sequence. 
Desired  number. 

^3 


Decimal  Classification 


Class  crossbreeding  in  sheep  under  636.308,  and  "divide  like  636.08": 

1.  636.081-636.089 

2.  636.082  43 

3.  (636.08)  2  43 

4.  (636.308)  2  43 

5.  636.308  243 

Class   adaptations  of  mammals   to  drought  under  599.01-599.09,  and 
"divide  like  591.1-591.9": 

1.  591.1-591.9 

2.  591.542 

3.  (591.)  542 

4.  (599.0)  542 

5.  599.054  2 

Class  bibliography  of  agriculture  under  016,  and  "divide  like  001-999," 
with  no  digits  common  to  secondary  sequence: 

1.  001-999 

2.  630 

3.  630  Nothing  to  cancel. 

4.  (016)  630  Prefix  016. 

5.  016.63 

"Divide  like"  means  to  divide  like  the  secondary  sequence  to  the  extent 
that  is  appropriate  to  the  heading,  definition,  and  scope  governing  the 
primary  sequence.  For  example,  area  notation  174  Ethnic  groups  is  to  be 
divided  like  420-490.  In  the  sequence  420-490  appears  499.992  Esperanto. 
Since  this  is  an  artificial  language,  area  notation  174  999  92  is  not 
applicable  to  ethnic  groups,  and  is,  in  fact,  an  absurdity. 

3.354  Priorities  of  arrangement  As  v^^e  saw^  in  section  1,  many  subjects 
may  be  divided  according  to  more  than  one  principle.  We  also  saw  (in 
section  2.221 )  that  the  digit  0  is  used  to  introduce  a  change  in  the  basis  of 
division.  Two  O's  and  three  O's  may  be  used  to  introduce  still  other  bases  of 
division,  as,  for  an  extreme  example,  350.000  l-.OOO  9,  350,001-.009, 
350.01-.09,  350.1-.9,  351-359.  A  given  book  may  divide  its  subject 
simultaneously  according  to  two  or  more  principles,  e.g.,  composition  and 
properties  (551.4601)  of  the  water  of  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean 
(551.461).  This  raises  a  question  of  priority:  by  which  characteristic 
should  one  class  the  book?  With  rare  exceptions  where  the  schedules 
themselves  specify  otherwise,  such  as  at  808.89,  subdivisions  without  0 

take  precedence  in  choice  over  those  with  one  0,  those  with  one  0  over 
those  with   two   O's,  those   with   two  O's   over  those   with   three  O's. 


H 


Editors  introduction 


Consequently,  the  book  goes  in  551.461  not  551.460  1.  But  two  or  more 
principles  of  division  may  be  provided  for  in  numbers  none  of  which  have 
O's  (or  all  of  which  have  the  same  number  of  O's).  Then  the  schedules 
themselves  give  instructions  on  priority  of  choice,  so  that  the  classifier  may 
avoid  the  confusions  of  cross  classification.  You  may  have  a  book  on  labor 
by  aged  Negro  women  slaves;  should  you  class  it  in  331.398,  331.4, 
331.582,  or  331.639  6?  The  instruction  under  centered  heading  331.3-331.6 
tells  you,  by  a  table  of  precedence,  to  use  331.398.  Now,  suppose  your 
book  is  on  night  work  by  aged  Negro  women:  331.398  or  331.81?  The  first 
note  under  331.3-331.6  specifies  that  work  periods  of  special  classes  of 
workers  belong  there,  but,  if  you  happen  to  arrive  first  at  331.81,  you  will 
find  at  331.8  an  instruction  to  class  the  topics  that  follow  in  relation  to 
special  classes  of  workers  in  331.3-331.6.  Either  way,  die  correct  number 
is  331.398. 

We  have  not  yet  come  to  cross  references,  but  it  is  appropriate  to  point 
out  here  that  many  cross  references  serve  the  same  purpose  of  eliminating 
the  dangers  of  cross  classification  by  indicating  the  preferred  basis  of 
division,  e.g.,  the  cross  reference  from  331.2  to  331.3-331.6  tells  you  that 
books  on  wages  of  aged  Negro  women  are  to  be  placed  in  the  latter 

span. 

In  any  case  of  cross  classification  where  the  bases  of  division  include 
subject,  place,  form,  the  order  of  preference  is  as  follows,  regardless  of 
the  absence  of  instructions  or  cross  references:  (1)  subject,  (2)  place, 
(3)  form.  Only  the  presence  of  explicit  directions  to  the  contrary  and  the 
rule  that  non-0  takes  precedence  over  0  supersede  this  order  of  prece- 
dence. Examples:  ( 1 )  The  general  principle  tells  you  to  class  guaranteed- 
wage  plans  in  the  United  States  in  331.230  973  not  in  331.297  3.  (2)  Ex- 
plicit directions  to  the  contrary  at  325.309  tell  you  to  class  colonization  in 
Australia  in  325.94  not  in  325.309  94.  (3)  The  rule  of  non-0  preceding  0 
tells  you  to  class  composition  and  properties  of  the  water  of  the  North 
Atlantic  Ocean  in  551.461  not  in  551.460  1.  (4)  The  general  principle  tells 
you  to  class  a  peroidical  on  science  research  methodology  in  501.8  not  in 
505,  i.e.,  standard  subdivisions  of  a  substantive  nature  take  precedence 
over  those  that  are  forms. 

Otherwise,  the  editors  have  tried  to  anticipate  most  situations  where 
cross  classification  is  likely  to  be  a  problem,  and  to  provide  specific 
guidance.  Where  they  have  not  anticipated  the  need  for  a  note,  the 
following  precedence  formula  is  a  generally  reasonable  and  helpful  one  to 
follow,  altho  it  may  require  modification  in  certain  places:   Class  the 

^5 


Decimal  Classification 


Editors  introduction 


if 


H 


subject  by  (1)  kinds,  (2)  parts,  (3)  materials,  (4)  properties,  (5) 
processes  within  it,  (6)  operations  upon  it,  (7)  agents.  (Observe  that, 
while  North  Atlantic  Ocean  is  a  place,  it  is  also  a  part  of  oceans  and  sea 
waters,  so  that  classing  composition  of  its  waters  in  551.461  reflects  this 
formula  by  giving  parts  precedence  over  properties. ) 

3.355  Relocations  A  relocation  is  an  adjustment  in  the  tables  resulting 
in  the  shifting  of  a  topic  from  the  number  provided  for  it  in  Edition  16  to 
a  number  in  the  present  edition  that  differs  in  respects  other  than  length, 
e.g.,  the  shift  of  astronautics  from  629.138  8  to  629.4,  whereby  the  original 
digits  are  not  added  to  or  cut  off,  but  all  following  629  is  changed.  If  the 
relocation  is  total,  i.e.,  the  entire  number  formerly  used  is  to  be  vacated, 
the  number  is  enclosed  in  square  brackets,  and  there  is  an  instruction 
showing  where  the  subject  formerly  in  that  number  is  now  placed,  e.g., 
[629.138  8]  Astronautics:  Class  in  629.4.  If  the  relocation  is  only  partial,  it 
is  indicated  in  a  note  of  instruction,  e.g.,  243  EvangeHstic  writings:  Class 
evangelistic  sermons  [formerly  243]  in  252.  Total  relocations  are  not  to  be 
confused  with  entries  and  instructions  showing  that  concepts  normally 
belonging  in  standard  subdivision  notations  are  to  be  placed  instead  in 
other  numbers,  e.g.,  [331.209]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment:  Do 
not  use;  class  in  331.29.  Relocation  notes  "drip."  For  example,  the  note 
under  336.2,  "Class  tax  administration  [formerly  336.2]  in  350.724," 
applies  to  this  subject  thruout  336.2.  In  Edition  16  administration  of 
specific  kinds  of  taxes  was  provided  for  with  other  works  on  those  taxes  in 
336.2 1-.27,  and  general  works  on  tax  administration  were  provided  for  in 
336.292;  this  relocation  note  tells  you  to  class  all  works  on  tax  administra- 
tion, formerly  in  336.2  and  various  of  its  subdivisions,  in  350.724  and  it^ 
subdivisions. 

3.36  CROSS  REFERENCES  These  direct  you  from  the  stated  or 
impUed  totality  of  a  given  subject  to  component  parts  of  that  subject 
provided  for  elsewhere  than  in  the  number  referred  from  or  numbers 
subordinate  to  it,  e.g.,  under  385  Railroad  transportation:  For  local  rail 
transit  systems,  see  388.4.  Cross  references  are  not  used  to  lead  from  a 
subject  in  one  discipline  to  the  same  or  a  related  subject  in  another 
discipline.  They  lead  only  from  the  whole  subject  vdthin  its  discipline  to 
parts  of  the  subject  within  the  same  discipline  located  elsewhere. 
However,  a  few  subjects  from  a  single  point  of  view  are  considered  parts 
of  two  separate  disciphnes,  e.g.,  the  scientific  aspect  of  geomagnetism, 
which  is  equally  part  of  physics  and  of  earth  sciences.  This  subject  is 

26 


provided  for  in  538.7  under  magnetism  with  a  cross  reference  from  551.1 
Gross  structure  and  properties  of  the  earth. 

Cross  references  "drip."  For  example,  the  reference  from  331.2  to 
331.3-331.6  means  that  any  subdivision  of  331.2  if  applied  to  specific 
classes  of  workers  belongs  in  331.3-331.6,  e.g.,  wages  of  women  in  specific 
occupations  in  331.42  not  in  331.28. 

On  very  rare  occasions  one  reference  may  appear  to  cancel  part  of  the 
eflPect  of  another;  in  such  cases,  the  reference  at  the  more  specific  level 
overrides  the  other.  An  example  is  322-323:  at  323  Relation  of  state  to 
individuals  and  groups  is  a  reference,  '*For  relation  of  state  to  organized 
groups,  see  322,"  but  under  322.4  Protest  and  pressure  groups  is  an 
overriding  reference,  ''For  relation  of  state  to  revolutionary  and  subver- 
Mve  groups,  see  323.2."  This  means  that  the  relation  of  the  state  to 
revolutionary  and  subversive  groups,  even  tho  organized,  is  placed  in 
323.2  in  spite  of  the  reference  at  323  implying  otherwise. 

3.37  STANDARD  SUBDIVISIONS  Having  analyzed  thru  all  the 
steps  of  the  ladder  the  number  chosen  for  the  book  in  hand,  and  decided 
that  it  is  the  correct  and  most  specific  number,  you  are  now  ready  to 
consider  what  further  specification  is  desirable,  i.e.,  whether  any  of  the 
standard  subdivisions  are  appHcable.  If  your  book  deals  with  technique 
and  apparatus  of  the  subject,  you  may  add  028;  if  it  consists  of  a  collec- 
tion of  articles  on  the  subject,  you  may  add  08;  most  common  of  all,  if  the 
book  deals  with  the  subject  in  the  United  States  only  (or  in  Marrakesh), 
you  may  add  097  3  (or  09646).  See  the  table  on  page  1255. 

Observe  here  a  very  important  limitation  in  the  use  of  standard 
subdivisions:  do  not  add  them  to  the  number  chosen  for  a  book  that  deals 
with  a  subject  more  specific  than  the  content  of  the  nmnber,  i.e.,  if  the 
subject  of  the  book  does  not  have  its  own  specific  number.  For  example, 
class  a  collection  of  writings  on  architecture  of  office  buildings  in 
725.230  8,  but  class  a  collection  of  writings  on  architecture  of  television 
towers  in  725.23.  The  reason  is  that  there  is  always  the  chance  that  in  a 
later  edition  the  subject  will  be  subdivided  and  you  will  then  face 
complications  in  adjustment;  for  example,  perhaps  in  Edition  18  television 
towers  will  be  provided  for  specifically  in  some  such  number  as  725.237, 
and  you  can  then  use  725.237  08  for  your  book. 

It  is  their  standard  meanings  that  make  these  subdivisions  "standard." 
Nevertheless,  sometimes  a  given  standard  subdivision  when  applied  to  a 
given  subject  may  logically  be  given  one  or  more  meanings  that  are 
extensions  of  and  compatible  with  the  basic  meaning,  and  you  will  then 

27 


Decimal  Classification 


find  in  the  tables  an  entry  or  group  of  entries  specifying  the  extension.  A 
simple  example  is  720.223  Plans  and  detail  drawings  in  architecture,  an 
extension  of  standard  subdivision  022  3  Plans.  A  more  elaborate  one  is 
669.028  2-.028  4  for  a  special  expansion,  applicable  only  to  metallurgy,  of 
standard  subdivision  028  Techniques,  apparatus,  equipment. 

Frequently  standard  subdivisions  are  to  be  placed  in  001-009  or 
000  1-000  9;  as  we  have  seen  in  section  3.352,  instruction  notes  tell  you 
when. 

Sometimes,  most  often  for  09,  a  concept  ordinarily  placed  in  a  standard 
subdivision  number  is  found  instead  with  an  irregular  notation;  most  of 
these  date  from  earlier  editions  of  the  DC  that  were  prepared  before  the 
table  of  standard  subdivisions  became  so  detailed.  These  instances  are  all 
noted  under  the  numbers  where  you  would  normally  expect  to  find  them. 
Examples: 
[730.28]     Techniques,  apparatus,  equipment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  731.3-731.4 
[747.09]     Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  747.2 
328.309      Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 

world  in  328.4-328.9 
(That  is,  use  328.309  01-328.309  04,  328.3091-328.309  3,  but  instead  of 
328.309  4-328.309  9  use  328.4-328.9. ) 
602.7     Identification  marks 

Class  patents  and  inventions  in  608.7 
(That  is,  use  602.75-602.78,  but  instead  of  602.72  use  608.7.)  It  is  obvious 
that  you  should  not  use  a  standard  subdivision  until  you  have  made  sure 
from  the  tables  that  its  use  is  not  irregular  as  to  notation  or  meaning.  The 
warning  not  to  use  standard  subdivisions  for  a  book  that  deals  with  less 
than  the  whole  subject  covered  by  the  number  applies  equally  to  those 
situations  where  standard  subdivision  concepts,  including  areal  and 
temporal  specification,  appear  in  irregular  notation. 

When  a  standard  subdivision  or  span  of  standard  subdivisions  is 
specifically  named  in  the  tables,  it  is  understood  that,  unless  there  are 
contrary  instructions,  the  usual  subsubdivisions  may  be  used,  e.g., 
332.673  09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment  is  to  have  area  notations 
1-9  added  to  it  just  like  any  standard  subdivision  09,  332.06  Organizations 
is  to  be  divided  into  332.061,  .062  and  so  on  just  like  any  standard 
subdivision  06. 


a8 


Editors  introduction 


3.38  SUBJECT  NOT  PROVIDED  FOR  In  the  world  of  today, 
knowledge  grows  so  fast  that  any  edition  of  the  DDC  is  outdated  before  it 
appears.  With  little  doubt,  you  will  have  books  on  subjects  for  which  the 
tables  and  index  have  provided  a  place  neither  explicitly  nor  implicitly. 
Do  not  make  up  your  own  number  for  such  a  subject;  as  sure  as  you  do, 
the  next  edition  will  place  the  subject  in  another  number  and  use  the 
number  you  chose  for  something  else!  The  guiding  principle  is  to  follow 
exactly  the  same  procedure  outlined  above:  determine  the  correct  main 
class,  then  the  correct  division,  then  the  correct  section,  continuing  until 
you  have  arrived  at  the  most  specific  head  that  will  contain  the  subject  of 
your  book.  It  may  be  that  you  cannot  go  beyond  three  digits;  stop  right 
there  and  give  your  book  standing  room,  and  wait  for  the  editors  to  supply 
a  more  detailed  number,  which  you  may  then  use  simply  by  adding  digits 
to  the  number  you  have  already  chosen.  Do  this  carefully,  and  you  will 
rarely  go  wrong.  An  example  for  the  future  is  a  bit  difficult  to  imagine,  but 
two  from  the  past  may  be  illustrative.  Edition  16  provided  for  astronauti- 
cal  engineering  in  629.138  8  (now  relocated  to  629.4)  but  for  no  other 
aspects  of  man  in  space.  A  classifier  with  a  book  on  the  physiology  of  man 
in  space  might  have  been  tempted  to  class  it  in  629.138  8,  but  that  would 
have  been  wrong;  he  should  have  used  612.01  or  even  just  612,  which  is 
now  expanded  to  612.014  5  for  the  precise  subject.  Edition  16  provided  no 
place  for  transportation  by  overland  air-cushion  vehicles  (hovercraft), 
but  a  classifier  following  the  principles  outlined  here  would  have  used 
388.3,  and  found  his  decision  confirmed  by  the  appearance  of  388.35  in 
the  present  edition. 

3.4  Compound  and  complex  subjects  The  foregoing  rules  and  prin- 
ciples provide  a  basis  for  classing  a  book  on  one  subject  in  one  discipline. 
But,  as  we  have  seen,  your  analysis  of  the  book  may  have  shown  that  it 
deals  with  two  or  three  or  many  subjects,  considered  separately  or  in  their 
interrelationships;  or  with  two  or  more  aspects  of  one  or  more  subjects. 
Assuming  that  you  are  using  the  DDC  as  a  shelf  classification,  obviously 
you  must  choose  one  place  and  class  the  book  there.  Since  most  libraries 
employ  other  methods  of  subject  control  in  addition  to  shelf  classification, 
the  chances  are  that  the  subject  catalog,  whether  alphabetical  or  itself 
classified,  will  provide  additional  leads.  Where,  then,  should  you  class  the 
book? 

3.41  MORE  THAN  ONE  SUBJECT  ( 1 )  Class  a  book  dealing  with 
two  or  more  interrelated  subjects  with  the  one  that  receives  the  chief 
emphasis.  For  example,  class  an  analytical  work  dealing  with  Shake- 

29 


Decimal  Classification 


speare's  influence  on  Keats  with  Keats.  The  emphasis  may  be  a  reflection 
of  the  relative  amount  of  space  devoted  to  each  subject,  or  of  the  author's 
purpose,  or  of  both.  The  author's  purpose  in  the  work  imagined  above 
may  be  said  to  be  an  exposition  of  Keats's  work.  If  the  treatment  of  Keats 
occupies  only  a  small  portion  of  the  book,  say  less  than  a  third,  and  does 
not  permeate  the  portion  that  deals  specifically  vdth  Shakespeare,  then  the 
heavy  preponderance  of  space  devoted  to  Shakespeare  should  carry  more 
weight  than  the  author's  purpose  of  explaining  Keats,  and  the  book  should 
be  placed  with  other  works  on  Shakespeare.  But  if  the  author's  purpose  is 
pervasive  thruout  the  book,  even  tho  the  treatment  of  Shakespeare 
actually  occupies  more  space,  then  greater  weight  should  be  given  to 
purpose,  and  the  book  should  be  placed  with  other  works  on  Keats.  Such 
decisions  are  sometimes  very  diflBcult  to  make.  (2)  Class  a  book  dealing 
with  two  or  more  subjects,  not  particularly  interrelated,  e.g.,  a  descriptive 
work  on  the  beliefs  and  practices  of  Judaism,  Christianity,  and  Islam,  with 
the  one  that  preponderates.  (3)  If  no  emphasis  or  preponderance  is 
apparent,  (a)  class  a  book  on  two  subjects  with  the  one  coming  first  in 
the  classification  tables,  or  (b),  optionally,  class  a  book  on  two  subjects 
tliat  are  both  subdivisions  of  a  broader  subject  with  the  broader  one;  and 
( c )  class  a  book  on  three  or  more  subjects  that  are  all  subdivisions  of  a 
broader  subject  with  the  broader  one.  Examples:  (a)  class  a  book  dealing 
with  equal  emphasis  with  Judaism  (296)  and  Islam  (297)  in  296,  or  (b), 
optionally,  in  290;  (c)  class  a  similar  book  dealing  with  Hinduism 
(294.5 ),  Judaism,  and  Islam  in  290. 

3.42  MORE  THAN  ONE  ASPECT  ( 1 )  Class  a  book  dealing  with  a 
subject  from  two  or  more  points  of  view  or  aspects,  i.e.,  within  two  or 
more  disciplines,  with  the  aspect  that  receives  the  most  emphasis.  For 
example,  class  a  book  dealing  with  both  the  scientific  and  engineering 
principles  of  electrodynamics  in  537.64  if  the  engineering  aspects  are 
introduced  primarily  for  illustrative  purposes,  in  621.31  if  the  basic 
scientific  theories  are  introduced  primarily  as  a  preliminary  to  the  author's 
development  of  an  exposition  of  engineering  principles  and  practices, 
(See  also  section  3.44.)  (2)  Class  a  book  dealing  with  a  subject  from  two 
or  more  aspects  but  having  no  apparent  emphasis  with  the  one  that 
preponderates.  ( 3 )  If  no  emphasis  or  preponderance  is  apparent,  class  a 
book  dealing  with  a  subject  from  two  or  more  aspects  with  the  underlying 
or  broader  discipline,  e.g.,  science  underlies  technology,  art  is  broader 
than  belles-lettres.  (4)  Lacking  any  other  principle,  class  in  the  discipline 
that  comes  first  in  the  schedules. 


30 


Editors  introduction 


To  class  a  book  on  two  or  more  interrelated  subjects  considered  from 
two  or  more  aspects,  you  may  have  to  apply  a  combination  of  all  the 
foregoing   rules.    Do   not   overlook   the   possibilities   of    class   0,    e.g., 

001.3-001.4,080. 

3.43  CENTERED   HEADINGS     As   seen   above   in   section   2.221, 
centered  headings  are  steps  in  the  successive  divisions  of  a  discipline  or 
subject  for  which  positions  in  the  lengthening  digital  notation  are  not 
available.   Since  a  given  book  can  have  but  one  class  number,  it  is 
necessary  to  indicate  how  to  class  books  dealing  with  concepts  in  centered 
headings.  ( 1 )  If  the  span  of  entries  directly  subordinate  to  the  centered 
heading  is  three  or  more,  (a)  class  comprehensive  works  in  the  next 
higher  number,  e.g.,  classical  physics  (531-538)  in  530,  dental  surgery 
(617.64-617.67)  in  617.6,  England  (area  421-428)  in  area  42;  but  (b) 
always  check  to  see  if  a  general-special  subdivision  of  the  next  higher 
number  has  been  provided,  i.e.,  a  subdivision  based  on  a  0-notation,  e.g., 
tiansportation  services  (385-388)  in  380.5,  applied  ethics  (172-179)  in 
170.202;  and  (c)  class  elsewhere  only  in  the  rare  instances  where  you  are 
so  instructed  in  a  note  under  the   centered  heading,   e.g.,   Romance 
languages     (440-460)     in    479.1,    metallurgy    of    nonferrous    metals 
(669.2-669.7)  in  669.7;  but  (d)  note  that  when  the  centered  heading 
covers  "specific"  parts  of  something,  general  works  may  be  in  a  preceding 
specific   number   without   notice    at   the    centered   heading,    e.g.,   Old 
Testament  (specific  parts  222-224)  in  221.  (2)  If  the  span  of  entries 
directly  subordinate  to  the  centered  heading  is  only  two,    (a)    class 
comprehensive  works  in  the  first  of  the  two  numbers,  e.g.,  valves  in 
electronic  circuits  (621.381  51-621.381  52)  in  621.381  51;  but  (b)  class 
elsewhere  if  you  are  so  instructed,  e.g.,  public  revenues  (336.1-336.2)  in 
336.02,  technology  of  food  and  drink  (663-664)  in  664. 

3.44  APPLICATIONS  Class  an  application  of  a  principle,  concept, 
science,  procedures,  technique  with  application.  For  example,  class 
general  principles  of  radio  communication  engineering  in  621.384  1; 
special  developments  of  radio  engineering,  e.g.,  the  circuitry  and  instru- 
ments used  in  space  communication,  in  621.384  19;  but  the  application  of 
space  communication  to  astronautics  in  629.437  and  629.457. 

3.5  Reduction  We  have  indicated  in  section  2.4  that  a  valuable  feature 
of  the  DC  notation  is  its  adaptability  to  both  close  and  broad  classifica- 
tion. How  close  or  how  broad  the  classification  of  a  specific  library  should 
be  is  a  matter  of  administrative  determination.  It  is  likely  that  only  a  very 
large  general  library  or  a  hbrary  with  enormous  collections  in  certain 

3^ 


Decimal  Classification 


subjects  will  follow  the  present  edition  to  its  fully  expanded  detail,  and 
none  of  those  in  every  section.  In  short,  every  library  using  these  tables 
will  reduce  them  in  some  or  many  parts.  The  detail  supplied  herein  is 
intended  to  be  more  rather  than  less  than  what  most  libraries  will  require, 
because  it  is  easy  to  cut  back,  either  from  the  tables  themselves  or  from 
the  numbers  recommended  by  central  classification  services  for  specific 
titles,  but  not  easy,  or  advisable,  to  expand  beyond  what  is  officially 
provided.  According  to  the  printed  tables,  a  book  on  the  fresh-water 
plants  of  Lake  Pontchartrain  would  fall  in  581.929  763  34,  a  number  likely 
to  be  required  only  for  a  botanical  library  or  a  general  library  with  a  very 
large  coUecrion  in  botany;  most  libraries  will  be  adequately  served  by 
581.9,  or  at  most  581.929. 

Do  not  cut  notation  to  less  than  three  digits,  no  matter  how  small  your 
collection  may  be.  A  library  specializing  in  science  and  technology  may 
have  half  a  dozen  books  on  religion,  and  the  classifier  may  be  tempted  to 
class  them  all  just  in  200.  In  the  long  run  this  is  false  economy;  it  is 
better  to  class  the  King  James  Bible  in  220  (cut  back  from  220.520  3),  the 
work  on  paleontology  and  religion  in  215  (cut  back  from  215.6),  the  work 
on  YMCA  organization  in  267  ( cut  back  from  267.33 ) . 

Do  not  cut  a  number  so  that  it  ends  in  a  0  to  the  right  of  the  decimal 
point. 

Cut  at  a  reasonable  spot,  i.e.,  one  that  will  bring  about  a  useful 
grouping.  This  requires  special  care  when  applied  to  synthesized  num- 
bers. For  example,  if  you  have  a  large  collection  on  the  subject,  you  may 
find  it  desirable  to  class  a  book  on  economic  conditions  in  Oxfordshire  in 
330.942  57.  But  if  your  collection  is  not  of  such  a  size  as  to  justify  a 
breakdown  by  counties,  it  is  unlikely  that  you  will  consider  330.942  5 
(East  Midlands)  a  very  useful  grouping;  instead  you  will  probably  use 
330.942.  On  the  other  hand,  a  similar  work  covering  Glamorgan  can  be 
quite  satisfactorily  assigned  to  330.942  9  (Wales),  because  this  is  more 
likely  to  be  a  useful  grouping.  Many  libraries  consider  geographic 
breakdown  below  country  unnecessarily  detailed  except  in  9+  for  general 
history  and  91+  for  geography.  Indeed,  with  a  quite  small  collection  you 
may  consider  330.94  satisfactory  for  books  on  economic  conditions  in  all 
parts  or  any  part  of  Europe.  For  another  example,  you  may  find  the  detail 
of  331.287  721  necessary  in  a  large  collection  for  wages  in  the  cotton 
textile  industry,  or  you  may  find  331.287  7  (wages  in  the  textile  industry) 
or  331.287  (wages  in  manufacturing)  or  331.28  (wages  by  occupation) 
useful  groupings  in  smaller  collections,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  338.287  72 


3^ 


Editors  introduction 


(wages  in  textile  industries  using  seed-hair  fibers)   would  prove  very 

useful. 

Be  sure  that  when  you  cut  you  do  just  that;  do  not  change  digits.  For 
example,  if  your  collection  of  books  on  birds  is  so  small  that  you  do  not 
wish  to  take  advantage  even  of  the  differentiation  provided  by  598.3, 
598.4  .  .  .  598.9,  do  not  use  598.2  as  a  general  gathering  place  for  all 
books  on  birds,  even  tho  it  is  headed  "Aves  (Birds)";  instead  cut  right 
down  to  598.  (You  can  still  use  598.1  for  books  on  reptiles.)  If  you  use 
598.2,  you  will  be  obliged,  if  future  growth  requires  that  your  books  on 
birds  be  divided,  to  remove  the  "2"  and  substitute  "3,"  "4".  .  ."9." 

Record  in  the  schedules  all  decisions  for  reduction.  Do  not  try  to  record 
decisions  of  this  nature  in  the  index;  an  index  entry  (like  a  cross  reference, 
relocation,  or  other  note  of  instruction)  leading  to  a  number  that  is  cut 
back  will  then  be  understood  to  lead  only  to  the  most  detailed  number 
that  has  been  retained.  Thus,  if  the  schedule  551  is  cut  back  to  four  figures 
(i.e.,  to  551.1,  551.2,  551.8,  etc.),  the  index  entry  for  dikes  leading  to 
551.88  will  be  understood  to  lead  only  to  551.8,  and  the  cross  reference 
from  525.2  to  551.12  will  be  understood  to  lead  only  to  551.1. 

3.6  Index  In  the  event  that  your  initial  lead-in  to  the  classification  is 
thru  the  index,  which,  as  we  saw  in  section  3.31,  is  not  recommended 
except  when  a  direct  approach  to  the  tables  has  proved  fruitless,  you 
should  know  how  tlie  index  is  constructed  and  how  to  use  it. 

3.61    The  index  is  relative  (and  is  traditionally  known  as  the  "relative 
index"):  rather  than  recapitulate  the  tables  alphabetically,  it  reverses 
them,  in  that  it  brings  together  the  various  aspects  of  a  subject  to  show 
their  dispersion  thruout  the  tables.  For  example,  if  you  have  a  book  on 
botanical  drugs  and  look  under  that  term,  you  will  find  several  aspects 
and  subaspects,  including  chemistry,  general  pharmacology,  and  veteri- 
nary pharmacology,  each  leading  you  to  a  number  in  the  tables.  This 
number  may  be  the  most  precise  and  specific  one  available,  as  is  the  case 
with  547.72  for  the  chemical  aspects.  Or,  it  may  be  a  general  number  of 
which  a  subdivision  best  fits  your  book,  as  is  the  case  with  615.32  for  the 
general  pharmacological  aspects;  this  index  entry  and  number  are  set  in 
boldface,  which  means  that  the  topic  is  subdivided  in  the  tables,  either  by 
stated  subdivisions  or  by  provision  for  number  building.  Finally,  it  may  be 
an  incomplete  number  which  must  be  built  onto  thru  synthesis  in  order  to 
arrive  at  the  number  required,  as  is  the  case  with  636.089+  for  veterinary 
pharmacological  aspects;  the  plus  sign  means  that,  when  you  turn  to  the 
table,  you  will  find  that  636.089  is  to  be  divided  like  61 1-619.  The  proper 

33 


Decimal  Classification 


suffix  is  easy  to  establish  without  scanning  the  many  pages  of  611-619, 
because  the  analogous  number  in  611-619  is  the  general  pharmacological 
aspects  number  615.32,  which,  thru  operation  of  the  "divide-like"  process, 
produces  636.089  532.  (In  this  illustration  636.089+,  i.e.,  636.089  532,  is 
set  in  boldface  because,  Uke  615.32,  it  is  itself  subject  to  further  sub- 
division. ) 

It  may  be  that  your  book  deals  with  the  botany  or  the  agriculture  of 
botanical  drugs.  These  aspects  are  not  enumerated  under  the  entry 
"Botanical  drugs,"  but  you  will  find  there  a  cross  reference,  "see  also 
Medicinal  plants."  Looking  under  the  latter  heading,  you  will  find  the 
aspects  botany  and  agriculture,  as  well  as  a  reference  from  the  aspect 
pharmacology  back  to  Botanical  drugs.  Under  the  botanical  aspect  you 
will  find  a  number  for  general  works  and  a  reference  to  see  also  specific 
plants.  ( Of  course,  if  your  book  is  on  the  botany  of  a  specific  plant,  say 
poppies,  you  would  have  consulted  the  index  directly  under  that  name, 
found  the  aspects  agriculture  and  pharmacology  and  a  reference  to 
Rhoeadales,  under  which  you  would  have  found  the  aspect  botany  in 
583.12.)  Under  the  agricultural  aspect  you  will  find  two  subaspects, 
economics  338.17+  and  technology  633.88.  The  tables  reveal  that  338.17 
is  divided  like  633-638,  so  that  338.17+,  using  the  analogy  of  633.88, 
becomes  338.173  88. 

Having  read  this  far,  you  vdll  have  observed  that  the  index  entries  are 
closely  interrelated  and  that  the  index  cannot  be  used  carelessly. 

3.62  The  index  is  limited:  only  those  aspects  appearing  most  fre- 
quently in  the  literature  are  included.  It  is  clear  by  now  to  the  reader  of 
this  introduction  that  almost  any  subject  can  be  treated  within  almost  any 
discipline.  Botanical  drugs  and  medicinal  plants  may  turn  up  not  only  in 
botany,  chemistry,  agriculture,  and  general  and  veterinary  pharmacology, 
but  also  in  bibliography,  library  science,  psychology,  ethics,  Christian  or 
other  religion,  sociology,  political  science,  economics,  and  right  on  thru 
general  history.  (You  are  dubious  about  political  science  and  general 
history?  Consider  the  possibility  of  a  title  on  the  effect  of  drugs  on  a 
given  statesman's  personality  and  its  results  in  history.)  Obviously,  the 
index  cannot  enumerate  all  these  aspects;  if  your  book  deals  with  an 
unusual  aspect  of  a  subject,  you  must  classify  direct  from  the  tables  by 
successive  narrowing  of  choices  as  suggested  above  in  section  3.31. 

Aspects  are  often  replaced  by  blanket  references.  For  example,  under 
Evils  are  the  aspects  ethics  and  religion;  and  under  the  religious  aspect 
two  subaspects  are  named  and  numbers  shown  for  them,  Christian  241.3 

94 


Editors  introduction 


and  general  works  291.5,  with  a  blanket  reference,  "see  aho  other  spec, 
reir  To  find  evils  under  Buddhism,  you  must  first  find  Buddhism,  note 
that  it  is  in  294.3,  and  then  scan  the  subdivisions  of  that  number  in  the 
schedule.  Since  all  religions  other  than  Christian  are  arranged  generally 
like  291.1-.9,  it  is  not  too  difficult  to  locate  the  correct  number  294.35. 

Generally  speaking,  under  each  subject  entered  in  the  index  there 
appear  from  two  to  five  aspects  or  references,  but  in  a  few  cases  only  one; 
remember  that  in  no  case  does  this  exhaust  the  aspects  from  which  the 
subject  may  be  treated  and  under  which  you  may  class  it.  Entries  under 
geographical  names  lead  only  to  the  area  table;  as  we  have  seen  in  section 
3.353  1,  area  numbers  may  be  added,  either  directly  or  with  standard  sub- 
division 09,  under  any  number  in  the  general  tables. 

Another  form  of  limitation  is  the  use  of  individual  cross  references 
leading  from  one  heading  to  another.  These  may  be  from  synonyms  or 
near-synonyms,  e.g.,  Vegetable-derived  drugs  see  Botanical  drugs,  or 
from  specffic  topics  to  broader  or  related  terms,  e.g.,  Haggai  see  Minor 
prophets,  Sabellianism  see  Heresies,  Water  liUes  see  Ranales.  In  the  third 
example,  the  number  for  the  botany  of  Ranales  is  used  without  further 
subdivision  for  all  its  parts,  including  water  Ulies.  But  the  number  for  the 
minor  prophets  in  the  Old  Testament,  224.9,  is  set  in  boldface,  and  Haggai 
is,  in  fact,  in  224.97,  which  may  be  found  by  surveying  in  the  schedule  the 
subdivisions  of  224.9.  Similarly,  273  for  heresies  in  Christian  church 
history  is  boldface,  and  Sabelhanism  may  be  found,  by  inspection  of  the 

schedule,  to  be  in  273.3. 

Still  another  form  of  Umitation  is  the  deliberate  omission  of  thousands 
of  terms,  obviously  parts  of  broader  concepts,  the  inclusion  of  which 
would  make  the  index  look  more  like  an  unabridged  dictionary.  If  you 
have  a  book  on  how  to  pitch  in  baseball,  you  will  find  no  index  entry  for 
pitching.  It  should  require  Uttle  thought  to  send  you  next  to  Baseball, 
where  you  will  find  a  reference  to  Bat  games.  Under  the  latter  you  will 
find  796.35,  a  single  index  entry  covering  nearly  50  schedule  entries.  With 
the  help  of  the  summary  under  796.35  you  wUl  quickly  find  that  the 
desired  and  precise  number  is  796.357  22.  Similarly,  with  a  handful  of 
exceptions,  the  area  numbers  for  cities  and  towns  can  be  found  only  by 
looking  for  the  countries,  states,  counties  in  which  they  are  located. 

3.63  The  index  is  coordinated  with  the  tables:  it  is  a  guide  to  them  but 
must  not,  in  fact  cannot,  be  used  without  them.  Suppose  your  book  were 
on  the  Old  Testament  book  Hosea  instead  of  Haggai:  you  would  find  the 
same  reference  in  the  index  to  Minor  prophets,  and  would  turn  to  Minor 

3S 


Decimal  Classification 


prophets  224.9.  But  when  you  examine  the  schedule,  you  will  find  that 
Hosea  is  not  even  in  a  subdivision  of  224.9,  but,  as  the  cross  reference 
shows,  has  its  own  number  224.6;  if  you  classified  from  the  index  alone, 
the  number  you  chose  would  be  not  merely  cut  back,  but  actually  wrong. 
As  we  have  already  demonstrated,  you  cannot  find  the  Buddhist  concept 
of  evils  without  consulting  the  tables.  Without  observing  all  the 
instructions,  definitions,  references  in  the  tables  at  the  numbers  to  which 
the  index  has  led  you,  you  can  never  be  sure  that  your  work  is  correct;  in 
fact,  you  must  be  guided  not  only  by  the  information  at  the  exact  number 
and  its  subdivisions  to  which  the  index  has  led  you,  but  also,  in 
accordance  with  the  suggestions  made  in  section  3.31,  you  must  test  that 
number  all  the  way  up  the  hierarchical  ladder.  It  is  obvious  that  you  must 
never  classify  from  the  index  alone. 

If  the  subject  you  want  is  not  found  in  the  index,  look  for  it  under  a 
sjTionym,  under  another  word  of  the  same  root,  under  a  related  term  (for 
example,  if  what  is  wanted  is  not  found  under  "heart,"  try  "cardi-"), 
or  under  a  broader  subject. 

3.64  Index  entries  are  arranged  alphabetically  by  word.  Explanatory 
words  in  parentheses  are  not  considered  in  alphabeting.  When  the  same 
word  appears  in  both  geographic  and  subject  senses,  the  geographic 
comes  first.  Hyphenated  words  are  considered  to  be  single  words. 
Abbreviations  are  filed  as  if  spelled  out;  a  list  of  those  used  precedes  the 
index. 

Most  nouns  are  entered  in  the  plural  form;  the  singular  form  is  more 
often  employed  for  nouns  used  as  adjectives. 

Names  beginning  with  Mc  and  M'  are  arranged  as  if  spelled  Mac. 
Germanic  modified  vowels,  such  as  a,  o,  ii,  are  arranged  as  a,  o,  u. 

Numbers  preceded  by  "5.5.-"  are  to  be  found  in  the  table  of  standard 
subdivisions,  and  may  be  added  to  class  numbers  as  appropriate. 
Numbers  preceded  by  "area-"  are  to  be  found  in  the  area  table,  and  may 
be  added  to  class  numbers  as  appropriate.  Both  these  auxiliary  tables 
appear  in  volume  2  preceding  the  index. 

A  dagger  (t)  preceding  a  number  indicates  that  one  or  more 
topics — not  necessarily  the  topic  named  at  that  entry — have  been 
relocated  to  the  number  from  elsewhere  in  Edition  16.  Details  of 
relocation  appear  only  in  the  tables. 

3.7  General  suggestions  Class  translations,  reviews,  keys,  and  analyses 
of,  indexes  to,  and  other  works  about  a  specific  work  witli  that  work. 

36 


Editors  introduction 


Save  time  by  seeing  if  one  of  the  centralized  classification  services  has 
already  assigned  a  number;  even  if  you  do  not  follow  the  same  edition  of 
DDC  or  the  policies  of  the  central  service,  or  have  made  local  adaptations 
of  your  own,  the  decision  of  experts  will  be  helpful.  Among  the  more 
important  sources  for  DC  numbers  from  the  latest  unabridged  edition  are 
Libraiy  of  Congress  catalog  cards,  the  ALA  Booklist,  Publishers'  Weekly, 
and  American  Book  Publishing  Record;  numbers  from  the  latest  abridged 
edition  appear  on  H.  W.  Wilson  Company  catalog  cards  and  in  Book 
Review  Digest  and  the  various  parts  of  the  Standard  Catalog  Series,  The 
British  National  Bibliography,  altho  it  follows  a  combination  of  the  latest 
and  earlier  unabridged  editions,  with  numerous  special  detailed  subdivi- 
sions (using  letter  notation)  not  officially  authorized  by  the  DDC  editors, 
may  be  found  useful  for  classification  analysis. 

To  promote  consistency  and  future  efficiency,  make  a  record  of  all 
decisions.  This  should  consist  of  a  shelflist  or  record  of  each  book  in 
classffied  order,  and  a  record  of  decisions  on  specffic  problems,  which  may 
be  kept  separately  or  written  in  the  margins  of  the  classification  tables. 


37 


4.  Variations  from  recommended  practice 

4.1  Principle  of  usefulness  Every  library  has  its  own  unique  clientele, 
and,  in  serving  that  clientele's  special  needs,  may  find  it  desirable  to 
modify  specific  printed  provisions  in  ways  other  than  reduction.  An 
important  advantage  of  the  DDC  is  that  its  notation  provides  a  universal 
language  that  can  be  understood  from  one  library  to  another  and  even 
from  one  country  to  another;  for  example,  in  the  primary  school,  the 
metropolitan  public  library,  and  the  university,  in  the  U.S.A.  and  India,  in 
Israel  and  Brazil,  623  always  means  military  and  naval  engineering.  This 
advantage,  however,  should  not  be  permitted  to  outweigh  a  real  and 
permanent  local  need.  By  "real"  we  mean  that  each  variation  should  have 
a  demonstrable  reason  that  can  be  recorded  and  defended.  By  "perma- 
nent" we  mean  that  a  specific  need  of  a  temporary  or  short-term  natiwe 
may  be  met  by  special  displays  and  rearrangements;  it  should  not  be  met 
by  adjustment  of  class  numbers. 

Record  in  the  schedules  every  decision  for  variation.  As  with  reduction 
(section  3.5 ),  do  not  try  to  record  decisions  of  this  nature  in  the  index. 

4.2  Officially  recognized  variations  A  number  of  important  variations 
appear  in  the  printed  tables.  They  are  officially  recognized  and  recom- 
mended for  use  by  libraries  whose  needs  they  will  serve,  but  are  not 
reflected  in  the  practices  of  the  Decimal  Classification  Office  as  printed 
on  Library  of  Congress  catalog  cards, 

4.21  OPTIONS  Certain  topics  are  given  two  specific  placements.  One 
placement  is  considered  to  be  preferred  by  the  editors,  and  at  it,  in  each 
case,  appear^  a  note,  "If  preferred  [i.e.,  if  you  prefer],  class  [this  subject 
at  another  location]";  the  other  placement  is  considered  by  the  editors  to 
be  optional,  and  at  it,  in  each  case,  appears  a  note,  "(Optional;  prefer  [the 
location  preferred  by  the  editors])."  There  are  54  such  options,  and 
several  examples  follow. 

Most  public  libraries  prefer  to  have  their  belles-lettres  in  each  language 
divided  by  form,  and  this  is  the  traditional  DC  arrangement,  e.g.,  820 
English  literature,  821  Poetry,  822  Drama,  823  Fiction,  824  Essays.  This 
procedure  separates  the  poetry  of,  say,  Matthew  Arnold  from  his  prose. 
However,  most  college  and  university  libraries  prefer  to  have  all  works  of 
a  given  author  together,  and  all  authors  writing  in  each  language  arranged 
either  in  one  alphabetical  sequence  or  in  a  temporal  sequence.  Conse- 
quently, under  centered  heading  821-828  Specffic  forms,  you  will  find  a 

38 


Editors  introduction 


note,  "If  preferred,  class  .  .  .  single  authors  regardless  of  form  in  828 
with  or  without  period  subdivision,"  and  under  828,  "(Optional:  class 
here  with  or  without  period  subdivision  .  .  .  single  authors  regardless  of 
form;  prefer  821-828)."  If  a  library  wants  its  authors  arranged  in  this  way, 
it  may  still  choose  to  separate  literary  forms  under  a  given  author  by  use 
of  appropriate  book  numbers,  e.g.,  Victor  Hugo  848.7  H9,  Hugo's  poetry 
848.7  H901,  his  drama  848.7  H902,  his  fiction  848.7  H903. 

Traditionally,  DC  has  placed  the  various  branches  of  geography  under 
the  specific  topics  that  are  areally  considered,  e.g.,  economic  geography 
330.9,  phytogeography  581.9,  medical  geography  614.42.  However,  with 
a  growing  academic  and  research  interest  in  geography,  numerous  li- 
braries have  in  recent  years  come  to  prefer  an  arrangement  that  brings 
all  geography  together.  This  is  supplied  optionally  at  910.1  Topical  geog- 
raphy, which  is  divided  by  subject,  e.g.,  economic  geography  910.133, 
phytogeography  910.158,  medical  geography  910.161  4. 

Treatment  of  biography  varies  greatly  from  one  librar)'  to  another. 
Many  academic  libraries  prefer  it  arranged  with  pertinent  subjects,  e.g., 
biography  of  engineers  with  engineering,  of  statesmen  with  general 
history,  of  artists  with  art.  Most  popular  libraries  prefer  all  or  most 
biography  together,  either  subarranged  by  subject  or  (for  individual 
biography)  in  one  alphabet  by  biographee.  Accordingly,  while  standard 
subdivision  092  with  each  subject  is  the  editors'  preferred  treatment  of 
biography,  there  appears  a  note  under  092,  "If  preferred,  class  biography 
in  920.1-928.9,"  and  under  092  4  Individual,  "If  preferred,  class  in  92  or 
B,"  the  latter  being  traditional  notations  used  widely  for  individual 
biography  in  one  alphabetical  span. 

General  geography  of  specific  continents,  countries,  localities  is  placed 
by  editors'  preference  in  913-919,  but,  optionally,  may  be  placed  in 
930-990  with  general  history  of  these  areas. 

The  deuterocanonical  books  of  the  Bible  fall  by  editors'  preference  in 
229  as  apocrypha,  but,  optionally,  may  fall  in  222-224  in  the  sequence 
provided  for  them  by  the  Douay  Bible. 

4.22  OPTIONAL  ALPHABETICAL  ARRANGEMENT  In  a  rela- 
tively few  places,  e.g.,  at  598.8  and  at  area  table  74-79,  where  a  subject 
has  many  coordinate  subdivisions  with  accepted  names,  the  option  is 
provided  of  alphabetical  instead  of  systematic  arrangement.  It  is  assumed 
that  alphabeting  will  be  effected  by  use  of  the  Cutter  or  Cutter- 
Sanbom  alphabetic-order  tables,  or  the  Library  of  Congress  author 
numbers. 

39 


Decimal  Classification 


4.23  ARTIFICIAL  DIGITS  The  decimal  notation  being  limited  to 
nine  significant  digits,  Melvil  Dewey  usually  assigned  1-8  to  those  places, 
races,  languages,  cultures,  that  were  most  significant  to  American  librar- 
ies of  1876,  grouping  others  as  "minor"  in  9.  As  a  result,  we  now  find 
places,  races,  languages,  cultures  on  which  there  is  considerable  Uterature 
assigned  notations  that  are  very  long,  e.g.,  English  language  42  but  Urdu 
language  491.439,  Christian  doctrine  23  but  Hindu  doctrine  294.52. 
Consequently,  libraries  serving  eastern  and  other  cultures  are  likely  to  find 
their  owti  literature  near  the  end  of  long  sequences  and  denoted  by  long 
numbers.  To  correct  this  situation,  the  tables  frequently  suggest  as  an 
option  that  a  letter  or  other  symbol  be  used  as  an  artificial  digit  to  bring 
into  prominence  any  desired  lingual,  ethnic,  or  cultural  approach.  For 
example,  a  note  at  080  provides  that  general  Urdu  anthologies  may  be 
placed  in  08U  (or  08*  or  08t ),  instead  of  089.914  39,  and  shelved  before 
081;  a  note  at  292-299  provides  that  Hinduism  may  be  placed  in  2H0  (or 
2*0  or  2t0),  instead  of  294.5,  and  shelved  before  220,  or,  as  another 
option,  29H  may  be  used  preceding  292. 

4.3  Unofficial  variations  Other  variations  may  prove  to  be  useful  in 
specific  situations  even  tho  not  recognized  in  the  tables. 

4.31  ATTRACTION  Because  of  special  local  interest  or  special 
collections  of  books,  it  may  on  occasion  be  desirable  to  class  a  given 
subject  in  the  wrong  discipline,  e.g.,  all  works  on  Jews,  not  just  their 
religion,  in  296,  all  works  on  automobiles,  not  just  their  engineering,  in 
629.2. 

An  extension  of  this  practice  is  the  complete  reversal  of  DC  order.  For 
example,  a  library  devoted  to  travel  and  area  study  might  make  an 
administrative  decision  to  arrange  its  collections  by  place;  if  so,  it  could 
use  the  area  notations  for  the  basic  classes,  and  divide  each  after  0  by 
subject.  Then  everything  on  Japan  would  be  placed  in  class  52:  religion  in 
520  2,  economic  situation  in  520  33,  art  in  520  7.  In  such  a  system  works 
not  areally  specified  could  be  placed  in  notation  0  followed  by  the  regular 
DC  notation,  e.g.,  economic  conditions  of  the  whole  world  033.  Needless 
to  say,  this  kind  of  use  of  DC,  while  thoroly  practical,  would  also  be 
purely  local. 

4.32  EXPANSION  The  demands  of  an  extraordinarily  large  collection 
in  a  given  subject  may  appear  to  dictate  the  development  of  a  home- 
made expansion.  This  is  strongly  discouraged.  An  institution  needing  an 
expansion  should  consult  with  the  Decimal  Classification  Office,  which,  if 
the  need  appears  to  have  general  support,  will  undertake  to  prepare  it.  If 

40 


Editors  introduction 


an  expansion  is  not  immediately  available,  the  broad  classification  should 
be  made  to  serve  until  the  official  expansion  is  ready.  A  good  expansion 
takes  a  great  amount  of  time  for  study,  research,  interviewing,  and 
correspondence,  and  necessitates  a  broad  and  dispassionate  overall 
approach.  Such  a  project  is  generally  of  too  great  magnitude  for  the 
majority  of  librarians  with  their  full  quota  of  other  duties.  The  librarian 
going  ^ead  on  his  own  to  make  changes  or  expansions  should  remember 
that,  once  a  change  is  made,  whether  good  or  bad,  the  library,  because  of 
the  expense  of  reclassifying,  is  likely  to  have  to  live  with  it  indefinitely, 
unable  to  make  use  of  official  expansions  and  improvements  in  subsequent 
editions.  This  warning  applies  also  to  the  unauthorized  synthesis  of 
notation,  including  successive  division  by  more  than  one  principle.  For 
example,  there  are  excellent  if  not  always  immediately  obvious  reasons 
why,  altho  most  subdivisions  of  633-635  are  divided  like  631.5  and  632 
(as  authorized  under  633-635),  some  are  not.  It  is  best,  if  local  additions 
must  be  made  and  cannot  await  editorial  action,  that  letters  or  other 

artfficial  digits  be  used. 

4.33  ALPHABETICAL  ARRANGEMENT  As  an  alternative  to  sys- 
tematic  arrangement,  or  as  a  means  for  home-made  expansion,  alpha- 
betical arrangement  (using  the  Cutter,  Cutter-Sanborn,  or  Library  of 
Congress  tables)  may  serve  specific  local  purposes.  It  is  most  useful  when 
there  is  a  very  large  number  of  specifics.  When  names  of  specifics  are  not 
precise  and  generally  accepted,  it  should  be  used  with  great  caution  lest 
the  same  concept  turn  up  under  two  or  more  terms,  e.g.,  the  use  of  names 
of  specific  occupations  under  various  subdivisions  of  331  might  call 
welders  metalworkers  and  shoemakers  cobblers. 

Sometimes  the  editors  are  asked  why  a  given  subject  should  not  be 
given  alphabetical  geographical  arrangement,  e.g.,  by  U.S.  states  alpha- 
betically instead  of  by  notation  74-79  and  969.  It  is  true  that  the  sequence 
Alabama,  Alaska,  Arizona,  Arkansas,  California  .  -.  .  Wyoming  is  quite 
familiar  and  easy  to  understand.  It  is  true  also  that  under  many  subjects, 
e.g.,  statistics,  such  an  arrangement  is  entirely  satisfactory.  But  under 
others,  e.g.,  fauna  and  flora,  it  is  more  satisfactory  to  find  Virginia  and 
West  Virginia  side  by  side  rather  than  separated  by  Washington  state. 
And  a  separate  arrangement  for  cities,  distinct  from  that  for  states,  will 
bring  close  together  treatment  of  churches  (or  any  other  subject  you 
choose)  in  Baltimore  and  Boston,  but  only  separate  churches  in  Boston 
from  those  in  Quincy,  Newton,  and  Lynn.  On  the  whole,  it  is  best  to  follow 
the  area  table. 

4^ 


Decimal  Classification 


4.34  RELOCATIONS  Libraries  that  have  followed  the  recommenda- 
tions of  earlier  editions  may  find  it  inconvenient  to  adopt  the  relocations  in 
the  present  edition.  A  full  review  of  the  need  for  facing  up  to  necessary 
relocations,  and  taking  advantage  of  or  compromising  with  them,  follows 
in  section  5.13.  If  you  find  that  you  must  ignore  any  or  all  relocations,  you 
will  do  so  in  full  awareness  that  you  may  be  blocking  yourself  from  taking 
advantage  of  future  editorial  improvements. 

4.35  STANDARD  SUBDIVISIONS  Some  libraries  will  prefer  to  keep 
their  employment  of  standard  subdivisions  regular,  always  using  regular 
notations  instead  of  the  irregular  notations  described  in  section  3.37.  This 
is  not  likely  to  create  future  difiiculty,  and  may  be  effected  by  canceling 
the  special  instructions  to  use  irregular  notation  under  specific  subjects. 

4.36  DROPPING  DIGITS  As  described  in  section  5.2,  some  notations 
are  inconveniently  long,  and  may  be  replaced  in  part  by  letters.  In  some 
situations  you  may  even  be  willing  to  forego  the  use  of  certain  subdivi- 
sions in  order  to  employ  the  notations  oflBcially  assigned  to  them  for  other 
more  frequently  used  concepts  for  which  the  official  notation  is  longer. 
For  example,  in  main  class  8  the  notations  for  general  period  divisions 
under  given  literatures  are  very  long,  e.g..  United  States  literature 
810.900  1-.900  5,  Armenian  literature  891.992  090  01 -.992  090  05.  The 
schedules  provide  810.900  1+  and  similar  numbers  for  periods  because 
810.91-.99  have  other,  tho  perhaps  less  frequently  used,  meanings,  and 
810.901-905  cannot  be  used  because  this  would  conflict  with  the 
provision  in  earher  editions  of  810.903-.904  based  on  standard  subdivi- 
sions 090  1-090  4.  (See  section  5.134  on  reuse  of  numbers. )  However,  any 
library  that  has  not  previously  used  810.903-.904  may  drop  one  of  the 
zeroes  and  class  periods  of  U.S.  literature  in  810.901-905;  and  any  library 
that  is  sure  it  will  never  have  occasion  to  use  the  authorized  meanings  of 
810.91-99  may  drop  both  zeroes  and  class  periods  of  U.S.  literature  in 
810.91-95.  Such  decisions  should  be  made  with  great  caution. 


42 


5.  Features  of  Edition  17 

This  part  of  the  introduction  is  directed  primarily  to  librarians  and 
teachers  who  are  well  acquainted  with  the  Dewey  Decimal  system  and  its 
earlier  editions,  but  it  should  not  be  ignored  by  the  student  or  new 
practitioner.  It  points  out  the  special  features  of  the  present  edition. 

5.1  Subject  integrity  Other  features  of  Edition  17,  some  of  them 
described  below,  show  up  more  obviously  as  new  departures  from 
preceding  editions,  but  none  is  as  fundamental  as  the  new  or  renewed 
emphasis  on  subject  integrity  and  subject  relationships,  on  the  fundamen- 
tal  process    of    classification   as    distinct   from   what   has    been    called 

"slot-ification." 

Encouraged  by  Melvil  Dewey's  notable  preference  for  practicality  over 
theory  in  all  activities,  misled  by  the  common  American  view  of 
classification  as  little  more  than  a  system  for  assigning  each  book  a 
convenient  address  or  "slot"  at  which  it  can  be  stored  and  from  which  it 
can  be  retrieved,  influenst  by  the  failure  of  earlier  editions  of  the  DDC  to 
provide  under  every  discipline  an  expansion  as  full  as  was  warranted  by 
the  literature  acquired  by  libraries,  classifiers  of  the  past  many  times 
unwittingly  abandoned  the  most  fundamental  feature  of  the  system  (and 
of  all  other  major  systems  except  Brown  s  Subject  Classification),  that  of 
arrangement  of  subjects  by  discipline,  and  tended  more  and  more  to 
"classify  by  attraction"  new  topics  and  topics  not  specifically  provided  for 
by  name.  For  example,  works  on  sociology  of  the  Jews  were  at  one 
time  placed  in  296  instead  of  301,  works  on  cultural  anthropology  in  572 
as  well  as  390,  works  on  public  administration  in  342  as  well  as  350.  These 
practices,  in  turn,  crept  gradually  into  the  printed  tables,  reaching  a 
climax  in  Edition  16,  which  gave  its  seal  of  approval  to  scores  of  such 
"attractions,"  thus  affirming  or  reaffirming  in  print  incompatibilities  like 
the  art  of  flower  arrangement  appearing  as  a  subdivision  of  635.9 
Floriculture  (which,  by  successive  steps,  is  a  subdivision  of  technology), 
conservation  of  wildUfe  appearing  as  a  subdivision  of  790  Recreation, 
choice  of  vocation  appearing  as  a  subdivision  of  370  Education,  the 
religious  life  appearing  as  a  subdivision  of  270  Christian  church  history, 
internal  migration  of  peoples  appearing  as  a  subdivision  of  320  Political 

science. 

The  editors  and  the  members  of  the  Decimal  Classification  Editorial 
Policy  Committee,  perceiving  that  the  ultimate  consequence  of  such 

43 


Decimal  Classification 


yielding  to  "attraction"  would  be  complete  chaos,  wherein  no  "classifier" 
would  know  in  what  "slot"  to  place  a  book  on  a  new  or  old  subject  not 
specifically  named  in  the  tables  or  index,  determined  for  Edition  17  to 
return  to  a  policy  of  integrity  of  subjects. 

5.11  STRUCTURE    This  edition  emphasizes  the  hierarchical  nature  of 
true    classification    and   restores    the   hierarchical   feature    of    Dewey's 
notation.  To  this  end,  the  editorial  rules  for  this  edition  specify:  ( 1 )  that 
each  heading,  definition,  scope  note,  instruction,  cross  reference  should 
consist  of  words  or  phrases  so  inclusive  that  they  will  cover  or  govern  all 
the  subordinate  topics;  (2)  that  inclusion  notes  should  be  Umited  to  topics 
subordinate  to  the  heading  on  which  there  is  as  yet  insuflScient  Uterature 
to  justify  separate  provision,  that  they  should  not  contain  large  haphazard 
groupings  of  terms,  and  that  they  should  not  name  concepts  obviously 
part  of  the  broader  concept  named  in  the  heading;   (3)   that  inverse 
subordination  should  be  eliminated;  (4)  that  cross  references  should  be 
made  only  to  direct  the  classifier  from  a  subject  as  stated  or  implied  in  a 
heading  to  component  parts  of  that  subject  in  areas  other  than  the  number 
referred  from  or  its  direct  subdivisions,  and  not  to  remotely  related  or 
unrelated  areas  (even  if  the  terminology  is  similar)  or  to  the  same  subject 
in  another  discipline,  and  not  from  a  main  heading  or  from  a  standard  (or 
other  0)  subdivision  therof  to  one  of  its  subdivisions  or  vice  versa;  and 
(5)    that  indention   should  be  made   "regular,"   i.e.,   that,   so   far   as 
reasonably  possible,  notation  should  be  made  hierarchically  expressive,  by 
(a)    leading  from    comprehensive   concepts   to   subordinate   topics   in 
coordinate  numbers  by  notes  and  references  (as  at  596-599  and  881-884), 
and   (b)   broadening  main  headings  to  cover  all  coordinate  concepts 
falling  in  subdivisions  of  the  appropriate  numbers,  and  using  centered 
headings  to  indicate  the  distribution  of  parts  ( as  at  797 ) . 

Centered  headings  and  summaries  within  the  tables  are  used  vidth  great 
frequency  to  make  subject  structure  and  relationships  clear:  there  are 
11 22  of  the  former  and  240  of  the  latter. 

This  edition  emphasizes  the  traditional  DC  principle  of  development 
from  the  general  to  the  specific.  For  example.  Edition  16  under  371 
advised,  thru  a  cross  reference,  that  the  topics  in  371  when  apphed  to  a 
specific  level  of  education  were  to  be  placed  with  education  at  that  level, 
but  contradicted  itself  by  dividing  371.21,  371.732,  371.85  by  levels,  and 
by  failing  to  supply  appropriate  means  for  topical  division  under  each 
level;  this  edition  clearly  provides  for  all  these  topics  treated  generally  in 
371,  and  treated  by  level  vidth  each  level.  Also,  Edition  16*  under  351 
advised  that  administration  of  specific  central  governments  was  to  be 


Editors  introduction 


placed  in  353-354,  but  failed  to  provide  at  those  places  for  the  many 
specific  topics  enumerated  under  351,  and  contrariwise,  under  353.09, 
advised  that  those  topics  even  when  applied  to  the  United  States  should 
go  in  351  after  all;  this  edition  clearly  and  fully  implements  the 
distribution  by  country  in  353-354  of  all  topics  of  central  government 

administration. 

5.12  DIVISION  BY  MORE  THAN  ONE  PRINCIPLE  Division  of  a 
given  subject  in  DC  by  more  than  one  principle,  or  characteristic,  is  as 
old  as  the  first  edition,  wherein  the  language  class  was  divided  both  by 
individual  languages  (420-490)  and  by  problems  (411-418),  and  each 
language  by  problems  (e.g.,  421-428).  The  same  was  true  of  the  literature 
class.  Only  the  word  "facet"  is  of  recent  origin;  Dewey  understood  the 
concept.  It  is  true  that  editions  prior  to  the  present  one  did  not  always 
recognize  and  make  provision  for  division  by  more  than  one  principle, 
even  when  the  literature  would  seem  to  have  warranted  it;  and  when  they 
did  make  such  provision,  they  did  not  always  clearly  differentiate  among 

the  various  principles. 

To  clarify  these  issues  and  further  to  emphasize  subject  integrity,  this 
edition  makes  many  new  provisions  for  division  by  more  than  one 
principle,  as  at  599.01-599.09;  and  it  specifies  clearly  which  of  two 
principles  of  division  is  to  be  followed  first,  either  by  cross  references  or 
instruction  notes,  as  at  331.18  and  631-632,  or  by  tables  of  precedence,  as 
at  331.3-331.6  and  641.5,  or  by  directing  generally  that  subdivisions  in 
notations  1-9  take  precedence  over  those  in  01-09,  those  in  01-09  over 
those  in  001-009,  and  so  on.  New  provision  for  division  by  a  principle  not 
previously  recognized  is  usually  effected  by  using  01-09  and  shifting  the 
standard  subdivisions  to  001-009.  Edition  17  also  provides  many  new 
opportunities  for  synthesis  of  notation,  so  as  to  permit  division  by  two  or 
more  principles  in  sequence,  as  at  the  majority  of  the  subdivisions  under 

633-635. 

5.13  RELOCATION  Renewed  attention  to  the  integrity  of  subject 
relationships  has  not  been  achieved  without  numerous  relocations.  It  is 
assumed  that  libraries  can  cope  without  undue  difficulty  with  any  number 
of  reductions,  e.g.,  of  mowing,  stacking,  reaping  crops  from  631.552, 
631.553,  and  631.554  respectively  to  631.55,  and  of  expansions,  e.g.,  of 
specific  systems  of  irrigation  farming  from  631.587  to  631.587  2-631.587.5; 
if  this  assumption  is  false,  we  might  as  well  still  be  using  the  DC  of  1876 
and  classing  steam  locomotives,  radar,  rocket  engines,  chain  hoists,  and 
thermonuclear  power  plants  all  in  621  without  further  specification.  On 
the  other  hand,  such  shifts  as  that  of  the  cost  of  irrigation  water  from 

45 


Decimal  Classification 


63175  (under  applied  sciences)  to  a  subdivision  of  338.2  (under 
economics),  or  that  of  astronautics  from  629.138  8  to  629.4,  raise  the 
question  of  the  degree  to  which  the  DC  should  adopt  relocations  and  to 
which  libraries  can  conveniently  live  with  them;  this  has  been  a  topic  of 
long  and  sometimes  vigorous  debate. 

5.131  In  the  making  and  editing  of  any  enumerative  classification,  two 
basic  principles  are  constantly  in  conflict.  One  is  the  DC  traditional  policy 
of  integrity  of  numbers,  which  enables  its  users  to  depend  on  each  new 
edition  to  include  few  or  no  relocations  of  topics  but  to  include  expansions 
that  are  based  on  the  tables  in  earlier  editions,  thereby  achieving 
continuity  and  avoiding  the  cost  of  reclassification.  The  other  principle  is 
the  philosophy  of  keeping  pace  with  knowledge,  which  holds  that  any 
classification  scheme,  to  retain  its  usefubess  must,  from  time  to  time, 
restate  or  redefine  and  regroup  or  rearrange  subjects  according  to  the 
changed  concepts  of  a  new  generation.  The  first  principle,  strongly  urged 
by  Melvil  Dewey,  governed  largely  the  editorial  policy  of  the  first  14 
editions  (tho  there  were  more  changes  than  most  librarians  realize);  the 
second  principle  governed  largely  the  editorial  policy  of  Edition  15, 
resulting  in  1015  relocations  from  its  immediate  predecessor.  Edition  16, 
somewhat  more  conservative  than  15,  restored  528  of  these  back  to  the 
locations  provided  in  Edition  14;  on  the  other  hand,  it  reajffirmed  487,  and 
initiated  498  new  ones  of  its  own  from  Edition  14  as  well  as  90  from 
Edition  15.  Unfortunately,  as  we  have  seen  in  section  5.1,  Edition  16  also 
affirmed  for  the  first  time  various  practices  that  had  grown  up  contrary  to 
the  consistent  development  of  subjects  by  discipline. 

5.132  Numerous  factors  now  lead  the  editors  and  the  members  of  the 
Decimal  Classification  Editorial  PoHcy  Committee  to  the  conclusion  that  a 
reasonable  amount  of  continuing  change  thru  relocation  is  not  only 
desirable  but  inevitable. 

5.132  1  First,  in  a  world  where  knowledge  is  growing  and  changing  at 
a  rate  increasing  by  geometric  progression,  where  as  a  result  demands  on 
libraries  and  information  services  become  increasingly  pressing  and 
exacting,  it  is  easy  enough  to  see  that  a  static  and  inflexible,  "leave- 
well-enough-alone,"  system  for  the  subject  organization  of  book  collec- 
tions will  in  a  short  time  lose  most  and  eventually  virtually  all  its  utility, 
except  perhaps  as  a  vestigial  system  of  addresses  or  "slots,"  in  which  case 
arrangement  of  books  by  author  or  size  would  com.mend  itself  as  equally  if 
not  more  satisfactory. 

5.132  2  Second,  classifiers  following  a  system  that  lacks  the  subject 
integrity  and  consistency  of  which  relocation  is  an  unavoidable  concomi- 

46 


Editors  introduction 


tant  cannot  properly  class  titles  on  new  or  old  subjects  not  specifically 
named  in  the  tables  or  index,  lest  an  arbitrary  editor  later  prove  their 
guesses  to  be  wrong.  In  the  past,  the  editors  have  been  recipients  of  a 
constant  flood  of  inquiries  where  to  class  specific  topics.  With  proper  and 
consistent  development,  the  classification  automatically  becomes  hospi- 
table to  any  topic  whatever;  classifiers  need  only  identify  the  proper 
discipline,  subdiscipline,  and  so  on  down  to  the  most  specific  place 
available,  there  class  the  book  in  hand,  and  confidently  await  a  future 
expansion  that  will  provide  a  more  specific  number  (if  the  amount  of 
literature  warrants  it)  but  not  a  different  number.  By  including  a 
considerable  amount  of  relocation  in  Edition  17  today,  the  editors 
anticipate  better  and  more  consistent  classification  tomorrow. 

5.132  3  Third,  while  the  older  and  larger  libraries  using  DDC  have  a 
vested  interest  in  its  stability,  it  is  not  reasonable  that  this  interest  give 
them  the  right  or  power  to  veto  the  benefits  of  modernity  to  the 
ever-growing  number  of  new  libraries  at  home  and  abroad. 

5.132  4    Fourth,  it  appears  that  a  major  deterrent  in  libraries  to  the 
acceptance  of  a  relocation,  or  of  the  principle  of  relocation,  is  the  feeling 
of  responsibility  to  reclassify  older  books:  the  compulsion  for  consistency 
within  the  collection.  However,  the  continuing  phenomenal  increase  in 
the  size  of  libraries  makes  it  progressively  less  feasible  for  students  and 
readers  to  browse  comprehensively,  even  if  all  the  books  in  the  collection 
were  present  and  available.  Selection  from  the  shelves  becomes  more  and 
more  a  matter  of  accident.  Leaving  the  catalog,  manual  or  electronic,  to 
serve  its  proper  function  of  making  total  resources  available,  the  librarian 
will  surely  be  making  a  better  and  more  effective  use  of  his  shelf  collection 
a  he  abandons  outmoded  concepts  in  arrangement  and  permits  the 
classification  to  reveal  a  profile  of  scholarship  in  a  given  era.  Melvil 
Dewey's  Yankee  ingenuity  would  be  outraged  by  the  thought  that 
librarians  were  unable  to  devise  ways  by  which  an  outmoded  past  could 
be  prevented  from  tyrannizing  over  the  future.  We  ourselves  have  great 
faith  in  the  adaptability  of  librarians  and  in  their  abihty  to  devise 

techniques  by  which  to  "cope." 

5.132  5  Fifth,  even  phenomenal  growth  has  its  present-day  reaction 
in  the  burgeoning  programs  in  college,  university  and  research  libraries 
to  withdraw  or  retire  into  closed-shelf  storage  obsolescent  and  little-used 
books;  popular  and  school  libraries  have  always  kept  their  collections 
live  and  active.  This  trend  obviously  reduces  the  pressure  to  reclassify 

for  consistency's  sake. 

5.132  6    Sixth,  virtually  every  library  using  DDC  deviates  to  a  greater 

47 


Decimal  Classification 


or  lesser  degree,  for  real  or  fancied  local  advantage,  from  even  those 
printed  schedules  that  have  been  unchanged  for  generations;  in  doing  so, 
it  annotates  its  schedules  and  ignores  the  recommendations  of  the  various 
central  classification  services.  Under  the  circumstances,  it  is  at  the  least 
inconsistent  to  resist  printed  relocations  on  the  grounds  that  these 
relocations  will  force  libraries  unable  to  accept  them  to  annotate  their 
schedules  and  forego  the  benefits  of  central  classification. 

5.133  For  all  these  reasons,  the  editorial  rules  for  this  edition  specify: 
( 1 )  that,  if  headings  cannot  be  broadened  or  limited  to  tolerate  the 
location  of  a  specific  topic,  and  if  cross  references  cannot  be  used  to 
reconcile  its  location,  then  it  should  be  relocated  to  a  more  hospitable 
position;  (2)  that,  if  the  location  of  a  topic  in  Edition  16  makes  it 
impossible  to  provide  for  the  hterature,  it  should  be  relocated;  (3)  that  a 
topic  should  be  relocated  to  eliminate  dual  provision,  provided  it  really  is 
dual  provision  and  not  another  aspect  of  the  same  subject;  and  (4)  that,  if 
the  known  amount  of  material  to  be  reclassified  is  of  insignificant  extent,  a 
topic  should  be  relocated  to  secure  proper  relationships  and  sequences, 
and  uniformity  in  development.  As  a  result  of  the  application  of  these 
rules,  the  general  tables  of  this  edition  contain  746  relocations  of  topics 
from  the  places  provided  for  them  in  Edition  16.  378  are  total,  that  is,  they 
vacate  an  entire  number  and  discontinue  an  entry;  368  are  partial,  that  is, 
while  some  concepts  in  a  number  have  been  removed,  others  remain  and 
keep  the  number  in  force  as  an  entry.  This  compares  with  1603  relocations 
in  Edition  16  from  provisions  of  Editions  14  and  15;  of  these  832  were 
total  and  771  were  partial.  The  number  of  relocations  in  each  main  class  in 
both  Editions  16  and  17  is  as  follows: 


Class 

Edition  16 

Edition  17 

0 

29 

39 

1 

61 

11 

2 

38 

55 

3 

286 

189 

4 

31 

36 

5 

361 

72 

6 

489 

200 

7 

199 

86 

8 

18 

9 

9 

91 

49 

Total 

1,603 
48 

746 

Editors  introduction 


Even  the  the  total  number  of  relo 'ations  in  this  edition  is  less  than  half 
the  number  in  Edition  16,  the  average  effect  of  each  is  probably  greater; 
some  of  these  relocations  are  of  topics  on  which  there  is  a  great  deal  of 

literature 

5.134    A  special  kind  of  relocation  is  the  reuse  with  a  new  meaning  of  a 

notation  devoted  in  an  earlier  edition— not  necessarily  the  16th— to  a 

different  meaning.  This  violation  of  what  may  most  truly  be  called  the 

"integrity  of  numbers"  is  potentially  very  disrupting,  since  it  permits  a 

given  notation  to  have  two  different  interpretations;  it  is  as  if  the  word 

"horse"  yesterday  meant  an  equine  animal  but  today  means  a  bovine  one. 

Consequently  the  reuse  of  a  given  number  is  surrounded  by  safeguards: 

( 1 )  it  must  have  been  vacated  and  stood  empty  for  at  least  25  years,  i.e., 

at  the  present  time  since  Edition  13;  (2)  otherwise  it  must  be  speciHcally 

approved  by  the  DC  Editorial  Policy  Committee,  which  is  incUned  to 

grant  permission  only  when  two  conditions  are  met,  that  the  number's 

previous  use  has  been  slight  and  can  be  adequately  met  elsewhere,  and 

that  the  proposed  reuse  is  imperative  to  provide  for  the  literature  and  no 

other  satisfactory  provision  is  possible.  In  this  edition  ten  numbers  have 

been  reused  in  this  way.  These  numbers  are  set  in  itahcs,  and  they  are 

321.9,  363,  372.1,  373.11,  551.6,  576.1,  576.2,  576.4,  standard  subdivision 

017,  area  notation  549. 

5.135  Reuse  of  number  on  a  rather  broader  scale  appears  in  the 
"preferred"  or  completely  remodeled  schedule;  such  a  schedule  is 
approved  by  the  Committee  only  when  the  provisions  of  earlier  editions 
are  entirely  inadequate  for  classification  of  modem  concepts,  as  was  the 
case  when  a  remodeled  schedule  54^547  for  inorganic  and  organic 
chemistry  was  approved  for  Edition  16.  In  Edition  17  a  similar  schedule  is 
150  Psychology,  which  reuses  65  numbers,  and  relocates  27  topics.  Two 
others  have  been  authorized  for  future  development  and  distribution:  340 
Law  and  510  Mathematics.  Each  completely  remodeled  schedule  is  built 
on  the  same  base  number  as  the  schedule  it  supersedes,  but  any  other 
resemblance  is  Hkely  to  be  incidental.  Even  so,  new  150  is  not  as  changed 
from  former  150  as  might  have  been  feared,  and  all  changes  are  shown  in 

the  schedule  itself. 

5.136  Relocations  in  geographical  or  area  concepts  and  in  standard 
subdivisions  constitute  an  even  greater  problem  than  ordinary  relocations 
because  they  have  such  wide  repercussions.  Every  heading  in  the  entire 
classification  may  be  subdivided  geographically  and  may  have  standard 

49 


Decimal  Classification 


subdivisions  applied  to  it.  For  this  reason  Edition  15,  for  all  its  devotion  to 
the  "new  look,"  made  no  relocations  in  these  schedules,  and  Edition  16 
made  only  a  few  insignificant  ones.  In  geography,  it  said  explicitly 
(p.  15):  "The  editors  have  decided  to  follow  the  principle  that  position 
on  the  map  rather  than  political  ties  should  determine  classification,  so 
far  as  'editors*  preference*  goes,  but  still  to  permit  alternative  arrange- 
ments for  those  libraries  which  require  them." 

5.136  1  For  the  present  edition,  the  enlarged  emphasis  on  provisions  to 
meet  non-United  States  requirements  (considered  at  more  length  in 
section  5.4),  the  greater  liberality  generally  in  relocating  topics,  and  the 
recognition  that,  in  a  century  of  wars,  growing  nationalism,  and  a 
constantly  shifting  political  situation,  failure  to  recognize  changes  would 
doom  the  DDC  to  moribundity,  all  have  led  to  a  moderate  amount  of  area 
relocation.  In  no  case,  be  it  noted,  is  subject  integrity  compromised: 
Hawaii  is  not  part  of  North  America,  and,  instead  of  being  relocated  to  a 
heading  under  United  States,  is  gathered  in  only  by  a  cross  reference.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  Bomean  part  of  Malaysia,  the  European  part  of 
Turkey.  On  the  other  hand,  Pakistan  is  not  a  subdivision  of  present- 
day  India,  and  it  is  absurd,  to  say  the  least,  that  its  whole  and  its  parts 
should  be  placed  in  several  nonconsecutive  numbers,  all  of  which  are  both 
preceded  and  followed  by  numbers  for  parts  of  India;  the  whole  and  the 
parts  are,  therefore,  relocated  and  brought  together  in  a  sequence 
following  the  whole  sequence  for  India.  But  both  are  still  subdivisions  of 
the  broader  concept  of  South  Asia.  There  are  89  relocations  in  the  area 
table,  71  total  and  18  partial. 

It  should  be  pointed  out  that  relocations  of  area  concepts  are  intended 
to  cover  books  that  deal  with  subjects  in  the  period  before  as  well  as  the 
period  after  a  given  political  change,  e.g.,  both  before  and  after  the 
partition  of  India  and  Pakistan  in  1947.  This  means  that  a  work  on  East 
Bengal  ( or  Dacca )  and  one  on  West  Bengal  ( or  Calcutta )  fall  in  widely 
separated  numbers  whether  dated  1925  or  1965.  Some  librarians  will  not 
approve  of  this.  They  will  say  that  scientific  and  technical  subjects  do  not 
change  because  of  politics,  and  that  the  botany  of  East  Bengal  in  both 
1925  and  1965  is  more  nearly  like  that  of  West  Bengal  than  it  is  like  that 
of  Sind.  And  they  will  say  that,  while  social  science  subjects  do  diange 
with  politics,  they  do  not  do  so  retroactively,  that  education  and  social 
conditions  in  East  Bengal  were  in  1925  more  hke  those  in  West  Bengal 
than  those  in  Sind,  but  in  1965  tend  to  be  more  like  those  in  Sind  than 


50 


Editors  introduction 


those  in  West  Bengal.  These  librarians  may,  of  course,  feel  free  to  relocate 
to  the  extent  dictated  by  their  own  needs:  (1)  no  relocation;  (2) 
relocation  only  of  publications  that  deal  with  the  period  following  the 
political  change;  (3)  relocation  only  of  social  science  subjects;  (4)  a 
combination  of  ( 2 )  and  ( 3 ) . 

5.136  2  As  for  the  standard  subdivisions  (previously  "form  divisions"), 
they  have,  over  many  years,  tended  more  and  more  to  depart  from  the 
concept  of  subject  integrity,  especially  in  02  and  08.  Taking  note  of  this, 
the  Decimal  Classification  Editorial  Policy  Committee  directed  the 
editors  to  revise  the  standard  subdivisions,  even  to  the  extent  of  reusing 
one  number  with  a  new  meaning.  Most  notable  change  is  the  abandon- 
ment of  04  for  essays  and  lectures  and  the  relocation  of  collected  essays 
and  lectures  to  08,  which  is  now  reserved  for  collections  and  anthologies 
only.  It  is  expected  that  a  given  Ubrary  will  probably  make  no  effort  to 
follow  the  new  standard  subdivisions  under  those  headings  with  which  it 
has  aheady  freely  used  the  old  ones,  but  that  it  will  nevertheless  benefit 
by  using  the  new  ones  under  headings  being  used  or  being  divided  by 
standard  subdivisions  for  the  first  time.  There  are  nine  total  relocations  in 
the  table  of  standard  subdivisions. 

5.137  The  inconvenience  caused  by  the  amount  of  relocation  in  this 
edition  is  ameliorated  by  two  factors.  In  the  first  place.  Edition  16,  which 
clearly  identifies  previous  relocations,  will  remain  in  print  for  the  present. 
In  the  second,  some  relocations  are  noted  as  being  only  optional, 
e.g.,  the  deuterocanonical  book  of  Ecclesiasticus  from  229.4  to  223.98,  and 
a  very  few  others  retain  their  former  locations  as  optional,  e.g.,  biography 
of  specific  classes  of  persons  from  920.1-928.9  to  standard  subdivision  092 

under  each  subject. 

5.138  Relocations  are  shown  in  the  tables  as  indicated  in  section  3.355. 
In  the  index,  every  number  to  which  any  topic  is  relocated  is  preceded  by 
a  dagger  (t),  no  matter  whether  the  topic  specified  in  the  immediate 
entry  is  relocated  or  not. 

One  kind  of  relocation  and  reuse  of  number  is  not  shown  as  such, 
namely,  relocation  of  standard  subdivision  concepts  from  single-0  nota- 
tion to  double-0  or  triple-O  notation,  and  reuse  of  single-0  notation  for 
other  purposes.  For  example,  in  Edition  16  599.01-599.09  was  used  for  the 
standard  subdivisions  of  599;  in  Edition  17  these  numbers  are  used  for 
general  principles  of  mammalian  biology,  and  the  classifier  is  instructed  to 
use  599.001-599.009  for  standard  subdivisions. 

5^ 


Decimal  Classification 


5.14  In  summary,  it  may  be  said  that  relocation,  division  by  more  than 
one  principle,  emphasis  on  hierarchical  structure  and  notation,  in  fact  the 
overall  display  of  subject  integrity,  are  designed  to  make  the  DDC  easier 
to  teach,  to  learn,  to  understand,  and  to  use  for  both  classification  and 
retrieval. 

5.2  Degree  of  expansion  Since  this  edition  is  intended  for  use  in 
general  Hbraries  of  any  size,  its  fullness  is  based  upon  the  number  of  titles 
that  large  general  libraries  may  be  expected  to  acquire  in  any  given 
subject.  The  editors  have  tried  to  provide  enough  subdivisions  but  not  too 
many,  and  have  been  guided  by  the  principle  tliat  the  existence  in 
American  libraries  of  more  than  ten  to  twenty  titles  on  spc  cific  topics  in  a 
given  general  number  raises  a  presumption  in  favor  of  subdivision.  The 
detail  varies  from  one  part  of  the  tables  to  another,  depending  on  the 
number  of  books  that  have  appeared  and  are  likely  to  be  acquired  by 
libraries.  Many  new  entries  appear  in  the  tables  of  Edition  17  and  there 
are  far  more  numerous  opportunities  for  repetition  of  development  by 
analogy,  that  is,  for  expansion  thru  "divide-like"  notes.  Some  tables  are 
fully  revised  and  expanded  for  this  edition,  e.g.,  350-354;  others,  e.g., 
100-199  exclusive  of  the  130's  and  150's,  await  more  detailed  study  at 
another  time  and  have  been  expanded  little  or  none  from  the  provisions  of 
Edition  16.  In  a  very  few  cases,  provisions  have  been  reduced,  not  usually 
because  the  literatvu-e  does  not  justify  the  amount  of  detail  in  the  previous 
edition,  but  to  clear  out  the  dead  brush  of  a  poor  development  so  that 
it  may  be  superseded  later  with  minimum  disruption  by  an  improved 
expansion,  e.g.,  301.2.  Because  there  is  not  time  from  one  edition  to  the 
next  to  revise  all  schedules  with  equal  care,  the  minuteness  of  subdivision 
is  greater  in  some  classes  than  in  others. 

A  comparative  table  of  number  of  entries  in  Editions  16  and  17  follows. 
Since  a  single  entry  may  be  expanded  manyfold  by  a  "divide-like"  or  an 
''add"  note,  the  number  of  these  is  shown  as  "entries  with  built- 
in  expansion."  When  one  considers  that  every  number  may  be  enriched  by 
all  the  wealth  of  the  table  of  standard  subdivisions,  it  is  obvious  that  the 
DCs  potential  for  detailed  classification  is  a  hundred-  or  a  thousandfold 
greater  than  the  existence  of  17,132  general  tables  entries  might  lead  one 
to  expect.  The  reduction  of  4650  entries  in  class  9  is  offset  by  die  new  area 
table. 


52 


Editors  introduction 


EDITION  16 

EDITION  17 

INCREASE 

Entries 

Entries 

Entries 

with 

with 

with 

Total 

built-in 

Total 

built-in 

Total 

built-in 

Class 

entries 

expansion 

entries 

expansion 

entries 

expansion 

0 

333 

55 

341 

51 

8 

-4 

1 

499 

8 

641 

24 

142 

16 

2 

760 

80 

1,191 

225 

431 

145 

3 

1,703 

69 

2,545 

311 

842 

242 

4 

324 

52 

369 

135 

45 

83 

5 

2,083 

53 

2,603 

183 

520 

130 

6 

4,031 

115 

5,170 

789 

1,139 

674 

7 

1,407 

180 

1,785 

254 

378 

74 

8 

302 

72 

651 

231 

349 

159 

9 

6,486 

158 

1,836 

448 

-4,650 

290 

Total 

General 

Tables 

17,928 

842 

17,132 

2,651 

-796 

1,809 

Standard 

Subdivi- 

sions 

69 

9 

113 

15 

44 

6 

Areas 

0 

0 

5,110 

4 

5,110 

4 

Grand 

1 

Total 

17,997 

851 

22,355 

2,670 

4,358 

1,819 

We  have  referred  in  2.53  to  the  occasionally  extreme  length  of  the  DC 
notation.  Without  doubt,  the  apportionment  is  poor  in  the  light  of  present 
knowledge  (e.g.,  the  schedule  for  621  is  longer  than  that  for  000-099  or 
that  for  400-499  and  only  10%  shorter  than  that  for  100-199),  and 
virtually  impossible  to  repair  in  view  of  the  traditional  policy  of  reusing 
numbers  only  most  sparingly;  to  reapportion  the  notation  so  that  it  would 
be  equally  hospitable  to  all  disciplines  and  subjects  held  by  libraries  today 
would  require  the  development  of  a  wholly  new  system  and  would  only 
establish  a  base  for  other  inequities  of  a  future  that  today  cannot  be 
imagined,  just  as  much  of  the  world  of  1965  could  not  be  imagined  in 
1876.  So  long  as  DC  continues  to  expand,  its  users  will  have  to  live  with 
long  numbers.  However,  suggestions  appearing  thruout  this  edition  fpr 

53 


Decimal  Classification 


the  guidance  of  libraries  specializing  in  or  emphasizing  certain  disciplines 
and  subjects  may  be  applied  in  other  contexts  also:  arbitrary  signs  can  be 
used  as  substitutes  for  much-used  long  numbers,  just  as  B  has  been  used 
for  many  years  in  many  libraries  as  a  substitute  for  920.  For  example,  an 
engineering  Ubrary  can  substitute  letters  of  the  alphabet  for  some  of  the 
larger  engineering  subdisciplines  with  long  notations,  such  as  E  in  lieu  of 
621.3  or  of  621.38,  or  X  (or  A)  in  Heu  of  629.13.  If  this  is  not  feasible,  the 
diflBculties  that  are  inherent  in  transcription  and  reading  of  long  num- 
bers can  be  reduced  by  writing  each  long  class  number  on  two  or  three 
lines,  e.g., 

574.929 


574 

574 

and  even  574 

.929  7 

.929  747 

.929  747 
65 

Some  few  libraries  shelve  by  numbers  of  limited  length  but  give  on 
catalog  and  shelflist  cards  and  inside  each  book  a  complete  number  based 
on  the  full  DC  schedules,  with  the  shelving  digits  in  black  and  the 
non-shelving  digits  in  red. 

5.3  Standard  subdivisions  and  area  table   The  table  of  "form  divisions'* 

of  earlier  editions  has  not  only  been  substantially  revised,  as  noted  in 

section  5.136  2,  but  retitled  table  of  "standard  subdivisions,"  a  term  that 

recognizes  that  at  least  half  of  these  convenient  subdivisions  are  modes  of 

treatment  rather  than  forms.  If  even  one  standard  subdivision  of  a  specific 

class  appears  in  a  double-0  or  a  triple-0  notation,  then  all,  with  the 

occasional  exception  of  09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment,  appear 

in  that  sequence;  in  this  way  each  standard  subdivision  sequence  is  kept 

intact,  e.g.,  no  longer  do  we  find  300.1,  302-309  for  standard  divisions  of 

the  social  sciences,  broken  by  the  very  substantial  301   schedule  for 

sociology.  This  is  the  more  important  in  this  edition  because  of  the  much 

greater  reUance  on  zero-divisions  for  special  meanings,  most  frequently 

( 1 )  for  subdivision  by  a  second  principle  of  division,  e.g.,  599.01-599.09, 

and  (2)  for  standard  subdivisions  of  a  part  of  the  complete  heading,  e.g., 

201-209  for  standard  subdivisions  of  Christianity,  which  has  no  other 

notation  that  can  be  so  divided,  and  200.1-200.9  for  standard  subdivisions 

of  religion. 

The  area  table  is  perhaps  the  most  obvious  innovation  of  Edition  17. 
Geographic  detail  has  been  removed  from  the  general  history  schedules 
930-990  and  incorporated  in  a  special  table,  leaving  the  history  schedules 
for  history.  The  new  table,  printed  v^dthout  the   traditional  digit  9, 

54 


Editor's  introduction 


contributes  to  both  theoretical  understanding  of  the  DDC  and  its 
practical  application.  On  the  theoretical  level,  it  makes  clear  that  the 
number  for,  say,  France  is  not  944,  which  is  for  the  general  history  of 
France  and  that  only,  but  44.  On  the  practical  level,  it  greatly  simplifies 
number  building  for  areas.  No  longer  need  the  classifier  be  confused  by 
"dividing  like  940-999,"  or  concern  himself  with  elusive  O's  and  9's  that 
disappear  in  one  sense  and  stand  pat  in  another;  now  he  simply  adds  the 
area  number,  e.g.,  94  Australia,  to  the  base  named,  e.g.,  027.4  (in  the 
entry  under  027.43-027.49). 

Almost  equally  useful  will  be  the  very  considerable  expansion  of  area 
1  (previously  form  division  091),  providing  for  treatment  of  any  subject 
by  zonal,  physiographic,  and  socioeconomic  regions,  by  ethnic  and 
rehgious  groups,  and  even  by  hemispheres  and  space.  Of  special  note, 
perhaps,  is  area  1712  Empires  and  political  unions,  a  device  that  libraries 
can  use  to  bring  together,  under  selected  subjects,  those  countries  having 
poUtical  ties  but  geographic  diversity,  e.g.,  constitutional  law  of  United 
Kingdom,  Canada,  New  Zealand  together  in  342.171242  instead  of 
scattered  in  342.42,  342.71,  and  342.931  respectively. 

The  standard  subdivision  and  area  tables  both  appear  in  volume  2, 

preceding  the  index. 

5.4  Use  outside  United  States    Altho  the  Dewey  Decimal  Classification 
is  widely  used  outside  the  United  States  because  of  its  numerous  virtues, 
it  has  been  much  criticized  for  its  historical  bias  toward  a  Protestant 
Anglo-Saxon  culture.  Some  efforts  were  made  in  Edition  16  to  reduce  this 
bias,  but  tlie  present  edition  represents  the  first  full-scale  attack  upon  it  by 
the  general  editors.  Without  reducing  the  traditional  emphasis  on  and 
featuring  of  things  American,  such  as  hterature  in  810  and  political  parties 
in   329.1-.8,   on  things   Western,   such   as   languages   in   420^80    and 
philosophy  in  182-199,  on  things  Christian,  such  as  religion  in  220-280,  it 
introduces  a  whole  series  of  devices  thru  the  use  of  which  classifiers  who 
need  to  do  so  may  feature  other  cultures.  It  suggests  frequently,  e.g., 
under  area  notations  4-9  and  under  420^90,  that  a  letter  or  other  symbol 
may  be  used  as  an  artificial  eleventh  digit  to  bring  forward  works  on  the 
desired  place,  language,  literature,  or  other  subject.  (It  is  important  that 
this  symbol  be  understood  to  be  an  artificial  digit:  it  can  be  a  Latin, 
Greek,  Cyrillic,  Arabic,  Tamil  letter,  a  Chinese  ideograph,  an  asterisk, 
dagger,  arrow,  or  what  you  will,  and  has  no  meaning  except  digital.)  It 
sometimes  introduces  the  option  of  de-emphasizing  United  States  concerns 
by  arranging  them  geographically  in  the  midst  of  others,  e.g.,  in  354 

55 


il!: 


Decimal  Classification 


Editors  introduction 


instead  of  353,  in  329.9  instead  of  329.1-.8.  It  provides  history  periods  for 
nearly  every  country  (but  does  not  reduce  those  under  940  and  973 ),  and 
for  many  literatures,  including  "colonial"  literatures.  As  already  noted,  the 
area  table  recognizes  current  political  alinements.  Separate  provision  is 
made  for  important  Oriental  languages,  e.g.,  Hindi  and  Urdu.  There  are 
expansions  in  796  for  cricket,  soccer,  and  rugby,  as  well  as  for  golf  and 
tennis.  Schedules  for  Buddhism,  Hinduism,  Judaism,  Islam  are  expanded 
and  further  specified,  and  instructions  and  references  thruout,  as  well  as 
index  entries,  make  it  clear  that  religion  as  a  whole  and  Christianity  in 
particular  are  not  considered  synonymous.  Provision  is  made  in 
181.04—181.09  for  philosophy  based  on  specific  religions.  For  the  benefit  of 
American  no  less  than  foreign  libraries  the  Protestant  orientation  of  200 
has  been  lessened  by  the  addition  of  provision  for  numerous  topics  of 
chiefly  Roman  Catholic  concern. 

The  year  1964  saw  the  field  work  take  place  for  the  long-projected 
stu-vey  of  DDC  use  abroad.  The  present  edition  reflects  the  early  results  of 
this  survey,  and  it  is  the  editors'  and  publishers'  earnest  hope  that  the 
DDC  of  the  future  will  be  made  continuously  more  and  more  useful  for 
hbrarians  of  Europe,  Asia,  Africa,  and  the  Pacific,  as  well  as  for  those  of 
America. 

The  language  of  basic  editions,  of  coxu'se,  continues  to  be  English. 

5*5  Index  The  index  is  completely  new,  and  more  tightly  constructed 
than  previous  ones;  it  is,  in  fact,  imique.  As  described  in  section  3.6,  it 
is  relative,  in  that  it  brings  together  the  various  aspects  of  a  subject  to 
show  their  dispersion  thruout  the  tables;  it  is  limited,  because  exhaustive- 
ness  would  be  confusing  and,  if  it  could  be  kept  up  to  date,  would  make 
the  tables  unnecessary;  it  is  coordinated  with  the  tables,  serving  as  a  guide 
to  them,  not  a  substitute  for  them. 

5.6  Relation  to  Edition  16  and  DCir  Even  where  the  present  edition 
does  not  vary  substantively  from  Edition  16,  observance  of  the  editorial 
rules  emphasizing  subject  integrity  gives  a  quite  different  appearance  to 
the  schedules,  with  more  centered  headings,  fewer  cross  references  and 
notes  of  inclusion,  a  larger  number  of  more  comprehensive  headings,  more 
scope  notes,  asterisks  used  freely  to  remind  classifiers  of  instructions  that 
apply  to  many  subdivisions  of  a  heading,  and  other  devices.  The  same  is 
true  of  variations  in  Edition  17  from  provisions  disseminated  thru 
the  earlier  issues  of  Decimal  Classification  Additions,  Notes  and  Decisions. 

56 


5.7  Spelling  As  is  well  known,  the  founder  of  DC  ( who  was  christened 
Melville  Dewey,  and  for  a  time  styled  himself  Melvil  Dui)  was  deeply 
devoted  to  the  cause  of  simplified  spelling.  The  forms  that  it  took  may  be 
seen  in  his  introduction,  which  follows  this  one.  The  present  edition,  in 
observance  of  the  Dewey  spelling  tradition,  pursues  the  following 
practices:  (1)  it  uses  catalog,  decalog,  demagog,  pedagog,  prolog, 
program,  tho,  altho,  thoro,  thorofare,  thru,  thruout;  ( 2 )  it  follows,  to  the 
extent  that  the  editors  found  them,  the  shortest  or  most  phonetic  spellings 
recognized  by  Webster's  Third  New  International  Dictionary,  e.g., 
canceled,  lacker,  alinement;  (3)  except  in  the  index  and  where  the 
meaning  might  be  misunderstood,  it  modifies  the  spelling  to  reflect  the 
pronunciation  of  past  tenses  and  past  participles  that  have  the  hard  "t" 
sound,  e.g.,  pitcht,  divorst,  but  not  produst,  bast. 


57 


6.  Toward  Edition  18 

Not  all  of  Edition  17  has  benefited  equally  from  application  of  the 
renewed  emphasis  on  subject  integrity  and  the  other  principles  described 
above.  Within  the  editorial  criteria,  which  are  intended  to  safeguard 
the  DDCs  traditional  virtues  as  well  as  to  open  the  system  up  to  a 
greater  degree  of  modernization  than  in  the  past,  we  believe  that  most 
of  400-600,  800-900,  and  parts  of  the  other  classes  will  be  generally 
fairly  successful  in  meeting  the  needs  and  classifying  the  literature  of 
the  1960's,  but  some  of  the  other  sections  will  be  less  so.  Substantial 
development  is  required  in  029,  most  of  100,  parts  of  200,  301,  330,  360, 
380,  390,  640,  780,  and  other  schedules.  A  complete  overhaul  with 
reused  notation  is  planned  for  340  and  510.  It  may  be  expected  that 
Edition  18  will  reflect  ( 1 )  review  and  study  in  many  of  these,  (2)  normal 
updating  in  science,  technology,  history,  (3)  fvuther  refinement  of  the 
index,  and  (4)  more  detailed  study  of  the  residts  of  the  1964  survey  of 
DC  use  abroad. 


58 


7.  Acknowledgments 

It  is  my  pleasant  duty  to   give  public  thanks  to  those  who  have 
contributed  materially  to  such  success  as  this  17th  edition  may  merit. 

Thanks,  first,  to  DDCs  users.  To  the  scores  of  librarians  who  studied 
and  criticized  or  reviewed  Edition  16,  some  in  print,  some  in  correspond- 
ence, some  face  to  face,  and  to  the  reviewers  and  critics  of  draft  schedules 
of  this  edition,  both  at  home  and  abroad;  I  name  eight  at  random  to 
represent  them  all:  John  Metcalfe  of  AustraHa,  B.  S.  Kesavan  of  India, 
Curt  Wormann  of  Israel,  Anis  Khurshid  of  Pakistan,  Mahmud  Sheniti  of 
the  United  Arab  RepubUc,  E.  J.  Coates  and  W.  H.  Phillips  representing 
very  diflEerent  points  of  view  in  the  United  Kingdom,  Sarah  K.  Vann  of  the 
United  States  of  America.  To  the  hundreds  of  individuals  who  took  time 
to  answer  questions  posed  in  Decimal  Classification  Additions,  Notes  and 
Decisions.  To  interested  groups  in  formal  organizations,  notably  the 
Classification  Committee  and  the  Policy  and  Research  Committee  of  the 
Cataloging  and  Classification  Section  of  the  Resources  and  Technical 
Services  Division  of  the  American  Library  Association,  and  the  Dewey 
Decimal  Classification  Revision  Sub-Committee  of  the  Research  Commit- 
tee of  the   (United  Kingdom)   Library  Association.  To  the  Reverend 
Timon  Cook,  O.F.M.,  who  provided  most  able  liaison  with  the  Catholic 
Library  Association  by  soliciting  and  synthesizing  opinions  on  Roman 
Catholic  Hbrary  requirements  thruout  class  200,  and  interpreting  them  to 
the  editors  with  full  understanding  of  the  criteria  for  DC  development;  if, 
as  we  hope,  this  edition  provides  valuable  new  assistance  to  Catholic 
librarians,  the  credit  is  largely  Father  Cook's. 

Thanks,  second,  to  all  those  officially   connected  with  the  Dewey 
Decimal  Classification.  To  the  directors  of  Forest  Press,  Inc.,  scholars, 
gentlemen,  keen  businessmen  all:  Vemer  W.  Clapp,  Deo  B.  Colbum,  Jack 
Dalton,  Walter  A.  Hafner,  and  Howard  Haycraft.  To  the  present  members 
of  the  Decimal  Classification  Editorial  Policy  Committee  and  to  the 
former  members  who  have  served  since   1960:   Elizabeth  C.   Borden, 
Edwin  B.  Colbum,  Godfrey  Dewey,  Virginia  Drewry,  Carlyle  J.  Frarey, 
Bertha  M.  Frick,  Harriet  D.  MacPherson,  Lucile  M.  Morsch,  Esther  J. 
Piercy,  Joseph  W.  Rogers,   Pauline  A.   Seely,  Mrs.   Marietta   Daniels 
Shepard,  and  Wyllis  E.  Wright;  to  their  statesmanship,  foresight,  and 
imaginative  understanding  of  libraries'  needs  may  be  credited  the  basic 
principles,    enduring   and   new,   which   underUe   this   edition.   To   my 

59 


Decimal  Classification 


superiors  in  the  Library  of  Congress  for  support  and  encouragement  at  all 
times:  L.  Quincy  Mumford,  Rutherford  D.  Rogers,  John  W.  Cronin,  Lewis 
C.  Coffin,  William  J.  Welsh. 

Thanks,  third,  to  the  staff  of  the  Decimal  Classification  Office,  who 
really  did  the  grubbing.  To  the  former  members  who  contributed  to  this 
edition:  Mrs.  Dorothy  F.  Cover,  Mrs.  Peggy  C.  Kans,  Alice  M.  Kenton, 
Mrs.  Edith  B.  Moore,  Julia  C.  Pressey,  Mrs.  Mary  C.  Schloeder,  Mrs. 
Ruby  Y.  Weinbrecht,  and  Mrs.  Elsie  K.  Yoder.  To  the  present  members: 
Harriet  Helliwell,  Elaine  Hicks,  and  Edna  E.  Van  Syoc.  To  the  Editorial 
Reviser,  Mrs.  Emily  K.  Spears,  for  significant  contributions  to  the  format 
and  style  of  the  manuscript,  and  for  its  final  preparation  in  impeccably 
neat  and  clean  condition.  To  the  Assistant  Chief,  Decimal  Classffication 
Office,  Elva  L.  Krogh,  for  numerous  profitable  suggestions  based  on  her 
daily  use  of  the  DC  to  class  books,  notably  the  new  and  striking  concept 
of  the  area  table.  To  the  Assistant  Editor,  Dewey  Decimal  Classification, 
Mrs.  Marie  M.  Henshaw,  for  her  uncompromising  insistence  that  the 
editorial  operations  hew  to  the  line  of  consistency,  and  for  her  brilliant 
development  of  many  original  ideas,  including  various  new  techniques  for 
emphasizing  subject  integrity  and  relationships,  and  including  also  the 
new  index,  which  is  almost  wholly  hers  in  conception  and  mostly  hers  in 
execution. 


8.  Conclusion 

The  foreword  to  the  15th  edition  "eamestl/^  requested  "all  users  to  give 
us  the  benefit  of  their  criticism  in  order  that  sometime  our  successors  may 
actually  bring  out  Ue  perfect  book.' "  It  appears  unlikely  that  this  or  any 
other  general  classification  will  ever  be  "perfect,''  especially  in  view  of  the 
traditional  dichotomy  of  demands  for  a  system  that  will  be  both  stable 
and  up-to-date.  Melvil  Dewey  recognized  this  in  1876,  when  he  wrote,  m 
"The  Amherst  classification"  {Library  Journal  3:231-232,  Aug.  1878) : 
Long  study  of  the  subject  makes  it  clear  that  a  classification  satis- 
factory in  theory  is,  in  the  nature  of  things,  an  impossibility,  and  that 
a  scheme  can  be  satisfactory  in  use  only  to  those  who  realize  these 
inherent  difficulties  and  are  satisfied  because  of  their  knowledge  that 
a  plan  free  from  annoying  difficulties  is  wholly  unattainable. 
Nevertheless,  improvement  is  always  possible  and  devoutly  to  be  pur- 
sued. So,  once  again,  we  urge  all  who  use  the  DC,  whether  students, 
teachers,   or   appliers,   to   continue  to   give   us   the  "benefit   of   their 

criticism."  u-  -l    • 

There  follows  Melvil  Dewey's  own  introduction  of  1926,  which  is 
reprinted,  with  a  few  minor  changes,  just  as  he  wrote  and  spelled  it.  Some 
of  its  statements  and  examples  are  now  obsolete,  and  it  should  be  read  in 
the  context  of  its  time. 


Benjamin  A.  Custer 

EDITOR 


Decimal  Classification  Office 
Processing  Department 
The  Library  of  Congress 
Washington,  D.C.     20540 
28  February  IQ65 


^ 


60 


61 


Melvil  Dewey's  Introduction 


Orijin  and  growth  The  plan  of  this  Clasification  and  Index  was  de- 
velopt  erly  in  1873,  the  result  of  long  study  of  library  economy  as  found 
in  hundreds  of  books  and  pamflets,  and  in  over  50  personal  visits  to 
libraries.  This  study  convinst  me  that  usefulness  of  libraries  myt  be 
greatly  increast  without  aded  expense.  Only  a  fraction  of  the  servis 
posibl  cud  be  got  from  them  without  clasification,  catalogs,  indexes  and 
other  aids,  to  tel  librarians  and  readers  what  they  containd  on  any  givn 
subject;  yet,  by  methods  then  uzed,  this  cud  be  dun  satisfactorily  only 
at  a  cost  so  great  as  to  be  prohibitiv  to  all  but  a  few  welthy  libraries. 
With  rare  exceptions,  libraries  wer  growing  rapidly.  Catalogs,  made  at 
great  cost,  soon  became  antiquated.  Methods  uzed  involvd  frequent  re- 
arranjement,  renumbering  and  remarking  of  books,  and  of  necesity  re- 
making of  catalogs  and  indexes,  as  the  only  escape  from  a  confuzion  that 
seriusly  cripld  usefulness.  In  this  costly  repetition,  work  of  previus  H- 
brarians  was  larjly  lost.  The  great  need  was  a  sistem  which  wud  enable 
each  to  stand  on  the  sholders  of  his  predecessors,  and  fully  utilize  their 
labors;  which  vmd  make  work  dun  today  permanent,  insted  of  sumthing 
to  be  superseded  in  so  few  years  as  not  to  be  worth  doing  in  the  best 
way;  which  wud  supply  the  best  applyances,  insted  of  leaving  yung  li- 
brarians not  only  to  lern  how  to  work,  but  to  make  all  their  own  tools. 

Practical  use  iEor  54  years  proves  that  this  sistem  wil  accomplish  this 
result;  for  with  its  aid  catalogs,  shelflists,  indexes  and  references,  essential 
to  this  increast  usefulness,  can  be  made  faster  and  cheaper  than  by  any 
method  not  having  its  essential  featiures,  and,  when  dun,  they  ar  better 
and  vastly  more  permanent.  Practical  utility  and  economy  ar  its  keynotes 
and  no  theoretic  refinement  has  been  allowd  to  modify  the  skeme,  if  it 
wud  detract  from  usefulness  or  ad  to  cost. 

It  was  chiefly  necesary  to  find  a  method  that  wud  clas,  arranje  and 
index  books  and  pamflets  on  shelvs,  cards  of  a  catalog,  cUppings  and  notes 
in  scrapbooks  and  index  rerums,  references  to  all  these  items,  and  indeed 
any  literary  material  in  any  form,  as  redily  as  an  ordinary  index  gyds  to 
proper  paje  of  a  bound  book.  This  diflBcult  problem  was  solvd  by  uzing 

63 


Decimal  Classification 


no  reference  marks  except  the  simplest  simbols  known  to  the  human 
mind,  arabic  numerals  with  their  uzual  arithmetic  values,  and  by  aiding 
their  unequald  simplicity  by  many  practical  nemonic  [mnemonic]  de- 
vices. 

Tho  the  importance  of  clasification  was  recognized,  the  filosofic  sistems 
proposed  wer  so  diflBcult  fully  to  understand  or  apply  that  not  1  person 
in  1000  cud  uze  them  practicaly.  Decimal  Clasification  simplicity  and 
even  more  its  Relativ  Index  hav  made  this  work  10-fold  eazier.  In  recent 
years,  use  of  the  sistem  has  spred  rapidly  in  all  civilized  cuntries,  meet- 
ing success  in  thousands  of  different  applications.  In  its  simpl  form  a 
skoolboy  can  quikly  master  it  and  keep  for  instant  reference  not  only  his 
books  but  every  note,  clipping  or  pamflet.  Almost  every  profession  and 
occupation  has  lernd  its  wonderful  laborsaving  powers.  It  is  in  daily  use 
by  miriads  of  business  and  professional  men  who  wud  never  even  at- 
tempt to  understand  or  uze  the  old  sistems. 

By  mere  adition  of  figures,  without  chanjing  this  shorter  form,  this 
very  simpl  sistem  is  redily  made  to  record  the  utmost  refinements  of 
specialists,  and  the  Relativ  Index,  as  simpl  as  a,  b,  c,  sends  the  novis  to 
the  exact  place  where  the  expert  has  clasifyd  the  matter  sought.  Thus 
942  is  history  of  England,  and  942.99055  is  history  of  County  Pembroke 
in  Wales,  under  Elizabeth,  5th  of  the  Tudors.  A  colon  between  2  num- 
bers to  mean  'in  relation  to',  and  other  combining  simbols  for  time, 
languaj  etc.  make  of  the  sistem  a  compact  shorthand  for  each  fact.  But 
this  brevity  is  les  important  than  the  eaz  with  which  matter  so  markt  can 
be  arranjed  ( giving  figures  and  decimal  point  their  common  arithmetic 
value),  stored  as  compactly  as  wisht  and  found  again  in  the  least  posibl 
time. 

The  sistem  has  been  found  equaly  valuabl  for  cataloging,  indexing, 
analyzing  and  summarizing,  and  for  clasifying,  numbering  and  arranjing 
books  and  pamflets  on  shelvs. 

The  1st  edition,  publisht  in  1876,  12  pajes  of  tables  containing  1000 
sections,  was  criticized  as  altogether  too  elaborate  for  even  a  larj  library. 
As  fast,  however,  as  the  Relativ  Index  with  its  remarkabl  powers  became 
known,  the  rapidly  increasing  uzers  askt  for  further  subdivisions,  til 
Tables  hav  grown  from  2600  entries  in  Index  of  1876  to  43,000  in  this 
edition  12,  becauz  it  has  been  found  so  eazy  to  gain  the  admitted  great 
advantajes  of  close  clasification,  and  yet,  by  means  of  this  Index,  avoid 
the  old  diflBculties. 

Extent  of  use  The  rejister  of  libraries  which  hav  actualy  adopted  it, 
tho  growing  rapidly,  is  incomplete.  Libraries  often  uze  the  sistem  for 

64 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


many  years  before  we  lern  the  fact.  We  rejister  all  byers  of  the  Clasifica- 
tion. so  far  as  known,  but  do  not  assume  that  a  library  has  adopted  the 
sistem  becauz  it  has  orderd  the  book.  ALA  Bulletin,  Sep.  1926,  p.  167, 
estimates  a  use  by  about  14,000  libraries.  There  is  also  an  immense  use 
(for  which  not  even  approximate  statistics  can  be  furnisht)  by  indi- 
viduals, with  their  private,  business  and  professional  colections  of  books, 
pamflets  etc.,  and  in  their  correspondence  and  notes  files.  The  sistem  has 
been  adopted,  not  only  thruout  U  S,  but  in  other  parts  of  North  America, 
in  South  America,  in  many  European  cuntries,  and,  stil  more  distant,  in 
Asia,  Hawaii,  Philippines,  Java,  Australia  and  Africa,  and  the  Tables  ar 
known  to  hav  been  translated,  either  wholy  or  in  part,  into  French,  Ger- 
man, Itahan,  Spanish,  Portuguese,  Norwegian,  Russian,  Hungarian,  Bo- 
hemian, Chinese  and  Japanese. 

The  table  below  shows  the  growth  of  the  editions. 

Number  of  pajes 


Edition 

Date 

Preface 

Tables 

Index 

Total 

Copies 

1 

1876 

12 

12 

18 

42 

1000 

2 

1885 

66 

162 

86 

314 

500 

3 

1888 

4 

227 

185 

416 

500 

4 

1891 

41 

234 

191 

466 

1000 

5 

1894 

t£ 

235 

m 

467 

2000 

6 

1899 

<C 

260 

210 

511 

7600 

7 

1911 

48 

420 

324 

792 

2000 

8 

1913 

M 

462 

340 

850 

2000 

9 

1915 

<* 

465 

342 

856 

3000 

10 

1919 

tc 

517 

374 

940 

4000 

11 

1922 

61 

551 

376 

988 

5000 

12 

1927 

67 

683 

491 

1243 

9340 

13 

1932 

75 

902 

670 

1647 

9750 

14 

1942 

80 

1048 

799 

1927 

15632 

15 

1951 

55 

469 

192 

716 

11200 

15  Rev. 

1952 

56 

€€ 

402 

927 

11045 

16 

1958 

121 

1314 

1004 

2439 

29138 

What  is  the  Sistem?    A  Subject  Clasification  with  a  Relativ  Index  ^  so 

numberd  or  letterd  that  reference  is  compact,  accurate  and  quik,  is  the 

1  Tho  the  author  is  interested  only  in  the  usefulness  of  the  sistem,  not  in  questions 
of  priority  of  its  invention,  extended  investigation  by  others  fails  to  show  that  this 
most  important  feature  of  the  sistem-the  Relativ  Index  on  which  ^ "  ^l^^  W^I 
had  ever  before  been  uzed  as  here  to  index  by  a  smgl  reference  most  diverse  mate- 

65 


Decimal  Classification 


essential  feature;  anything  beyond  this  is  merely  applying  this  plan  with 
varius  helps  and  accessories.  Any  subject  clasiiication  with  a  relativ  index 
in  which  the  entry  indexes  a  book  in  the  ordinary  way,  and  also  indexes 
shelvs,  cards,  clippings  or  any  other  literary  material,  is  a  form  of  this 
sistem. 

Notation  We  devized  and  experimented  with  several  notations  by 
means  of  numbers,  letters,  and  combined  numbers  and  letters,  with  bases 
of  26,  35,  50,  100  and  150,  yet  none  seemd  good  enuf  to  warrant  publish- 
ing details,  except  that  here  printed,  based  on  simpl  arable  numerals 
with  their  uzual  decimal  powers.  International  adoption  of  this  sistem  is 
larjly  becauz  no  one  ever  complains  that  any  clasification  is  too  simpl, 
while  there  is  constant  complaint  of  complexity.  Decimal  simplicity  has 
so  commended  itself  that  many  think  of  it  as  the  only  form,  tho  obviusly 
it  vvud  be  just  as  much  a  relativ  index  sistem'  if  the  clasification  wer 
wholy  markt  by  letters  or  other  simbols. 

The  Subject  Index  is  the  simplest  application  of  a,  b,  c,  the  simbols 
next  in  simplicity  to  1,  2,  3.  This  use  of  the  simplest  2  sets  of  simbols 
known,  with  their  common  meanings,  has  givn  our  notation  its  worldwide 
reputation  as  the  simplest  yet  devized. 

Best  known  decimal  form  Decimal  form  means  simply  that  heds  ar 
groupt  and  numberd  with  common  arithmetic  figures  uzed  decimaly. 
This,  the  only  decimal  form  thus  far  carefuly  elaborated  and  publisht,  is 
commonly  spoken  of  as  if  it  wer  the  only  posibl  form  of  our  orijinal  plan; 
tho  obviusly  an  infinit  variety  of  relativ  index  sistems'  in  decimal  form 
cud  be  made  by  filling  the  outline  with  diflEerent  heds,  or  with  the  same 
heds  in  different  order. 

To  make  out  new  heds  involvs  labor  and  cost  vastly  beyond  the  dreams 
of  any  person  who  has  not  tryd  exactly  this  work.  Time  actualy  spent  on 
tables  here  printed,  by  varius  committees  and  individuals,  totals  hun- 
dreds of  years  and  has  cost  an  immense  sum.  Uniform  and  urjent  advice 
of  the  experienst  is  to  adopt  a  poorer  skeme  alredy  made  rather  than  un- 
dertake so  herculean  a  labor.  When  dun,  the  maker  may  posibly  be 


rial.  Relativ  location  had  been  uzed,  but  not  in  the  present  combination  with  the 
subject  index,  which  givs  it  most  of  its  value.  The  Clasification  Tables,  while  adopt- 
ing sugjestions  from  many  sources,  ar  orijinal  in  their  sistem  of  arranjement  and  no- 
tation, and  in  many  minor  features.  The  decimal  form  and  many  nemonic  features 
hav  not  been  found  in  erher  use,  tho  since  their  invention  in  1873  these  as  wel  as 
the  Subject  Index  and  other  features  hav  been  very  frequently  copid,  often  with,  but 
oftener  without,  aknowlejment  of  their  source.  But  we  ar  glad  to  find  this  sistem, 
which  has  cost  so  much  labor,  doing  good  servis  even  for  those  who  neglect  to 
mention  where  they  found  so  valuabl  a  laborsaving  literary  tool. 

66 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


better  suited  with  it,  but  few  if  any  others  wil  be.  It  is  wizer  for  anyone 
whose  time  is  of  value,  to  uze  it  in  sumthing  more  practicaly  useful  to 
himself  and  his  library  than  in  trying  to  construct  a  ^satisfactory'  skeme 
of  clasification.  No  one  yet  ever  wholy  suited  himself  or  anyone  else,  and 
probably  no  one  ever  wil.  By  adopting  this  alredy  workt  out  he  saves 
much  time  and  money,  and  gains  the  immense  advantaj  of  uzing  a 
sistem  in  common  with  thousands  of  others,  so  that  he  may  utiUze  their 
labors  and  investigations  and  share  with  them  economies  of  cooperation. 
Relativ  Subject  Index  This  alfabetic  Index,  the  most  important  fea- 
ture of  the  sistem,  consists  of  hedings  gatherd  from  a  great  variety  of 
sources,  as  uzers  of  the  sistem  hav  found  them  desirabl  in  54  years  ex- 
perience. After  all  these  eflEorts,  many  new  heds  ar  aded  in  each  new 

edition. 

The  Index  gyds  in  both  numbering  and  finding  books.  In  assyning 
numbers,  the  most  specific  bed  that  wil  contain  the  book  having  been 
determind,  reference  to  that  bed  in  Index  givs  proper  clas  number.  Con- 
versely, in  finding  books  on  any  givn  subject,  reference  to  Index  givs 
number  under  which  they  ar  found  on  shelvs,  in  shelflist,  or  in  clast  cata- 
log. When  any  new  subject  cums  up,  interline  it  and  its  sinonims  in 
Index,  with  clas  number  decided  on,  so  clasifyer  may  be  uniform  with 

himself  in  future  work. 

The  Index  givs  similar  or  sinonimus  words,  and  the  same  words  in 
different  connections,  so  any  inteUjent  person  wil  surely  get  the  ryt  num- 
ber. A  reader  wishing  to  know  sumthing  of  the  tarif  looks  under  T,  and, 
at  a  glance,  finds  337  as  its  number.  This  gyds  him  to  shelvs,  to  all  books 
and  pamflets,  to  shelf  catalog,  to  clast  subject  catalog  on  cards,  to  clast 
record  of  loans,  and,  in  short,  in  simpl  numeric  order,  thruout  the  whole 
hbrary  to  anything  bearing  on  his  subject.  If  he  turns  to  Tables,  he  sees 
that  it  means  clas  3,  Sociolojy;  division  3,  Economics;  section  7,  Protec- 
tion and  free  trade;  but  the  number  alone  is  enuf  to  clas  the  book  or  find 
it,  for  either  clasifyer  or  reader.  If  he  had  lookt  under  P  for  protection, 
or  F  for  free  trade,  or  D  for  duties,  or  C  for  customs,  or  under  any  other 
leading  word  relating  to  his  subject,  he  wud  hav  been  referd  to  337,  or 
sum  one  of  its  subdivisions. 

Had  he  lookt  for  railroad'  he  wud  hav  found  after  it  22  separate 
entries,  each  preceded  by  a  word  or  fraze  indicating  the  faze  of  the 
subject  in  the  skeme.  A  book  on  railroads  may  treat  of  the  desirability 
of  government  ownership,  control  etc.  and  then  is  clearly  a  question  of 
social  syence;  or  it  may  be  a  practical  handbook  for  an  employee,  ex- 

67 


Decimal  Classification 


plaining  business  methods  of  railroading,  running  trains,  handling  freight, 
etc.  when  it  is  as  clearly  one  of  the  useful  arts.  The  clasifyer  knows  to 
which  of  these  heds  his  book  belongs,  and  the  reader  knows  in  which  of 
its  fazes  he  wishes  to  examin  the  subject.  Moreover,  3  and  6  beginning 
the  numbers  clearly  indicate  caracter  of  each  clas.  But  even  if  signifi- 
cance of  these  figures  is  entirely  disregarded,  no  confuzion  results,  for, 
on  consulting  the  numbers  in  catalog,  in  skeme,  or  on  shelvs  the  diflEer- 
ence  is  clearly  seen.  In  other  cases,  it  is  more  useful  to  keep  books  on 
the  same  subject  together,  tho  treated  from  different  standpoints.  A 
glance  at  the  Index  tels  either  reader  or  clasifyer  which  plan  has  been 
adopted. 

All  topics  in  blakface  typ  in  Index  ar  further  divided  in  Tables,  where 
one  may  see  the  subheds.  This  saves  reprinting  all  these  subdivisions, 
which  wud  increase  Index  bulk  many-fold;  e.g.  if  one  having  a  book  on 
'prison  labor'  looks  in  the  Index  for  'Convict  labor'  or  Trison  contracts, 
he  finds  at  once  its  special  number  331.51;  but  if,  on  the  other  hand  he 
thinks  to  look  only  for  jeneral  subject  'Labor',  he  finds  in  blakface  typ 
the  entry  'Labor,  pohtical  economy,  331',  and  turning  to  Tables  he  finds 
under  331  the  subdivision  '331.51,  Convict  labor',  the  exact  topic  in 

hand. 

The  greatest  objection  to  a  clast  catalog  has  always  been  the  diflBculty 
in  knowing  just  where  to  clas  a  book  and  just  where  to  look  for  it  when 
again  wanted.  Different  librarians,  or  the  same  librarian  at  different 
times,  clast  the  same  or  similar  books  in  widely  different  places.  Where 
one  man  did  all  the  work  for  many  years,  there  was  a  degree  of  uni- 
formity; but  even  then  there  was  danjer  of  looking  at  the  same  book  at 
different  times  from  different  viewpoints,  thus  cauzing  confuzion.  When 
the  daily  pres  is  ful  of  one  faze  of  a  subject,  tendency  is  strong  to  clas 
all  books  on  this  subject  from  current  viewpoint;  and  next  year,  if  a 
different  side  of  this  same  subject  is  before  the  public,  there  is  same 
tendency  to  clas  books  from  new  viewpoint,  thereby  separating  similar 
books  and  bringing  together  books  on  different  fazes.  But  fortunately, 
practical  usefulness  does  not  require  that  the  ideas  of  this  or  that  one 
be  foUowd,  but  only  that  books  of  same  caracter  be  always  put  in  same 
place,  and  that  there  be  sum  means  of  knowing  redily  what  that  place  is. 
The  Relativ  Index,  with  its  cachwords,  was  desynd  and  is  found  in  use  to 
meet  both  these  requirements,  for  it  insures  that  books  on  same  faze  of 
any  subject  cuming  before  the  clasffyers  shal  be  assynd  to  same  place, 
and  that  any  reader  seeking  these  books  shal  be  referd  instantly  to  that 

68 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


place.  If  this  is  dun,  all  requirements  of  a  good  clasification  ar  fild.  If  it 
is  not  dun,  the  sistem  is  a  failure;  for  the  only  real  test  of  any  skeme  is 

its  helpfulness  to  its  uzers. 

Sum  prominent  opponents  of  clast  catalogs  admit  that  the  RelatiA- 
Subject  Index,  in  deciding  where  to  clas  a  book  at  first  and  where  to 
look  for  it  ever  afterwards,  has  removed  their  strongest  objections.  Cer- 
tainly it  wud  be  imposibl  to  make  an  Index  more  compact  or  eazier  of 

reference. 

This  Index  allows  a  great  part  of  the  work  of  clasifying  to  be  dun  in 
advance  by  experts  in  larj  central  libraries  with  ampl  resources,  thus  se- 
curing, at  a  mere  fraction  of  uzual  cost,  better  and  more  uniform  results 
than  wud  be  posibl  to  the  ordinary  clasifyer  and  reducing  labor  to  much 
narrower  limits  than  ever  before. 

To  these  thousands  of  subjects  hav  been  carefuly  assynd  their  indi- 
vidual numbers,  many  of  them  after  long  consideration  and  consultation 
with  specialists.  No  one  person  is  lerned  enuf  to  clas  wizely  books  on  all 
subjects  and  syences;  but  botanists  can  assyn  all  botanic  subjects  to  the 
ryt  number,  mathematicians  all  mathematical  topics,  and  thus  the  Index 
wil  in  time  becum  as  accurate  as  the  best  skolarship  of  the  day  can  make 
it.  Even  if  the  decision  reacht  is  not  always  wizest,  all  practical  purposes 
ar  servd,  becauz,  as  each  clasifyer  copies  the  number  from  same  Index, 
aU  books  on  that  subject  ar  together;  and,  as  each  reader  get  his  number 
from  this  same  Index,  he  goes  directly  to  the  book  he  seeks. 

What  Relativ  Index  includes  The  Index,  containing  43,000  entries 
and  constantly  being  enlarjd  by  ading  new  subjects,  aims  to  include  all 
topics  exprest  or  implyd  in  Tables,  together  with  every  corresponding 
sinonim  Ukely  to  be  sought,  but  does  not  include  most  names  of  cuntries, 
towns,  animals,  plants  etc.  except  when  mentiond  in  Tables;  e.g.  it  can 
not  enumerate  all  species  of  trilobites,  but  when  clasifyer  has  found  from 
proper  reference  books  that  Remopleurides  is  a  trilobite,  the  Index  sends 
him  to  565.393,  and  he  can  clas  his  monograf  on  that  subject. 

Tables  The  essential  complement  of  the  Subject  Index  is  the  Tables 
of  Clasification,  so  mapt  out  as  to  show  in  4  ways— i.e.  by  size  of  typ, 
face  of  typ,  indention,  and  number  of  figures  prefixt— each  subject's  rank 
in  the  Clasification. 

The  field  of  knowlej  is  divided  into  9  main  clases,  numberd  I  to  9,  and 
cyclopedias,  periodicals  etc.  so  jeneral  as  to  belong  to  none  of  these 
clases  ar  markt  0  (naught)  and  form  a  10th  clas;  e.g.  clas  1  is  library  of 
Filosofy;  clas  5,  Ubrary  of  Syence;  clas  9,  History,  etc.  These  special 

69 


Decimal  Classification 


clases  or  libraries  ar  then  considerd  independently,  and  each  is  sepa- 
rated again  into  9  special  divisions  of  the  main  subject,  numberd  1  to  9, 
as  wer  the  clases,  jeneral  works  belonging  to  no  division  having  0  for 
their  division  number.  Thus  59  is  division  9  (Zoolojy)  of  clas  5  (Syence). 
A  3d  division  is  then  made  by  separating  each  of  these  divisions  into  10 
sections,  numberd  in  same  way  with  0  and  the  9  dijits;  and  this  decimal 
subdivision  is  repeated,  til  it  secures  as  many  subsections  as  may  be 
needed  in  any  topic.  Thus  513  is  section  3  (Jeometry)  of  division  1 
(Mathematics)  of  clas  5  (Pure  syence).  This  number,  giving  clas,  divi- 
sion, section  and  subsection,  if  any,  is  cald  the  clas  number,  and  is  ap- 
plyd  to  every  book  and  pamflet  belonging  to  the  hbrary.  All  jeometries  ar 
thus  numberd  513,  all  mineralojies  549,  and  so  thruout  the  library  all 
books  on  any  givn  subject  bear  the  number  of  that  subject  in  this  skeme. 
Where  0  occurs  before  the  decimal  point  in  a  clas  number,  it  has  its 
normal  zero  value.  Thus  a  book  numberd  510  is  clas  5,  division  1,  but 
no  section;  i.e.  treats  of  division  51  (Mathematics)  in  jeneral,  and  is 
limited  to  no  1  section,  as  is  jeometry,  markt  513.  500  indicates  a  treatis 
on  syence  in  jeneral,  limited  to  no  division.  0  occurring  in  the  1st  place 
wud  in  the  same  way  show  that  the  book  was  limited  to  no  clas;  e.g.  a 
jeneral  cyclopedia  which  treats  of  all  9  clases. 

With  the  same  'jeneral'  sense,  0  is  often  uzed  to  indicate  chanje  in 
caracter  of  subdivision,  meaning  in  this  case  *basis  of  subdivision  chanjes 
at  this  point',  i.e.  figure  ( or  figures )  following  0  apply  to  what  precedes 
in  jeneral,  e.g.  505  indicates  syence  in  jeneral  treated  in  the  form  of  a 
periodical.  In  history,  clasification  is  by  cuntries  (i.e.  jeografic)  and  as 
minute  jeografic  divisions  ar  needed  for  travels,  gyd  books,  and  varius 
other  uses,  the  figures  1-9  ar  jeneraly  uzed  for  jeografic  subdivisions  and 
again  for  further  jeografic  subdivisions,  as  far  as  needed,  and  0  foUowd 
by  another  figure  for  time  division,  i.e.  the  figures  before  the  0  indicate 
the  locality  as  a  whole,  while  figures  after  the  0  indicate  the  special  time 
at  which  the  history  of  the  locality  is  being  considerd;  e.g.  942.06,  con- 
sisting of  942  {jeografic  division)  and  06  {time  division),  means  history 
of  England  in  jeneral  in  time  of  the  Stuarts,  while  942.6  and  942.67  mean 
respectivly  history  of  eastern  England  and  history  of  Essex  co.,  to  which 
the  same  time  division  may  be  aded,  giving  942.606  and  942.6706  as  the 
history  of  those  localities  under  the  Stuarts.  As  any  subdivision  may,  by 
ading  figures  1-9,  be  givn  9  further  subdivisions,  any  desired  degree  of 
minuteness  may  be  secured  in  clasing  special  subjects. 

First  subdivision  under  many  rubrics  is  used  for  General  and  theoretic 

70 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


questions  to  provide  for  such  specific  topics  as  ar  common  to  all  or  most 
of  the  principal  subdivisions  of  a  relativly  broad  subject. 

Coordination  Theoreticly  division  of  every  subject  into  just  9  parts  is 
absurd.  Practicaly  it  is  desirabl  to  clas  as  minutely  as  posibl,  without  use 
of  aded  figures;  and  decimals,  on  which  our  skeme  hinjes,  allow  9  divi- 
sions as  redily  as  fewer.  This  has  proved  wholy  satisfactory  in  practis, 
tho  apparently  destroying  proper  coordination  in  sum  places. 

Where  more  than  9  divisions  ar  needed  the  difficulty  is  commonly  ob- 
viated by  grouping  on  singl  numbers  the  subjects  most  closely  allyd,  or 
by  assyning  1-8  specificly  to  most  important  subjects  and  grouping  minor 
subjects  on  9  as  ^Other.'  Since  any  of  these  groups  may  be  further  sub- 
divided for  specific  topics  as  needed,  provision  is  thus  made  for  an  un- 
limited number  of  subjects. 

As  in  every  skeme,  many  minor  subjects  ar  under  jeneral  beds  to  which 
they  do  not  strictly  belong.  In  sum  cases,  these  beds  ar  printed  in  dis- 
tinctly typ;  e.g.  829  Anglo-Saxon,  under  English  literature.  The  rule  has 
been  to  assyn  these  subjects  to  the  most  nearly  allyd  beds,  or  where  it 
was  tho't  they  wud  be  most  useful.  The  only  alternativ  was  to  omit  them 
altogether.  If  any  such  omission  occurs,  it  wil  be  supplyd  as  soon  as  dis- 
coverd,  for  we  intend  to  provide  in  the  Tables  a  place  for  every  known 

topic. 

New  subjects  A  new  topic  is  always  closely  related  to  sum  existing 
bed.  If  there  is  no  blank  number  availabl  it  is  combined  with  the  bed 
nearest  allyd,  and,  when  important  enuf,  distinct  provision  for  the  new 
cumr  is  made  by  ading  another  decimal.  The  sistem  is  thus  capabl  of  un- 
limited expansion,  and  can  never  break  down  for  lak  of  room  for  growth. 

Choice  and  arranjement  of  heds  Detaild  explanation  of  selection  and 
arranjement  of  the  many  thousand  heds  wud  be  tedius;  but  everywhere 
filosofic  theory  and  accuracy  hav  yielded  to  practical  usefulness.  The  im- 
posibility  of  making  a  satisfactory  clasification  of  all  knowlej  as  preservd 
in  books,  has  been  appreciated  from  the  first,  and  theoretic  harmony  and 
exactness  hav  been  repeatedly  sacrificed  to  practical  requirements. 

Sequence  of  allyd  subjects  Wherever  practicabl,  heds  hav  been  so 
arranjed  that  each  subject  is  preceded  and  foUowd  by  most  nearly  allyd 
subjects,  and  thus  aded  convenience  is  secured  both  in  clast  catalogs  and 
on  shelvs;  e.g.  Bilding  (690)  follows  Mekanic  trades  (680)  at  end  of 
Useful  arts,  and  Arkitecture  follows  at  beginning  of  Fine  arts. 

Students  of  Biolojy  (570)  find  fossil  life  or  Paleontolojy  (560)  before, 
and  vejetabl  life  or  Botany  (580)  after,  this  foUowd  in  turn  by  animal 

7^ 


Decimal  Classification'^ 


life  or  Zoolojy  (590),  ending  with  Mammals  (599);  while  Useful  arts 
(600)  begin  with  human  Anatomy  (611)  under  Medicin,  thus  giving  a 
regular  growth  from  fossil  plant  thru  vejetabl  and  animal  kingdoms  to 
living  man. 

Caehtitles  In  naming  hedings,  strict  accuracy  has  often  been  sacri- 
ficed to  brevity,  for  short  familiar  titles  ar  more  important  than  that 
terms  chosen  shud  express  fully  and  exactly  caracter  of  all  books  clast 
under  them.  Many  subjects,  apparently  omitted,  wil  be  found  in  the 
Index,  assynd,  with  allyd  subjects,  to  a  hed  which  bears  the  name  of  the 
most  important  only.  Reference  to  the  Index  wil  decide  at  once  most 
doutful  points. 

Form  distinctions  The  clasification  is  mainly  by  subject  or  content 
regardless  of  form  but  an  aded  form  distinction  for  jeneral  treatises  is 
found  practicaly  useful. 

Thus,  in  Syence  there  ar  many  compends,  dictionaries,  essays,  periodi- 
cals and  socyeties,  treating  of  Syence  in  jeneral,  and  so  having  0  for  the 
division  figure,  but  treating  it  under  different  forms,  and  therefore  di- 
vided into  sections  according  to  this  form:  501  for  filosofy  or  theories  of 
Syence,  502  for  compends,  503  for  dictionaries,  etc.  This  treatment  is  as 
nearly  as  practicabl,  uniform  in  all  clases.  Creasy's  *15  decisiv  battles'  is 
904,  the  1st  figure  being  9,  becauz  the  book  is  clearly  history;  the  2d 
figure  0,  becauz  hmited  to  no  division  of  clas  9;  and  the  3d  figure  4, 
becauz  the  book  is  a  colection  of  essays. 

The  10  main  clases  ar  regularly  divided  by  form,  e.g.  809,  history  of 
literature  in  jeneral.  For  divisions,  sections  or  subsections  having  enuf 
jeneral  material  to  make  such  division  advizabl,  form  numbers,  preceded 
by  0,  may  be  uzed  (e.g.  820.9,  history  of  English  hteratture;  821.09,  his- 
tory of  English  poetry),  except  when  0  and  the  following  number  hav 
been  otherwize  assynd,  e.g.  821.04  English  liric  poetry,  not  essays  on 
English  poetry;  942.05  England  in  time  of  the  Tudors,  not  a  periodical 
on  English  history.  A  history  of  English  literature  is  820.9,  not  809,  be- 
cauz every  book  belongs  to  the  most  specific  hed  that  wil  contain  it;  so 
809  is  hmited  to  histories  of  literature  in  jeneral.  Books  treating  of  many 
clases,  such  as  jeneral  cyclopedias  or  periodicals,  go  in  clas  0  and  ar  then 
divided  by  form  into  cyclopedias,  periodicals,  socyeties  or  newspapers. 

Do  not  confuze  form  number  07,  meaning  methods  of  study  or  teach- 
ing', with  number  for  same  subject  under  375,  which  is  for  its  value  as  a 
means  of  education,  or  for  its  curiculum  place. 

These  form  distinctions  ar  introduced  at  the  beginning  of  the  clas  be- 

7» 


MelvU  Dewey's  introduction 


cauz  the  number  of  jeneral  works  is  larj,  and  these  1st  numerals  wud 
otherwize  be  unuzed. 

Form  divisions  always  hav  the  same  set  of  numbers,  preceded  by  0, 
i.e.  1  filosofy,  theories  etc.;  2  compends,  outlines;  3  dictionaries,  cyclo- 
pedias; 4  essays,  lectures,  letters  etc.;  5  periodicals,  magazines  etc.;  6  so- 
cyeties, associations,  transactions,  reports  etc.;  7  education,  study,  teach- 
ing, training  etc.;  8  poligrafy,  colections  etc.;  9  history.  Thus  a  periodical 
on  a  subject  has  the  subject  number  foUowd  by  05;  e.g.  a  periodical  on 

public  helth,  614.05. 

But  if  the  number  alredy  ends  in  0,  0  is  not  repeated  before  form- 
division  figures;  e.g.  a  zoolojic  magazine  is  590.5,  not  590.05. 

Minute  clasing  On  first  publication  in  1876,  a  common  criticizm  was 
that  1000  beds  cud  never  be  successfuly  uzed,  however  desirabl  so  close 
clasification  myt  be.  As  soon,  however,  as  actual  experience  proved  it  as 
eazy  to  uze  1000  beds  in  the  new  sistem  as  100  in  the  old,  the  obviusly 
great  practical  value  of  close  clasing  led  one  uzer  after  another  to  xirj 
strongly  pubhcation  of  more  subdivisions.  Minute  as  ar  many  now  givn 
there  ar  none  that  sum  hav  not  askt  for  and  almost  none  that  others  hav 
not  declared  needless.  Subdivisions  ar  made  in  such  a  way  that  one  may 
uze  all,  or  any  part  and  ignore  the  rest  without  diflBculty  or  confuzion, 
thus  allowing  each  to  uze  minute  subdivisions  where  he  wishes  or  needs 
them,  without  being  forst  into  refinements  in  subjects  where  he  has  few 
books  or  litl  interest.  Since  the  degree  to  which  any  skeme  shal  be  applyd 
is  optional  with  each  clasifyer  and  close  analisis  is  useful  to  everyone  in 
defining  content  or  in  clarifying  differences  between  related  subjects, 
even  elaborate  skemes  ar  printed  in  ful  ff  no  essential  objection  has  been 
bro't  against  them  by  the  best  qualffyd  critics.  The  1st  3  figures  only  may 
be  uzed  when  preferd,  and  the  rest  show  the  scope  of  the  subject.  On 
many  topics  minute  subsections  ar  printed  simply  for  this  purpose,  and 
for  use  in  indexing  periodicals  and  socyety  transactions,  and  in  keeping 
notes.  Note  typ  is  uzed  for  topics  clearly  useful  only  to  specialists  or  as 
showing  scope.  Many  others  probably  belonging  in  same  category,  if 
doutful  ar  in  regular  typ  of  their  grade. 

The  advantaj  of  close  clasing  is  unquestiond,  ff  the  uzer  knows  just 
what  it  is.  With  this  plan  it  is  not  only  practicabl,  but  comparativly  eazy. 
If  there  ar  only  10  books  on  a  givn  topic,  it  is  useful  to  hav  them  in 
groups  amung  themselvs,  for  otherwize  they  wud  hav  only  accidental 
order,  which  is  of  servis  to  no  one.  A  reader  wishing  a  specific  book  shud 
go,  not  to  shelvs,  but  to  catalog,  where  he  can  find  its  place  quickest.  If 

73 


Decimal  Classification 


he  wishes  a  specific  subject,  he  is  sent  instantly  to  its  exact  place  by  the 
Subject  Index.  If  he  wishes  to  study  the  library's  resources  at  the  shelvs, 
he  wil  be  greatly  helpt  by  minute  clasing.  A  teacher  showing  his  pupil 
the  material  on  any  subject  wud,  if  there  wer  only  20  books,  surely  put 
together  those  covering  same  points,  even  if  there  wer  only  2.  Much 
more  shud  librarians  group  closely  their  greater  colections,  that  readers 
may  gain  sumthing  of  the  advantajes  of  an  experienst  gyd. 

Thus  every  specialist  has  his  own  special  library.  If  a  student  of  syence 
in  jeneral,  he  is  sent  to  clas  5;  if  his  department  is  zoolojy,  his  library  is 
59;  if  his  specialty  is  shels,  he  finds  all  works  and  references  on  that 
subject  in  library  594.  Whether  a  specialist  needs  it  or  not,  every  sub- 
ject, being  a  library  by  itself,  shows  resources  and  wants  as  no  catalog 
can.  A  catalog  can  not  be  made  to  take  satisfactorily  the  place  of  han- 
dling books  theniselvs.  This  advantaj  weighs  most  in  a  colej  or  socyety 
hbrary,  where  many  go  to  the  shelvs;  but  even  if  only  librarians  ar  ad- 
mitted, close  clasing  is  worth  its  cost  becauz  of  aded  power  givn. 

Tentativ  tables  More  and  more  minute  subdivisions  hav  been  specialy 
cald  for  til  the  1000  heds  of  1873,  with  2600  index  entries  in  edition  1, 
hav  increast  til  they  command  43,000  index  entries,  in  edition  12.  After 
getting  many  sugjestions,  sumtimes  hundreds,  for  aditions  or  further  sub- 
divisions of  sum  subject,  we  draft  a  skeme  and  test  it  on  a  sampl  colec- 
tion.  To  get  larjer  cooperation  in  perfecting  it  we  sumtimes  print  the  new 
draft  in  Tables  without  including  its  new  words  in  Index,  so  every  uzer 
wil  see  what  is  proposed  and  if  interested  may  test  it  on  his  own  work 
and  submit  sugjestions  for  improvement.  Then  in  the  next  edition,  with 
this  great  help,  needed  revisions  can  be  made  and  all  new  words  in- 
serted in  Index. 

As  result  of  agreement  between  Institut  International  de  Bibliographic 
and  ourselvs  we  hav  included  in  edition  12  many  I  I  B  expansions,  while 
sum  other  expansions  recently  prepared  by  us  hav  not  yet,  for  lak  of 
time,  been  submitted  to  I  I  B  and  must  therefore,  strictly  speaking,  be 
regarded  as  tentativ  til  accepted  by  that  body,  but  as  these  expansions 
wer  developt  with  view  to  such  acceptance  we  look  for  litl  chanje,  and 
their  larj  number  has  made  it  impractical  to  designate  them. 

Nemonics  [mnemonics]  Heds  hav  sumtimes  been  arranjed  to  secure 
nemonic  aid  in  numbering  and  finding  books  without  the  Index;  thus 
China  has  always  number  1.  In  Ancient  history,  it  has  the  1st  section, 
931;  in  Modern  history,  under  Asia,  it  has  951.  Similarly  the  Indian  num- 
ber is  4;  EngUsh,  2;  German,  3;  French,  4;  Itahan,  5;  Spanish,  6;  Russian, 

74 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


7;  European,  4;  Asian,  5;  African,  6;  North  American,  7;  South  Ameri- 
can, 8;  and  so  for  all  divisions  by  languajes  or  cuntries.  ItaUan  5,  for  in- 
stance', is  in  035,  055,  065,  450,  850,  945,  and  other  many  others.  This 
nemonic  principl  is  specialy  prominent  in  Filolojy  and  Literature,  and 
their  divisions,  and  in  form  distinctions  uzed  in  the  1st  9  sections  of  each 
clas.  Filosofy,  methods  or  theory,  occurring  as  a  hed,  is  always  1;  diction- 
aries and  cyclopedias  ar  3;  essays,  4;  periodicals,  5;  associations,  socyeties 
and  institutions,  6;  education,  7;  pohgrafy  or  colections,  8;  history,  9.  In 
numerus  cases  several  minor  heds  ar  groupt  together  as  Other,  uzualy 

numberd  9. 

While  Italian  is  always  5,  5  is  by  no  means  always  Italian.  Grammar 
is  5,  Periodicals  ar  5,  Asia  is  5,  Oratory  is  5,  etc.  Even  wer  it  posibl,  to 
limit  5  to  Itahan  wud  waste  numbering  material,  and  results  wud  not 
justify  cost.  The  purpose  is  to  giv  practical  aid,  not  to  follow  fanciful 
theory.  A  clasifyer  marking  a  French  grammar,  remembers  that  all  Filol- 
ojy begins  with  4,  and,  as  French  is  always  4  and  grammar  5,  he 
knows  the  number  must  be  445.  Italian  (5),  poetry  (1),  is  plainly  851 
with  no  danjer  of  being  mistaken  for  poetry  of  grammar'  or  'theory  of 
Asia,'  becauz  the  numbers  also  hav  those  meanings.  This  feature  is  an 
aid,  not  regular  method,  and  in  all  doutful  cases  one  refers  at  once  to 
Index  or  Tables.  Sugjested  difficulties  ar  uzualy  creations  of  injenius 
theorists  and  not  outgrowth  of  practical  experience. 

Wherever  practical,  this  nemonic  principl  is  uzed  in  subdividing  sec- 
tions. 558,  Jeolojy  of  South  America,  is  subdivided  by  ading  the  sections 
of  980,  History  of  South  America.  Jeolojy  of  Brazil  then  must  be  558.1: 
nemonicly,  the  1st  5  is  Syence;  2d  5,  Jeolojy;  8,  South  America;  and  1, 
Brazil.  Any  library  attendant  or  regular  uzer  of  the  skeme  recognizes 
558.1  at  a  glance  as  Jeolojy  of  Brazil.  This  nemonic  feature  occurs  in 
several  hundred  places,  and  is  of  great  practical  utility  in  numbering 
and  finding  books  without  catalog  or  index,  and  in  determining  caracter 
of  any  book  simply  from  its  call  number.  Extent  of  use  is  shown  in  5 
tables  appended  to  main  Index,  giving  alfabetic  hsts  of  (1)  subjects, 
with   clas    number   of   each,   which   may   be   subdivided   jeograficly; 

(2)  form  divisions,  with  figures  to  be  aded  in  making  such  division; 

(3)  languajes,  with  their  clas  numbers,  which  may  be  further  subdivided 
filolojicly  by  ading  figures  givn  in  Index  table  4;  (4)  filolojic  divisions, 
with  figures  to  be  aded  in  subdividing  any  languaj  in  Index  table  3; 
(5)  literatures,  with  their  clas  numbers,  which  may  be  further  subdi- 
vided by  ading  form  divisions  from  Enghsh  literature. 

75 


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Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey  s  introduction 


As  in  close  subdivision,  wish  for  nemonic  correspondence  has  never 
outv^eighd  any  claim  of  greater  usefulness.  In  many  cases  choice  be- 
tween numbers  was  hardly  perceptibl:  e.g.  whether  in  filolojy  order  shud 
be  French,  Spanish,  Italian,  or  French,  Italian,  Spanish.  In  such  cases 
nemonic  numbers  wer  givn  preference,  and  54  years  use  has  proved  this 
wizest.  Great  gain,  beside  eaz  of  remembering,  results  from  this  uniform 
use  of  same  numbers  with  same  meaning  whenever  similar  division  is 
made.  Wherever  division  by  languajes  or  cuntries  is  made,  it  follows 
filolojy  or  history  numbers,  and  in  Tables,  the  note  'Divided  like  900' 
fully  takes  the  place  of  reprinting  all  history  subdivisions.  This  saving 
justifys  use  of  these  numbers  in  sum  cases,  even  where  a  sumwhat  dif- 
ferent order  myt  seem  more  nearly  fitted  to  the  special  case;  e.g.  in  342, 
constitutional  history  of  Canada  (342.71)  and  Australia  (342.94)  next 
that  of  England  (342.42)  wud  be  better  than  our  order,  which  separates 
them  both  from  England  and  from  each  other.  Stil  by  following  the 
uzual  Procrustean  numbers,  many  topics  can  be  subdivided  minutely 
without  further  study,  by  simply  applying  history  or  languaj  subdivi- 
sions. A  singl  ilustration  of  the  astonishing  power  this  principl  givs  wil 
suflBce,  tho  thousands  myt  be  givn:  016  is  'BibUografy  of  special  subjects, 
divided  like  main  clasification,  therefore  by  aid  of  tables  under  581, 
016.581974742  redily  translates  itself  to  all  uzers  into  'Bibliografy  of 
flora  of  Albany  co.,  N  Y'.  While  these  12  figures  myt  never  be  uzed,  if  a 
specialist  wishes  minute  division,  it  is  redy  to  his  hand,  conforms  to  In- 
dex, and  wil  be  clearly  understood  by  anyone  famihar  with  our  plan.  A 
speciahst  wud  in  such  cases  probably  adopt  a  contraction  for  his  long 
number,  and  uze  in  ful  only  the  minute  divisions. 

Decimalism  Utility  has  not  been  sacrificed  in  order  to  force  subjects 
on  the  'decimal  procrustean  bed'.  Decimals  hav  been  uzed  as  servants, 
not  as  masters.  When  subjects  ar  combined  or  separated  into  just  10 
heds,  it  has  been  from  no  necesity  of  the  skeme,  but  becauz  it  seemd 
most  useful,  all  things  considerd.  In  many  cases  there  wer  orijinaly  only 
3  to  7  heds  insted  of  10;  but  uzualy,  during  years  of  testing  before  pub- 
lication, it  proved  advizabl  to  divide  sum  of  these  heds,  as  it  took  no 
aded  space  or  labor.  On  the  other  hand,  there  wer  cases  where  more 
than  10  heds  seemd  more  natural;  and,  as  any  number  up  to  100  is  pro- 
vided for  by  ading  one  decimal,  this  was  dun  in  most  cases.  As  only 
1000  sections  wer  first  printed,  it  was  often  necesary  to  put  2  or  more 
closely  allyd  topics  together  under  the  same  number,  as  must  stil  be  dun 
whenever  a  library  limits  number  of  figures  uzed  to  3;  but  during  54 

76 


years  use  subdivisions  hav  multiplyd,  til  now  nearly  every  topic  has  its 
own  special  number.  The  skeme  givs  us  for  each  topic,  as  it  wer,  a  case 
of  9  pijeonholes,  with  a  larj  space  at  the  top;  and  we  uze  them  as  every 
practical  business  man  uzes  such  pijeonholes  about  his  desk.  If,  as  in 
220,  there  ar  les  than  9  main  topics,  it  is  often  convenient  to  uze  the 
extra  spaces  for  subdivisions.  Thus  we  keep  separate,  under  Old  Testa- 
ment, historic,  poetic,  and  profetic  books;  and  under  New  Testament, 
the  Gospels,  Epistls  and  Apocalips.  Spaces  ar  there,  and  it  is  convenient 
to  uze  them  for  jeneral  works  on  those  groups— a  reason  that  experience 
proves  a  good  anser  to  the  charj  of  lak  of  coordination,  tho  indention 
and  typ  in  Tables  make  that  charj  baseless.  Then  in  280,  having  more 
than  9  topics,  if  we  ar  uzing  only  3  figures  we  put  Congregational  in 
same  space  with  Presbyterian,  and  small  denominations  together  in  the 
last  box,  just  as  a  business  man  puts  his  papers  in  his  pijeonholes.  If  he 
insisted  on  having  a  different  case  made  to  order  for  each  use,  it  vmd 
cost  over  twice  as  much;  he  cud  not  group  them  together  or  interchanje 
them,  and  they  wud  not  fit  ofiBs  shelvs. 

There  has  been  perverse  misapprehension  of  this  feature,  and  critics 
oftenest  stumbl  over  'procrustean  10'.  In  fact,  this  is  an  element  of  use- 
fulness. A  railroad  also  has  the  fault  that  it  is  procrustean  in  its  path  and 
in  its  times.  It  can  not  cum  to  yur  door  nor  wait  yur  convenience,  as  does 
the  automobile;  it  can  not  go  to  the  fields  for  its  loads  of  produce;  it  can 
not  turn  out  for  obstacls;  but  becauz  it  is  procrustean  it  can  do  its  larj- 
scale  work  much  better  and  quicker  and  cheaper.  The  paralel  cud  be 
fairly  extended  to  many  other  cases,  but  any  tho'tful  mind  wil  recognize 
that  the  economy  and  eaz  of  working  the  Decimal  sistem  ar  larjly  de- 
pendent on  its  being  procrustean.  To  this  we  owe  much  of  the  great 
simplicity  of  the  Relativ  Index,  many  nemonic  correspondences,  and  the 
useful  0  to  indicate  form  and  period  divisions.  Our  intersecting  lines  of 
space  and  time  in  History,  etc.,  of  languaj  and  form  in  Filolojy  and  Lit- 
eratm-e,  and  scores  of  similar  advantajes,  depend  wholy  on  procrustean 
10*,  or  else  on  sum  other  number  equaly  procrustean,  but  lacking  the 
advantajes  of  exact  correspondence  to  our  arithmetic. 

Relativ  location  Economy  and  simplicity  cald  not  only  for  the  Sub- 
ject Index,  but  also  for  sum  plan  of  consolidating  the  2  sets  of  marks 
previusly  uzed;  one  teling  what  subject  a  book  treated,  the  other  where 
the  book  was  shelvd.  By  relativ  location  and  decimal  clas  numbers  we 
make  our  simpl  arable  numerals  tel  of  each  book  and  pamflet,  both  what 
it  is,  and  where  it  is. 

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Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


r 


hi 


In  fixt  relation,  to  find  book,  pamflet,  clipping  or  note  is  like  finding  a 
man  when  yu  know  his  town,  street,  hous  and  room. 

In  relativ  location  it  is  like  finding  a  soldier  if  yu  know  his  army,  divi- 
sion, rejiment  and  cumpany.  If  John  Smith  is  3d  man  in  2d  row  of  Com- 
pany B,  rejiment  69,  4th  division,  whether  the  rejiment  is  in  camp,  on 
parade  or  on  march,  his  place  is  not  determind  by  the  bit  of  ground  on 
which  he  stands,  but  by  his  relation  to  the  rest  of  the  army.  If  soldiers 
ar  ded  and  in  the  cemetery  they  ar  as  eazily  found  by  fixt  as  by  relativ 
location.  But  if  the  army  is  ahve  and  militant,  as  every  library  or  private 
working  colection  o't  to  be,  its  resoiu-ces  shud  be  findabl  whether  in 
camp,  on  march  or  in  action. 

In  arranjing  books  on  shelvs,  the  formerly  common  absolute  or  fixt  lo- 
cation by  shelf  and  book  number  is  wholy  abandond,  relativ  location  by 
clas  and  book  number  being  our  chief  feature.  Accumpanying  clas  num- 
ber is  the  book  number,  which  prevents  confuzion  of  different  books  on 
the  same  subject.  In  finding  books,  numbers  markt  on  baks  ar  foUowd, 
the  upper  being  the  clas  and  the  lower  the  book  number.  Clas  is  found 
in  its  numeric  order  amung  clases,  just  as  shelf  is  found  in  fixt  sistems. 
Shelvs  ar  not  numbrd,  as  increasing  different  departments,  opening  new 
rooms,  and  any  arranjing  of  clases  to  bring  books  most  circulated  nearest 
delivery  desk,  wil  at  different  times  bring  different  clas  numbers  on  any 
givn  shelf.  New  books,  as  recievd,  ar  numberd  and  put  in  place,  in  same 
way  that  new  titles  ar  aded  to  card  catalog. 

Thus  all  books  on  any  givn  subject  stand  together,  and  no  aditions  or 
chanjes  ever  separate  them.  Not  only  ar  found  together  all  books  on  sub- 
ject sought,  but  most  nearly  allyd  subjects  precede  and  follow,  they  in 
turn  being  preceded  and  foUowd  by  other  allyd  subjects  as  far  as  prac- 
ticabl.  Readers  not  having  access  to  shelvs  find  short  titles  arranjed  in 
same  order  in  shelflist,  and  ful  titles,  imprints,  aded  subject  entries,  ref- 
erences, notes  etc.  in  clast  catalog. 

Parts  of  sets,  and  books  on  same  or  allyd  subjects,  ar  never  separated 
as  they  ar  sure  to  be,  sooner  or  later,  in  a  library  arranjed  on  fixt  plan, 
unless  it  be  frequently  rearranjed  and  recatalogd,  a  procedure  too  ex- 
pensiv  even  for  very  welthy  libraries.  Relativ  sistem  clas  and  book 
numbers  remain  unchanjed  thru  all  chanjes  of  shelving,  bildings  or  order 

of  clases. 

Amung  hundreds  of  points  raizd  by  librarians  as  to  its  practical  work- 
ings and  usefulness,  the  only  one  in  which  it  was  not  shown  to  be  equal 

78 


or  superior  to  erlier  sistems  was  that  in  this  relativ  location  a  book  which 
this  year  stands,  e.g.  at  the  end  of  a  certain  shelf,  may  not  be  on  that 
shelf  at  all  another  year,  becauz  of  uneven  growth  of  parts  of  the  library. 
This  slyt  objection,  however,  inheres  in  any  sistem  where  books  ar  ar- 
ranjed by  subjects,  rather  than  by  shelvs,  windows,  doors,  and  similar 
non-intelectual  distinctions. 

Sizes  on  shelvs  Most  libraries  hav  abandond  close  distinction  of  sizes. 
It  is  true  that  this  distinction  saves  a  litl  space,  but  at  far  too  great  a 
cost;  for  every  distinction  of  sizes  makes  a  paralel  clasification.  If  books 
ar  groupt  in  5  sizes,  one  must  look  in  5  places  before  he  can  be  sure  of 
having  seen  them  all. 

It  is  better  to  shelv  octavos  and  all  smaller  books  together  in  1  series, 
and  arranje  in  paralel  libraries  only  quartos  and  folios,  which  ar  too  larj 
to  stand  on  regular  shelvs,  showing  series  in  which  any  oversize  book  is 
put  by  a  size  letter  prefixt  to  the  book  or  clas  number;  e.g.  749  qA  or 
q749  A  shows  that  book  A  on  Artistic  furniture  is  too  larj  for  regular 
shelvs,  and  so  is  placed  in  q  or  quarto  series.  Or  uze  a  wood  or  paste- 
board dummy  to  show  location  of  a  book  not  in  its  regular  place.  But, 
however  solvd,  size  problems  ar  no  more  trublsum  with  Decimal  tlian 
with  any  other  clasification. 

Catalogs 

Any  sistem  of  catalogs  may  be  uzed  with  this  skeme,  but  the  2  es- 
sentials of  even  the  simplest  sistem  ar  name  or  author  catalog  and  shelf- 
list.  The  chief  uses  of  this  sistem  for  catalogs  ar  for  shelflists  and  for 
clast  catalogs  on  cards. 

Name  catalog  In  this,  arranjed  strictly  by  names  of  authors  and  of 
persons  or  places  MTitn  about,  the  clas  number  holds  a  subordinate 
place,  yet  is  constantly  useful.  If  printed,  it  appears  in  a  singl  colum  as 
in  the  Relativ  Index,  and  where  there  is  no  subject  catalog  one  can  rap- 
idly pik  out  books  on  any  topic  by  glancing  down  colum  for  clas  number 

wanted. 

Shelflist  Here  clas  number  is  again  hyly  important,  as  it  makes  this 
list  the  most  useful  form  of  brief  subject  catalog,  giving  author's  name 
and  brief  title  of  every  book  on  specific  subject  bearing  that  clas  num- 
ber. 

Clast  catalog    In  the  clast  card  catalog  the  clasification  is  mapt  out 

79 


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P 
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Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


abuv  the  cards  by  projecting  gyds,  making  reference  almost  instanta- 
neus.  Subjects  ar  arranjed  in  1,  2,  3  order  of  their  decimal  subject  num- 
bers exactly  as  in  clas  tables,  and  cards  of  each  subject  ar  then  subar- 
ranjed  alfabeticly  by  authors  (or,  in  sum  cases,  e.g.  biografy  or  local 
history,  by  subjects)  or  cronolojicly,  or  by  book  numbers. 

The  printed  subject  catalog  on  this  plan  is  also  most  compact  and  sat- 
isfactory in  use.  Under  each  clas  number  ar  givn  the  Hbrary  s  resources 
on  that  subject,  the  heding  giving,  for  convenience,  name  as  wel  as  num- 
ber of  subject;  e.g.  '513  Jeometry.  Jeneral  notes  ar  printed  in  finer  typ 
under  jeneral  beds,  and  a  relativ  index  at  the  end  shows  just  where  to 
open  the  book  to  find  any  topic.  As  clas  numbers  ar  put  in  place  of  paje 
numbers,  this  index  servs  for  any  catalog,  hst  or  library  arranjed  on  this 

plan. 

Dictionary  catalog  The  dictionary  catalog  is  as  eazily  uzed  with  this 
sistem  as  with  any  other,  and  is  at  present  on  the  crest  of  its  wave  of 
popularity.  Its  failure  to  meet  skolars'  requirements  has  often  been 
pointed  out.  While  far  the  best  for  an  index,  it  stil  leavs  much  need  of  a 
good  clast  catalog.  But  diflBculties  both  of  making  and  of  uzing  a  clast 
catalog  wer  formerly  so  great  that  there  was  a  conviction  amung  many 
librarians  that  notwithstanding  its  great  advantajes,  the  idea  must  be 
abandond  as  impracticabl,  tho  other  eminent  authorities  ably  argued 
that  the  poorest  clast  catalog  was  better  than  one  unclast,  and  that  any 
use  of  such  a  catalog  was  in  itself  a  lesson  in  bibUografy.  Now  that  the 
serius  diflBculties  of  making  a  good  clast  catalog  hav  been  so  larjly  re- 
moved by  the  simpl  arable  numerals  and  Relativ  Index  of  this  decimal 
plan,  the  merits  of  clast  over  the  more  common  dictionary  sistems  ar 

dubly  prominent. 

The  Subject  Index  of  this  sistem  is  a  skeleton  dictionary  catalog,  cov- 
ering everything  not  fully  coverd  by  the  name  catalog'.  Insted  of  giving 
book  titles  under  each  hed,  the  mmiber  refers  to  all  those  titles  simply 
and  directly.  The  index  may  be  made  on  any  of  the  varius  dictionary 
plans,  with  all  the  advantajes  it  may  possess.  To  us,  simplest  seemd  best. 
We  giv  only  short  beds  with  brief  indication  in  doutful  cases  of  view- 
point taken  in  assyning  clas  numbers. 

We  therefore  unite  advantajes  of  dictionary  and  clast  catalogs,  not  by 
mingling  them  and  so  losing  much  of  simphcity  of  one  and  as  much  of 
excelence  of  the  other,  but  by  realy  uzing  both,  each  with  its  own  merits. 
Only  one  set  of  titles  is  needed,  for  our  clas  numbers  make  this  availabl 
for  both  catalogs. 

8o 


Advantajes 

Shelvs  The  sistem  on  the  shelvs  is  the  simplest  form  of  relativ  loca- 
tion. Many  libraries  hav  adopted  it  for  shelf  arranjement,  where  catalogs 
recently  printed,  or  larj  investment  in  another  plan,  made  it  too  expensiv 
to  chanje  anything  else. 

Shelflist  By  simply  printing  the  shelflist  at  any  time  an  admirabl  sub- 
ject clas  list  is  made  for  any  topic  on  which  there  may  be  present  inter- 
est; e.g.  if  a  tovra  contemplates  a  new  water  supply,  interest  is  greatly 
stimulated,  and  everything  about  waterworks  is  wanted.  The  librarian 
has  only  to  open  his  shelflist  to  628.1  and  352.6  and  print  it.  This  great 
advantaj  is  gaind  with  but  slyt  variation  from  the  form  found  best  in  its 
regular  use  as  a  shelflist  for  examination  of  shelvs  to  detect  losses  and 
misplacements. 

Accession  book  Where  shelf  mark  colums  ar  uzed,  tables  of  number 
of  books  aded  on  each  subject  ar  redily  made.  A  glance  shows  caracter, 
by  subjects,  of  books  aded  during  any  givn  period;  for,  wherever  this 
clas  number  occurs,  it  tels  not  only  where  the  book  is  shelvd  but  also 
what  it  is  about. 

Pamflets  These  clas  numbers  applyd  to  pamflets,  whether  catalogd 
or  uncatalogd,  hav  proved  specialy  satisfactory.  Number  is  writn  on  up- 
per left  corner,  and  pamflets  ar  shelvd  in  pamflet  boxes,  side  by  side 
with  books  on  same  subject,  or  they  may  be  kept  in  vertical  files  or  on 
special  shelvs  divided  every  10  cm  by  perpendicular  partitions,  or,  if 
preferd,  each  pamflet  may  be  put  in  exact  place  as  if  bound.  Litl  ex- 
pense is  incurd,  and  yet  entire  pamflet  resources  of  the  hbrary  on  any 
subject  can  be  produced  almost  instantly.  The  immense  advantajes  of 
this  clast  arranjement,  both  in  economy  and  usefuhiess,  wil  be  appre- 
ciated by  every  keeper  of  a  pamflet  colection.  A  name  or  author  catalog 
is  made  on  slips  if  time  allows.  The  pamflets  themselvs  ar  the  best  sub- 
ject catalog.  Placing  all  material  under  its  clas  number  on  regular  shelvs, 
has  the  great  advantaj  of  enabling  anyone  examining  a  subject  to  see  all 
resources  in  1  place,  so  far  as  posibl. 

Sale  duplicates  The  same  arranjement  is  admirabl  here.  Duphcates  ar 
so  constantly  chanjing  that  a  catalog  can  hardly  be  afforded,  and  a  sub- 
ject arranjement  on  any  other  plan  that  this  is  diflBcult  to  maintain,  Stil, 
it  is  very  important  that  there  be  sum  means  of  knowing  what  duphcates 
there  ar  on  any  givn  subject.  By  simply  penciling  clas  numbers  on  books 

8i 


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Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


\f 


(I 


h 
I 


U 


and  arranjing  these  numericly,  it  is  posibl  to  giv  the  information  more 
quikly,  cheaply  and  satisfactorily  than  in  any  other  way. 

Charjing  sistem  Clas  numbers  may  be  uzed  for  charjing  with  the 
following  advantajes:  Minutest  statistics  of  circulation  can  be  made  by 
simply  counting  charjes  and  entering  the  number  for  each  clas  on  a  re- 
port sheet.  If  filing  is  dun  by  call  numbers,  as  either  a  primary  or  a  sec- 
ondary consideration,  whereabouts  of  any  book  lent  or  amount  of  use  of 
any  subject  is  quikly  found;  file  givs  an  up-to-date  record  of  all  books 
lent  in  any  subject;  e.g.  cards  filed  under  52  show  for  Astronomy  or  those 
under  822  for  Enghsh  drama  just  how  many  and  what  books  ar  out  and 
who  hav  them.  Such  a  circulation  table,  always  at  hand,  and  with  no 
extra  expense  or  labor,  since  it  is  a  natural  part  of  the  sistem,  is  hyly 
prized  by  all  interested  in  caracter  of  jeneral  use  of  the  library,  while  it 
can  by  trifling  labor  be  converted  into  a  permanent  record  by  entering 
on  a  report  sheet.  If  a  reader's  card  is  uzed,  caracter  of  the  individual's 
reading  is  here  shown  and  never  before  has  so  much  attention  as  now 
been  givn  to  educating  readers'  tastes. 

Subject  references  For  these  it  has  pecuHar  advantajes.  Many  uzers 
ar  undertaking  analises  and  cros  references  to  an  extent  hitherto  tho't 
wholy  or  almost  imposibl.  These  few  figures  tel  as  clearly  as  a  long  hed- 
ing  exactly  what  the  reference  is,  while  gain  in  eaz  of  use  is  even  greater 
than  in  time  and  space  saved  in  recording.  The  clearness  and  directness 
of  the  method  aid  wonderfuly  in  this  work.  References  to  transactions, 
or  chapters  in  essays,  may  be  made  in  the  most  compact  and  uzabl  form. 
Recataloging  or  reclasifying  When  Amherst  College  in  1873  first 
adopted  this  plan  and  began  to  recatalog  its  library,  it  was  found  ( as  in 
hundreds  of  cases  since)  entirely  practicabl  to  chanje  to  the  new  sistem 
gradualy,  as  means  allowd,  without  interfering  in  any  appreciabl  degree 
with  circulation.  Methods  employd  for  thus  chanjing  without  interrupt- 
ing use  must  vary  according  to  different  conditions.  The  essential  feature 
is  enuf  distinction  between  old  and  new  call  numbers  to  be  eazily  recog- 
nized by  attendants.  If  old  call  ntunbers  consist  wholy  of  figiures,  the 
initial  letter  of  the  Cutter  author  numbers  furnishes  this  requisit.  All 
numbers  of  figures  only  ar  then  recognized  as  old,  and  all  numbers  con- 
taining a  letter  as  in  the  new  sistem. 

Adaptability  The  sistem  is  so  flexibl  that  it  adapts  itself  to  almost  any 
circumstances.  It  may  be  uzed  with  proportionate  results  in  almost  any 
one  of  its  applications  without  the  others.  It  may  be  applyd  to  pamflets 
alone,  bringing  order  out  of  caos,  and  solving  this  vext  and  vexing  prob- 

82 


lem;  or  it  may  be  uzed  for  catalogs,  leaving  shelf  arranjement  as  before; 
or  it  may  be  applyd  to  shelvs,  while  the  catalog  is  dictionaiy  or  any 

other  typ. 

Arabic  numerals  Arabic  numerals  can  be  writn  and  found  quicker 
and  with  les  danjer  of  confuzion  or  mistake  than  any  other  simbols. 
Therefore  roman  numerals,  capitals  and  small  letters,  and  similar  simbols 
found  in  most  clasification  sistems  ar  entirely  discarded,  and  by  exclusiv 
use  of  arabic  numerals  thruout  shelvs,  and  indexes,  catalogs  and  other 
records,  there  is  secured  the  greatest  accuracy,  economy  and  conven- 
ience. This  advantaj  is  specialy  prominent  in  comparison  witli  sistems 
where  author's  name  or  the  title  must  be  writn,  in  calling  for  or  charjing 
books  and  in  making  references. 

Endowment  of  special  departments  Another  great  advantaj  is  pecul- 
iar adaptability  to  special  endowments.  One  specialy  interested  in  any 
subject  can  often  be  induced  to  endow  that  subject,  thus  providing  for 
bying  each  year  all  the  best  publications. 

If  John  Doe  is  specialy  interested  in  opera,  the  library  says:  'Giv  us 
$1000  as  endowment  of  782,  and  we  wil  call  it  the  'Doe  Library  of  Dra- 
matic Music'.  There  wil  be  found  every  book,  pamflet,  newspaper  clip- 
ping, or  manuscript  that  the  hbrary  has  or  can  get  on  this  subject.  Gifts 
from  others  wil  be  placed  in  the  Doe  Library,  the  donor's  name  being 
givn  on  the  bookplate,  and  for  jenerations  to  cum  every  person  inter- 
ested in  opera  wil  be  grateful  for  yur  foundation'.  In  this  way  782  is 
assynd  to  John  Doe,  and  his  pride  is  stimulated  in  developing  it.  If  an- 
other man  with  larjer  means  and  interest  wal  endow  the  whole  subject 
of  music  780,  there  is  no  diflSculty  or  impropryety  in  including  782,  the 
Doe  Dramatic  Music  Library,  as  the  2d  section  of  780,  the  Roe  Music 

Library. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  promising  fields  for  development,  for  almost 
every  library  has  amung  its  readers  sum  specialy  interested,  who  if  prop- 
erly approacht  wud  endow  sum  topic,  even  if  a  small  one,  and  this  rel- 
ativ  location,  with  its  definit  number  expressing  just  the  ground  coverd, 
may  be  of  great  servis  in  working  up  these  special  endowments. 

Summary  To  sum  up  its  claims:  It  is  by  far  most  inexpensiv;  eazily 
understood,  rememberd  and  uzed;  practical  rather  than  theoretic;  brief 
and  familiar  in  nomenclature;  susceptibl  of  partial  and  gradual  adoption 
without  confuzion;  convenient  for  arranjing  pamflets,  sale  duplicates, 
and  notes,  and  for  indexing,  and  in  keeping  statistics  and  cheks  for  books 
off  shelvs;  a  satisfactory  adaptation  of  card  catalog  principl  to  shelvs.  It 

83 


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:i 


'is 


Decimal  Classification 


shelvs  books  compactly;  uzes  simpl  and  few  simbols;  can  be  expanded, 
without  limit  and  without  confuzion  or  wasted  labor,  both  in  catalogs 
and  on  shelvs  or  in  catalogs  alone;  cheks  thuroly  and  conveniently 
against  mistakes;  admits  redily  numerus  cros  references;  is  unchanjeabl 
in  its  call  numbers,  and  so  givs  them  in  all  places  where  needed;  in  its 
Index  aflFords  an  anser  to  the  greatest  objection  to  clast  catalogs,  and 
was  the  1st  satisfactory  union  of  the  advantajes  of  clast  and  dictionary 
sistems. 


Sugjestions  to  uzers 

Hold  book  in  ryt  hand  and  turn  with  left,  then  both  clas  numbers  and 
index  beds  show  most  plainly  on  left  marjins  and  reference  is  quicker 
when  eye  follows  left  pajes  only. 

Numeration  In  thinking  or  speaking  of  clas  numbers,  to  avoid  con- 
fuzion always  divide  at  the  decimal  point,  and  name  it;  e.g.  read  942.27 
*nine  forty-two,  point  twenty-seven',  never  'ninety-four  two  twenty- 
seven*.  If  point'  wer  omitted,  the  ear  myt  redily  interpret  270.2  (two 
seventy,  two)  as  272,  while  *two  seventy,  point  two'  can  never  be  mis- 
understood. 

Flan  of  book 

Tables  First  paje  shows  10  clases  into  which  all  topics  ar  divided. 
Next  paje  shows  9  divisions  of  each  of  these  10  clases,  in  a  birdseye  view 
of  the  whole  skeme  on  a  singl  paje.  Then  follows  a  sinoptic  view  of  10 
pajes,  one  for  each  clas,  showing  the  9  sections  of  each  division  of  each 

clas. 

Following  these  sinopses  is  the  complete  clasification,  which  repeats  in 
proper  order,  clases,  divisions  and  sections,  with  all  subsections.  For 
convenience  of  uzers,  who  thus  get  fuller  and  clearer  ideas  of  the  field 
which  each  number  covers,  sinonimus  terms,  exampls,  brief  notes,  dates 
and  varius  cachwords  ar  often  aded  to  main  beds.  Therefore  all  refer- 
ences to  numbers  shud  be  lookt  up  in  the  ful  tables  of  subsections,  uzing 
summaries  only  when  a  merely  sinoptic  view  is  wisht. 

Index  Next  an  alfabetic  index  of  all  beds  refers  by  clas  number  to 
exact  place  of  each  in  Tables.  This  Index  includes  also,  as  far  as  found, 
all  sinonims  or  alternativ  names  for  beds,  and  any  other  entries  likely  to 
help  a  reader  find  his  subject  more  redily.  Even  a  uzer  who  knows  just 

84 


I 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


where  to  turn  to  his  subject  in  the  Tables,  may,  by  consulting  the  Index, 
be  put  on  the  trak  of  valuabl  allyd  matter  which  he  myt  otherwize  over- 
look. 

Use  of  Tables  and  Index 

Familiarity  with  Clasification    Get  a  jeneral  knowlej  of  the  skeme  by 

lerning  the  10  main  clases  [yu  wil  soon  know  the  100  divisions  also  with- 
out special  study],  so  that  yu  can  tel  to  what  subject  a  givn  number  be- 
longs from  its  1st  figure,  without  referring  to  Tables.  Specific  knowlej 
of  minute  divisions  wil  cum  gradualy,  but  rapidly,  from  use.  Assyn  num- 
bers by  uzing  Tables  alone,  and  then  always  verify  yur  result  by  the 
Index.  Tlius  yu  wdl  more  rapidly  acquire  knowlej  of  the  Clasification 
and  facility  in  its  use.  To  do  this,  decide  first  to  which  of  the  10  clases 
the  subject  belongs;  next,  take  that  clas  as  if  there  wer  no  other,  and 
decide  to  which  of  its  10  divisions  the  subject  belongs;  then,  in  the  same 
way,  select  section  and  subsection,  thus  running  down  yur  topic  in  its 
groovs,  which  becum  10-fold  narrower  at  each  step.  As  a  chek  against 
error,  even  tho  familiar  with  the  skeme,  uze  Index  freely. 
Subject  of  a  book    To  find  this  out,  consult: 

1  Title,  since  it  is  jeneraly  chosen  to  show  what  the  book  is  about,  but 
as  many  titles  ar  vague  or  misleading,  never  clas  from  title  alone  but 

always  examin  also 

2  Contents  table,  which  is  best  gyd  to  true  subject.  If  there  is  no  con- 
tents table  read 

3  Hedings  of  chapters,  or  marjinal  topics 

4  Preface  Unless  ahedy  certain,  glance  thru  this  to  each  author's 
viewpoint  and  verify  impressions  gaind  from  title  and  contents 

5  Reference  books  If  preceding  means  fail,  consult  relyabl  bibliog- 
rafies,  clast  and  annotated  catalogs,  biografic  dictionaries,  histories  of 
literature,  cyclopedias,  reviews  etc.  for  information  about  caracter  of 

book. 

6  Subject  matter  If  5  shorter  methods  abuv  fail,  examin  subject  mat- 
ter of  book  itself,  and  if  stil  in  dout,  to  avoid  mistakes,  put  aside  on  an 
under  consideration   shelf  til  yu  can  examin  more  thuroly  or  consult 

7  Specialists  Experts  ar  uzualy  glad  to  examin  any  new  books  in 
their  departments,  enuf  to  clas  them,  i.e.  to  define  their  true  subject  and 
relations.  Old  ones  they  know  where  to  put  alredy. 

Be  specialy  careful  when  dealing  with  flexibl  terms,  e.g.  child  welfare, 

8S 


■11 


Decimal  Classification 


to  make  sure  of  the  caracter  of  its  application  in  that  individual  book. 

After  deciding  what  the  book  is  about,  find  this  subject  in  Tables, 
either  thru  Index  or  by  uzing  Tables  directly,  which  for  beginners  is  a 
longer  process,  seldom  to  be  trusted  without  subsequent  reference  to 
Index;  e.g.  Pollock's  Land  laws  myt  naturaly  be  clast  from  Tables  alone 
as  '333,  Land:  ownership;  ryts;  rent*,  which  seems  exactly  to  fit  this  book. 
Index,  however,  shows  2  numbers,  both  referring  to  land  laws,  but  from 
diflFerent  viewpoints;  i.e.  347.2,  legal,  and  333,  economic.  The  object  of 
this  book,  as  seen  in  the  preface,  is  to  giv  a  popular  presentation  of 
English  statutes  pertaining  to  landholding,  not  to  discuss  history  and 
theory  of  land  laws  from  economist's  viewpoint.  It  should  be  clast  *347.2, 
Realty',  which  myt  hav  been  overlookt  but  for  Index. 

Assyning  clas  numbers  1  Practical  usefulness  controls.  Put  each  book 
under  the  subject  to  the  student  of  which  it  is  most  useful,  unless  local 
reazons  'attract'  it  to  a  place  stil  more  useful  in  yiu*  library. 

2  Content  or  real  subject  of  which  a  book  treats,  and  not  form  or  ac- 
cidental wording  of  title,  determins  its  place.  Following  this  rule,  put  a 
filosofy  of  art  with  Art,  not  with  Filosofy;  a  history  of  mathematics  with 
Mathematics,  not  with  History;  for  filosofy  or  history  is  simply  the  form 
which  these  books  hav  taken.  Their  true  content  or  subject  is  Art  or 
Mathematics,  and  to  the  student  of  these  subjects  they  ar  most  useful. 

3  Always  remember  that  the  question  is  not  Vhere  wil  one  probably 
look  for  a  certain  book',  but  under  what  subject  is  the  book  of  greatest 
value';  e.g.  it  is  of  litl  consequence  whether  'one  wnd  be  apt  to  look' 
under  595.16  for  Darwin's  Formation  of  vegetable  mould,  but  of  much 
consequence  that  one  studying  erthworms  shud  find  that  book  in  595.16 
Erthworms,  since  it  is  chiefly  valuabl  as  a  study  of  erthworms'  habits. 
Anyone  wanting  that  special  book  shud  look  for  it  in  catalog  under 
Darwin. 

4  Giv  every  book  most  specific  number  which  wil  contain  it.  This 
varies  in  different  libraries  according  to  number  of  figures  uzed,  e.g. 
specific  number  for  'compulsory  vaccination'  is  614.4738;  but  in  a  library 
uzing  only  3  figures,  most  specific'  number  posibl  is  614,  which  must 
take  everything  on  Public  helth, 

Sumtimes  a  library  unwizely  puts  aU  books  of  a  division  together,  if 
but  few;  e.g.  all  mathematical  works  ar  markt  510.  It  takes  just  as  many 
figures  and  in  most  cases  just  as  much  labor  and  if  a  man  wants  the  1 
calculus  in  the  whole  library  he  has  to  serch  thru  perhaps  100  volumes 
in  510,  when  other wize  he  wud  instantly  find  it  standing  alone  as  517. 

86 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


5  'Predominant  tendency'  or  obvius  purpose  of  a  book  uzualy  decides 
its  number  at  once.  Stil  a  book  often  treats  of  2  or  more  subjects.  In  such 
cases  put  it  where  it  wil  be  most  useful,  and  make  aded  entries  for  all 
subordinate  subjects.  For  a  clast  catalog  giv  the  aded  entry  numbers  on 
both  bookplate  and  main  subject  card  as  wel  as  on  aded  entry  cards. 

It  is  a  markt  advantaj  that  these  aded  entries,  notes  etc.  may  be  made 
from  time  to  time  at  convenience.  It  is  necesary  at  first  to  determin  only 
predominant  tendency  of  book  in  order  to  clas  it;  aded  entries  ar  made 
whenever  found  desirabl. 

Supply  these  numbers  indicating  more  closely  caracter  of  book  as  rap- 
idly as  posibl,  and  invite  all  specialists,  in  connection  with  their  reading, 
to  call  attention  to  every  desirabl  aded  topic  notist.  The  numbers  take 
litl  room,  ar  eazily  aded,  and  in  most  cases  ar  very  valuabl. 

6  If  2  subjects  hav  distinct  paje  limits,  jeneraly  clas  under  1st  and 
make  analitic  entry  under  2d;  but  if  2d  is  decidedly  more  important  or 
much  greater  in  bulk,  clas  under  that,  with  analitic  entry  under  1st. 
Always  put  a  book  under  1st  subject,  unless  there  is  good  reazon  for 
entering  it  under  another. 

7  Consider  not  only  scope  and  tendency  of  each  book,  but  also  nature 
and  specialties  of  each  library. 

Any  subject  of  which  a  library  makes  a  specialty  natm"aly  'attracts' 
allyd  subjects.  This  influence  is  strongest  in  minute  clasing.  To  admit 
this  variation,  many  subjects  hav  in  this  skeme  2  or  more  places,  accord- 
ing to  these  different  sides;  e.g.  a  book  on  'skool  hyjiene',  which  a  medi- 
cal library  puts  under  613,  has  also  a  place  in  371.7,  where  education 
specialists  require  it. 

8  If  a  book  treats  of  a  majority  of  the  sections  of  any  division,  giv  it 
division  number,  insted  of  most  important  section  number  with  aded 
entries.  Unless  siun  one  section  is  so  prominently  treated  as  to  warrant 
placing  the  book  in  it,  clas  a  book  covering  4  or  more  sections  under 
division  number;  e.g.  clas  a  volume  on  lyt,  heat  and  sound,  under  hed 
most  fully  discust,  with  aded  entries  for  the  others;  but  if  it  treats  also 
of  mekanics,  hydrostatics  and  neumatics,  clas  as  530,  or  jeneral  fizics, 
tho  no  mention  be  made  of  electricity,  magnetism  or  molecular  fizics. 

9  When  a  book  deals  with  2  consecutiv  and  closely  allyd  subjects, 
jeneraly  clas  with  1st  and  regard  this  as  including  2d,  but  if  2d  is  de- 
cidedly predominant,  clas  with  this  and  either  disregard  1st  or  make 
aded  entry,  according  to  importance  of  that  portion, 

10  To  secure  uniformity,  make  for  futmre  reference  ful  notes  of  all 

«7 


Decimal  Classification 


diflBculties  and  decisions,  for  it  is  more  important  to  put  books  on  same 
subject  together  than  to  put  them  in  a  more  nearly  absolutely  correct 
place.  These  notes  shud  be  writn  on  broad  marjins  of  the  Clas  Tables  or 
in  an  interleavd  copy  or  on  P  slips  arranjed  by  clas  numbers  like  a  clast 
catalog. 

11  Keep  colected  works,  libraries  etc.  together,  and  assyn,  like  indi- 
vidual books,  to  most  specific  hed  that  wil  contain  them;  or  assyn  to 
most  prominent  of  varius  subjects  treated,  with  aded  entries  for  others; 
or,  better,  separate  and  clas  parts  as  independent  works. 

This  last  practis  constantly  grows  in  favor,  and  many  librarians  now 
larjly  disregard  uniform  bindings  and  'series'  lettering,  and,  unless  con- 
tents of  volumes  ar  so  connected  that  they  can  not  be  separated,  clas 
each  under  most  specific  hed  that  wil  contain  it. 

12  Clas  translations,  reviews,  keys,  analises,  ansers  and  other  books 
about  specific  books  with  orijinal  book,  as  being  there  most  useful. 

Number  of  figures  uzed  in  clas  number  Decide  this  according  to  cir- 
cumstances in  each  library.  Small  libraries  often  uze  minute  subsections 
beyond  3  figures  only  in  certain  divisions  like  Travel,  913-919,  where 
closer  jeografic  division  is  specialy  needed,  and  in  400  and  800,  when  a 
4th  figure  is  needed  to  separate  different  languajes. 

In  very  small  colections  2  figures  myt  do  til  growth  required  further 
division;  but  it  is  economy,  and  saves  handling  books  again,  to  uze  at 
least  3  figures  at  first,  even  in  smallest  colections.  In  larjer  or  rapidly 
growing  libraries  all  subdivisions  may  be  uzed  for  same  reazon,  tho 
number  of  books  may  not  then  seem  to  justify  it.  Whether  there  ar  1  or 
1000  books  on  any  topic,  they  take  no  more  shelf  space  if  clast  minutely, 
and  work  is  dun  once  for  all.  When  larj  accessions  cimi,  even  if  a  century 
later,  this  number  wil  not  hav  to  be  alterd.  A  library  having  but  20  books 
on  Education  myt  think  it  unwize  to  uze  the  ful  skeme,  but  the  whole 
20  wud  go  on  a  singl  shelf,  and  take  no  more  room,  and  the  Index  wud 
refer  more  exactly  to  what  was  wanted.  Number  of  books  yu  hav  on  any 
subject  has  in  this  sistem  no  special  weight.  In  relativ  location,  any  num- 
ber of  consecutiv  topics  without  a  book  wastes  no  space  on  shelvs  or  in 
catalogs.  Numbers  ar  merely  skipt.  This  not  only  does  no  harm,  but  has 
great  negativ  value,  as  looking  for  a  number  and  finding  it  blank  or  skipt 
shows  that  yu  hav  nothing  on  that  subject — information  2d  in  value  only 
to  finding  sumthing,  for  one  need  no  longer  serch. 

The  practical  objection  to  close  clasing  is  that  it  givs  a  longer  number, 
when  this  is  uzed  to  charj  by  in  a  lending  library.  In  a  reference  library 

88 


Melvil  Dewetfs  introduction 


ful  subsections  shud  always  be  uzed.  Where  short  numbers  ar  imperativ, 
giv  ful  clas  number  on  another  part  of  the  bookplate,  not  to  be  uzed  in 
charjing,  but  as  a  gyd  to  contents.  Thus  when  a  clasifyer  has  once  ex- 
amind  a  book  and  found  out  just  what  it  is  about,  he  records  it  to  ben- 
efit others. 


Bilding  numbers 

Jeografic  divisions  In  dividing  by  cuntries  according  to  note  'Divided 
like  930-999',  found  so  often  in  Tables,  ad  only  the  number  following 
initial  9,  for  this  9  means  not  locality  but  simply  clas  9,  History;  e.g.  942, 
history  of  England,  analyzd  is  9  history,  42  England  (4  Europe,  2  Eng- 
land). If  jeolojy  of  England  is  wanted,  ad  to  55  (jeolojy  number)  42 
(number  for  England)  and  yu  hav  554.2.  History  of  N  Y  state  is  974.7, 
of  which  747  is  locality  number;  353.9747,  number  for  N  Y  state  admin- 
istration, is  bilt  by  ading  to  number  for  state  administration,  353.9,  num- 
ber for  N  Y  state,  747. 

Languaj  and  literature  In  890,  where  directed  to  'divide  like  490', 
note  that  890,  Minor  literatures,  and  490,  Minor  languajes,  correspond 
exactly,  so  that  only  figtires  following  49  ar  to  be  aded  to  89  to  bild  a 
minor  literature  number;  e.g.  Polish  languaj  is  491.85;  ading  185  to  89, 
Minor  literatures,  givs  891.85  Polish  literature.  In  brief,  to  form  literature 
from  filolojy  numbers  substitute  8  for  1st  figure,  4;  e.g.  Sanskrit  languaj 
491.2,  Sanskrit  literature  891.2.  Under  490,  the  filolojic  divisions  (dic- 
tionaries, grammar  etc.),  and  under  890  the  form  divisions  (poetry, 
drama  etc.)  shud  be  uzed  only  when  clas  number  represents  a  specific 
languaj  or  literature,  e.g.  491.7  Russian,  but  not  497  North  American, 
awaiting  further  division  by  languaj. 

If  directed  to  'divide  like  main  clasification ,  as  in  016,  number  for  re- 
quired subject  is  aded  exactly  as  it  stands  in  Tables;  e.g.  bibliografy  of 
Polish  poetry,  016.891851. 

Combining  numbers  in  a  way  not  printed  in  Tables  must  be  dun  with 
great  care,  or  confuzion  results.  Many  uzers,  fascinated  with  the  posi- 
bilities  of  the  sistem,  make  combinations  more  injenius  than  useful;  e.g. 
'The  horse's  foot  and  how  to  shoe  it'  was  once  markt  636.1682,  i.e.  blak- 
smithing  number,  682,  aded  to  horse  number,  636.1.  Horseshoeing  is  now 
in  Tables  as  682.1,  while  636.168  means  American  ponies. 

Often  a  clasifyer  ads  a  figure  to  show  sum  distinction.  It  seems  short 
and  desirabl,  but  later  he  may  find  he  has  shut  himself  off  from  uzing 

89 


Decimal  Classification 


sum  other  division  greatly  preferd.  For  his  personal  aditions,  letters  or 
other  simbols  not  numbers  shud  be  uzed.  Every  aded  simbol  must  be 
clearly  writn  in  Tables  and  Index.  Never  trust  memory  for  decisions. 


Book  numbers 

The  call  number  of  a  book  (number  by  which  it  is  cald  for)  jeneraly 
consists  of  both  clas  and  book  numbers.  The  same  clas  number  applys 
to  all  books  on  same  subject;  the  book  number  distinguishes  each  indi- 
vidual work  from  all  others  in  that  clas,  and  is  the  same  for  all  volumes 
or  copies  of  same  work.  When  a  specific  volume  is  wanted  the  number 
for  that  volume  must  be  aded  to  clas  and  book  numbers  to  complete  the 
call  number.  Most  important  methods  of  assyning  book  numbers  ar: 

Author  numbers  Invention  of  translation  sistems  by  which  a  name  is 
represented  by  its  initial,  with  remaining  letters  translated  into  numbers, 
e.g.  Freeman,  F85,  has  led  most  libraries  to  arranje  books  under  each 
clas  number  alfabeticly  by  authors,  or  in  local  history  by  towns,  or  in 
individual  biografy  and  bibliografy  by  biografees  and  bibliografees.  This 
keeps  together  all  works  by  same  author  or  on  same  town  or  same  biog- 
rafee,  etc.  and  even  in  larj  clases  enables  one  to  find  any  book  redily 
without  consulting  catalogs.  One  great  advantaj  is  that  same  author  has 
same  book  number  in  every  subject;  i.e.  figures  ar  'significant'  like  our 
clas  numbers,  and  translate  themselvs  into  names.  Great  practical  ne- 
monic  convenience  results  from  this  form  of  book  number.  Most  widely 
uzed  of  these  translation  sistems  is  C.  A.  Cutter  s,  known  as  *Cutter  num- 
bers', publisht  by  Library  Bureau. 

Special  author  tables  A  2d  method,  for  authors  having  special  nmn- 
bers,  e.g.  Shakspere,  822.33,  or  Milton,  821.47,  is  uniform  use  for  such 
authors,  of  book  numbers  A-N,  with  O-Z  assynd  on  basis  of  their  individ- 
ual works,  as  ilustrated  under  'Special  author  tables',  on  pajes  following 
Relativ  Index. 

Time  numbers  A  3d  arranjement  of  books  under  clas  numbers  is 
cronolojic  by  date  of  1st  pubhcation.  Its  advantaj  is  in  presenting  historic 
development  of  subject,  the  book  writn  erliest  being  on  the  left,  the  lat- 
est work  on  the  ryt,  and  then  of  any  givn  book  it  is  evident  that  all  those 
on  the  left  wer  writn  before  it,  all  those  on  the  ryt  after  it.  In  syence 
and  useful  arts  this  has  special  value,  while  in  literature  author  arranje- 
ment is  better.  W.  S.  Biscoe's  translation  sistem  of  dates  givs  a  more 
compact  and  satisfactory  mark  for  year  than  date  writn  in  ful.  (For  ful 

90 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


explanations  and  table  see  'Biscoe  time  numbers',  on  pajes  following 

Relativ  Index)  1       1    - 

Accession  order    A  4th  arranjement,  simpler  but  otherwize  les  desu:- 
abl,  is  in  accession  order;  1st  book  put  in  a  clas  being  numbrd  1,  and 

2d  2,  the  3d  3. 

It  is  entirely  practicabl  to  uze  2,  3  or  aU  4  of  these  methods  at  same 
time  in  same  library,  one  peculiarity  of  the  sistem  being  the  eaz  widi 
which  it  may  be  adapted  to  almost  any  special  circumstances.  The  ad- 
vantajes  of  the  cronolojic  numbering  ar  most  markt  in  syence  and  useful 
arts;  the  alfabetic  is  best  in  clases  where  names  of  authors  or  subjects 
outrank  dates;  and  special  author  numbers  in  cases  where  clas  number 
ahedy  indicates  author,  so  corresponding  indication  in  book  number 
wud  be  useless  duplication;  while  the  old  accession-order  plan  is  good 
in  special  colections  which  must  be  kept  separate  and  ar  no  longer  aded 
to,  since  here  the  extreme  simplicity  of  1,  2,  3  order  is  secured  with  no 
sacrifice.  It  is  std  better,  if  this  last  method  is  uzed,  to  adopt  A,  B,  C, 
insted  of  1,  2,  3,  as  26  insted  of  9  books  may  be  markt  with  1  caracter, 
and  chiefly  becauz  it  is  hyly  desirabl  that  each  book  number  begin  with 
a  letter,  which  can  not  be  mistaken  for  end  of  clas  number  if  writn  on 
same  line;  e.g.  1st  book  under  513,  if  numberd  1,  myt  be  so  writn  as  to 
confuze  with  subsection  513.1,  but  513A  cud  not  be  misinterpreted.  If 
figures  ar  uzed,  take  care  to  write  them  as  a  fraction  or  with  separating 
dash;  e.g.  513  or  513-1. 
1 


Variations  practicabl  in  adjusting  to  special  local  requirements 

Sum  uzers  assume  that  adopting  Decimal  Clasification  and  Relativ 
Index  carries  with  it  other  parts  of  the  sistem  uzed  by  the  author  at 
Amherst,  Wellesley  or  Columbia  colejes  or  in  New  York  State  Library. 
In  fact,  the  plan  in  each  differd  sumwhat  from  all  the  others,  and  many 
of  the'  thousands  of  public  and  private  libraries  now  uzing  it  hav 
adopted  stil  other  variations;  for  special  constituency,  circumstances  and 
resources  of  each  library  must  be  considerd  in  deciding  what  is  best  for 
it.  This  decision  shud  be  made  by  one  familiar,  not  only  with  the  library 
and  its  needs,  but  also  with  all  methods  of  any  merit  and  with  compar- 
ativ  eaz  and  cost  of  introducing  them  into  any  givn  library. 

Cautions  Having  decided  to  adopt  this  sistem  in  its  decinml  form  as 
workt  out  and  printed,  determin  whether  to  adopt  certain  variations, 

9^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


noted  in  1-5  below  as  practicabl,  and  in  sum  cases  useful  and  desirabl. 
The  inexperienst  uzer  is  very  likely  to  feel  entirely  competent,  without 
reading  more  than  a  singl  paje  of  the  Tables,  regardless  of  its  bearings 
on  hundreds  of  other  places,  and  without  so  much  as  looking  at  the 
author's  explanations,  to  institute  a  series  of  'improvements'.  Experience 
shows  that  nothing  cud  be  more  disastrus.  It  seems  a  simpl  matter  to 
put  a  topic  a  line  hyer  or  lower,  but  in  sum  cases  this  may  aflEect  over 
100  Index  entries,  and  there  is  no  posibl  way  to  be  sure  of  correcting 
them  except  by  examining  each  of  43,000  beds.  Proposed  chanjes,  care- 
fuly  studid  out  and  submitted  as  improvements,  ar  frequently  shown  by 
our  old  records  to  hav  been  adopted  and  uzed  in  the  exact  form  pro- 
posed til  unforeseen  considerations  forst  us  to  chanje  to  the  form  as 
printed.  Even  after  years  of  experience  one  is  not  safe  in  pronouncing 
on  an  apparent  improvement  without  consulting  voluminus  records  of 
previus  experiments. 

Even  sum  who  hav  uzed  the  sistem  longest  hav  been  misled  into 
adopting  chanjes  which  on  tryal  they  wer  compeld  to  reject,  going  bak 
to  orijinal  form  at  cost  and  confuzion  of  2  chanjes.  In  so  apparently 
simpl  a  thing  as  introducing  subdivisions  on  blank  numbers,  mistakes  ar 
often  made;  and  when  too  late  to  correct  them  the  makers  regret  their 
neglect  to  consult  the  editor  and  secure  advice  and  cooperation  of  those 
most  familiar  with  the  manifold  interrelations.  Even  wer  the  independ- 
ent divisions  equaly  good,  they  do  not  agree  with  those  which  wil  later 
be  printed  in  Tables  and  Index,  so  that  every  copy  of  the  printed  skeme 
wil  hav  to  be  corrected  in  manuscript  before  it  is  uzabl  in  that  library. 
The  only  safe  rule  is  to  make  no  chanjes  or  subdivisions  without  submit- 
ting them  to  the  editor,  who  wil  gladly  advize  on  such  matters  without 
charj,  not  on  ground  of  any  superior  wizdom,  nor  even  becauz  of  larjer 
experience  in  this  special  work,  but  becauz  in  this  way  only  can  it  be 
lernd  if  corresponding  subdivisions  hav  been  alredy  assynd  sumwhat 
differently. 

A  uzer  who  adopts  printed  form  avoids  criticizm  sure  to  be  aimd  at 
any  posibl  skeme.  The  moment  he  makes  1  'improvement'  he  must  de- 
fend all  his  beds  or  alter  them  to  suit  each  critic.  Much  time  is  saved  by 
saying  that  the  skeme  is  uzed  as  printed,  and  blunders  ar  the  author  s, 
not  the  uzer's.  A  list  of  chanjes  made  by  others  without  consultation  was 
writn  for  this  caution,  but  is  omitted  lest  it  seem  invidius.  It  ilustrates 
how  eazy  it  is  for  able  men  to  make  what  no  one  questions  after  expla- 
nation to  hav  been  outryt  blunders,  in  'improving  and  ading  to'  the 

9^ 


printed  skeme.  We  ar  always  grateful  for  sugjestions  from  anyone,  and, 
having  abredy  spent  so  much  time  in  efforts  to  improve  this  sistem  for 
the  common  good  of  all  uzers,  invite  cooperation  of  those  interested  in 
completing  needed  subdivisions  and  eliminating  any  errors  that  remain 
in  either  Tables  or  Index. 

Sugjested  variations 

The  following  brief  notes  show  the  most  important  variations  found 
practicabl  in  the  'relativ  index  and  location  sistem,'  oftener  cald  the  Dec- 
imal Clasification  or  'Dewey  sistem',  or  oftenest  simply  'D  C. 

1  Letter  or  simbol  notations  for  chanjes  or  aditions    To  protect  other 
uzers  from  confuzion,  the  publishers  insist,  as  entitled  to  by  copyryt, 
that  D  C  numbers  shal  not  be  printed  with  chanjed  meanings  or  adi- 
tions, without  sum  clear  indication  of  the  fact  in  the  number  itself.  If 
reazons  which  led  to  adoption  of  form  printed  ar  not  conclusiv  to  an- 
other, we  wish  to  remove  any  obstacls  to  his  use  of  the  sistem  with  such 
chanjes  as  shal  satisfy  him.  This  can  redily  be  dun  by  uzing  a  letter  or 
sum  other  caracter  than  the  10  dijits,  to  mark  chanjes;  e.g.  if  yu  wish  a 
different  set  of  subdivisions  under  any  number,  make  it  out  to  suit,  and 
letter  it  a,  b,  c,  etc.  It  wil  arranje  in  its  exact  place  and  exact  order  ^^dth- 
out  difficulty,  and  no  other  uzer  of  the  sistem  wil  be  confuzed  by  yur 
forms.  In  Index,  cancel  1,  2,  3,  etc.  yu  hav  discarded,  and  write  in  a,  b, 
c,  etc.  adopted.  Whenever  yu  uze  our  exact  numbers,  uze  also  our  exact 
and  universal  meanings  for  them  as  indext.  For  any  aditions  or  chanjes 
of  yur  own,  uze  letters  or  simbols  of  yur  own  which  can  not  be  mistaken 
for  ours,  uzing,  of  course,  our  figures  to  the  place  where  difference  be- 
gins; e.g.  if  yu  want  a  new  heding  next  to  551.34,  Icebergs,  it  can  not 
properly  go  as  decimal  1.  Mark  it  551.34a,  and  it  arranjes  as  wisht.  If 
yu  wish  to  chanje  a  bed  from  one  place  to  another,  cancel  it  where  it 
stands,  and  leav  that  number  bhnk  in  Tables.  Then  insert  the  hed  in  its 
new  place  as  abuv,  as  if  it  had  never  been  in  our  Tables.  Unuzed  deci- 
mals ar  often  alredy  appropriated  for  authorized  subdivisions,  tho  they 
may  not  be  printed  til  several  editions  later. 

This  plan  of  introducing  letters  or  other  simbols  wherever  each  uzer 
pleazes,  wil  giv  all  needed  freedom  to  the  personal  equation  and  desire 
for  orijinality',  and  meet  all  real  wants  for  pecuUar  clasification  in  pe- 
culiar cases. 

Fiction  In  sum  cases  it  is  uzualy  best  to  modify  clas  numbers  by  let- 
ters as  abuv.  In  popular  Ubraries  half  the  circulation  is  often  fiction.  It 

93 


Decimal  Classification 


is  a  great  saving  to  omit  clas  number  entirely  and  uze  merely  book  num- 
ber, it  being  understood  that  no  clas  number  means  'fiction'.  Sum  librar- 
ies go  stil  further  and  for  fiction  omit  book  number  as  wel  as  clas  num- 
ber. Sum  even  omit  book  numbers  in  other  clases. 

Juvenils  After  fiction,  great  circulation  makes  juvenils  a  good  place 
to  economize,  if  they  ar  kept  separate,  as  is  uzualy  desirabl  in  popular 
libraries.  Books  ar  clast  as  if  for  adults  ( except  that  a  short  number  may 
be  uzed )  J  being  prefixt  to  show  their  special  caracter.  This  givs  J  alone 
as  clas  number  for  juvenil  fiction;  J942  is  a  child's  history  of  England. 
These  books  ar  arranjed  in  a  paralel  library  by  themselvs,  so  J942  cums 
between  J941,  juvenil  history  of  Scotland,  and  J943,  juvenil  history  of 
Germany. 

The  separate  J  hbrary  can  at  any  time  be  abandond  by  distributing  J 
books  amung  the  regular  clases,  either  ignoring  J  entirely,  or  preferably 
by  putting  all  J  books  by  themselvs  at  end  of  each  clas  number.  In  for- 
mer case,  if  shorter  numbers  hav  been  uzed  for  juvenils  than  for  adults 
they  shud  be  extended  to  correspond;  in  latter  case,  numbers  may  either 
be  extended  and  the  books  shelvd  at  end  of  exact  subdivision,  or  the 
shorter  numbers  may  be  retaind  and  the  books  groupt  at  end  of  entire 
section,  e.g.  all  juvenil  works  on  English  history  may  be  kept  under  short 
number  J942  and  shelvd  after  all  adult  works  on  English  history,  both 
942  alone  and  942  with  subdivisions. 

There  ar  thus  3  methods:  1,  to  hav  a  separate  J  library;  2,  to  hav  J 
books  by  themselvs  at  end  of  each  clas  number;  3,  to  hav  J  books  in  al- 
fabetic  order  amung  other  books  on  same  subject.  In  this  last  case  J  is 
useful  only  to  call  attention  plainly  to  their  juvenil  caracter. 

Unless  shorter  numbers  ar  uzed  for  juvenils  than  for  adults  the  same 
marking  is  uzed  for  all  these  plans,  and  one  can  be  chanjed  to  another 
by  simply  distributing  books  the  other  way  and  teling  attendants. 

Biografy  For  this  larj  clas,  opinions  differ  as  to  best  treatment.  Be- 
side the  plan  printed  in  Tables  the  following  methods  ar  widely  uzed. 

For  individual  biografy,  i.e.  that  relating  to  a  singl  person  (including 
books  containing  biografies  of  not  more  than  4  persons) 

1  Put  all  biografies  in  one  alfabet  of  names  of  persons  tvritn  about, 
uzing  92  for  clas  number,  and  indicating  the  subject  or  biografee  by  a 
Cutter  book  number;  e.g.  hfe  of  Grant,  92  G76.  This  is  most  compact 
for  charjing,  and  is  preferd  in  popular  libraries  of  larj  circulation.  Insted 
of  92  for  clas  number,  B  is  often  uzed,  but  is  les  desirabl,  since  it  has  no 
lojical  place  in  a  numeric  arranjement  on  shelvs  and  is  sumtimes  con- 
fuzed  with  the  author's  initial  in  fiction. 


94 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


2  Distribute  biografy  as  far  as  posibl  to  subjects  it  ilustrates,  leaving, 
of  course,  under  920  the  lives  not  bearing  specialy  on  any  subject;  e.g. 
all  lives  of  musicians  go  under  780  and  its  subdivisions,  life  of  Wagner 
being  782.2  insted  of  927.82  as  in  Tables.  When  9  is  uzed  to  indicate 
history  of  a  special  subject,  92  may  be  uzed  for  its  biografy;  e.g.  780.9 
History  of  music,  780.92  Biografy  of  musicians. 

Collectiv  biografy  may  be  clast  in  a  singl  group  under  920,  or  by  sub- 
ject under  920-928,  as  in  Tables,  or  distributed  thruout  the  clasification, 
according  to  2d  plan  givn  abuv  for  individual  biografy,  subarranjement 
with  any  of  these  methods  being  alfabetic  by  author. 

Paralel  libraries  This  treatment  of  fiction,  juvenils  and  biografy  ilus- 
trates the  principl.  Its  other  chief  appHcation  is  for  languaj  colections. 
Sum  libraries  hav  a  constituency  not  reading  English,  and  so  need  a 
paralel  library  in  Italian  or  Swedish,  etc.  This  is  most  eazily  made  by 
simply  prefixing  languaj  initial  to  clas  number.  If  arranjed  in  one  series 
of  subjects  this  initial  is  ignored,  or  all  books  in  the  special  languajes 
may  be  groupt  under  initial  letters  at  end  of  each  clas  number.  The 
paralel  library  is  made  by  simply  putting  together  all  books  having  same 
languaj  initial  and  then  arranjing  by  clas  numbers.  Initials  uzed  ar  F, 
French,  G,  German,  I,  Italian,  Sp,  Spanish,  Sw,  Swedish,  Dn,  Danish, 
Du,  Dutch,  N,  Norwegian,  W,  Welsh,  A,  Arabic,  etc.  Where  only  1  lan- 
guaj is  so  markt  in  a  givn  library,  jeneraly  only  1  letter  shud  be  uzed, 
so  as  to  avoid  an  extra  letter  in  charjing;  e.g.  S  wil  anser  for  either  Span- 
ish or  Swedish  if  uzed  in  only  1  sense.  A  prefixt  letter  may,  however,  hav 
been  uzed  with  a  different  meaning,  e.g.  R  for  Reference,  necesitating 
more  than  1  letter  for  the  languaj  prefix,  even  if  only  1  languaj  is  rep- 
resented by  the  initial,  e.g.  Ru  for  Russian.  This  plan  has  proved  very 

satisfactory  in  actual  use. 

Combining  languaj  and  literature  Same  principl  can  be  applyd  also 
in  combining  each  languaj  with  its  literature,  if  it  is  preferd  to  abolish 
class  Filolojy,  and  make  it  simply  an  appendix  to  Literature;  e.g.  uzing 
82f  for  English  filolojy  and  ading  filolojy  subdivisions,  English  diction- 
aries wud  becum  82f3,  English  grammars  82f5,  etc.  arranjed  either  just 
before  or  just  after  English  literature,  820,  821,  etc.  and  reverse  wud 
hold  true  if  a  filolojist  wisht  to  abolish  Literature  and  make  it  an  ap- 
pendix to  Filolojy. 

Reference  library  To  separate  books  most  needed,  the  best  plan  is 
to  mark  R  before  clas  numbers,  and  arranje  books  together  as  an  R  li- 
brary. When  books  ar  to  go  into  jeneral  colection  again,  draw  a  line 
thru  this  letter. 

95 


Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


In  same  way  it  frequently  happens  that  a  jeneral  private  Hbrary  is 
givn  on  condition  that  it  be  kept  together;  e.g.  Phoenix  hbrary  of  Co- 
lumbia University.  This  has  P  prefixt  to  clas  number,  and  thus  is  a 
paralel  Hbrary  by  itself.  An  initial  is  better  than  *  or  similar  mark,  for  it 
helps  memory  and  is  just  as  brief.  Same  plan  applys  if  the  library  has 
an  'inferno'  for  books  not  uzed  without  permits,  or  for  distant  rooms 
where  books  worth  keeping  but  seldom  cald  for  can  be  arranjed  in  a 
paralel  storaj  library. 

Stil  another  provision  is  made  in  080,  8  being  regular  number  for 
jeneral  colections  (as  in  508,  520.8  etc.),  for  those  special  libraries  which 
can  not  be  separated  becauz  of  binding  or  conditions  of  gift;  but  insted 
of  the  3  figures  in  080,  a  singl  letter,  as  described  abuv,  indicates  the 
special  colection,  and  it  is  eazy  to  lern  location  of  the  few  special  colec- 
tions of  any  one  library. 

Omission  of  initial  O  in  the  clas  'Jeneral  works'  has  been  tryd;  e.g.  51 
insted  of  051  for  an  American  periodical,  but  is  not  advized,  for  the  eye 
gets  so  in  the  habit  of  reading  as  Syence  any  number  beginning  with  5, 
tiiat  there  is  a  mental  hich  if,  e.g.  jeneral  periodicals  ar  writn  51,  etc. 
insted  of  051,  etc.  Another  reazon  is  that  Institut  International  de  Bib- 
liographic regards  as  neglijibl  a  final  0  and  uzes  the  1  and  2  figure  num- 
bers as  we  uze  those  same  numbers  fild  out  by  0  to  3  figures,  e.g.  1  for 
filosofy,  like  our  100,  22  for  Bible,  Uke  our  220.  Also  in  clasification  it 
sumtimes  happens  that  the  1st  2  figures  ar  obvius  at  a  glance,  but  time 
must  be  taken  to  determin  the  3d.  It  is  convenient  to  write  these  1st 
figures,  but  if  a  mathematical  book  receivs  its  1st  2  figures  (51),  this 
unfinisht  number  is  likely  to  be  confuzed  with  the  2-figi.u:e  number  51. 
This  danjer  may  be  larjly  avoided  by  v^riting  the  decimal  point  after  a 
blank;  e.g.  51         .,  to  show  that  a  figure  is  omitted. 

2  Contractions  for  specialists  The  sistem  is  often  uzed  by  specialists 
for  very  minute  work,  where  decimals  run  out  to  6  or  more  places.  The- 
oreticly  it  is  better  to  write  all  these  figures,  thus  showing  relation  to 
the  universe  of  knowlej,  but  there  is  no  practical  gain  to  justify  the  labor 
if  a  great  quantity  of  slips  must  be  numberd.  A  specialist  working  on 
'Swedish  poetry  of  the  aje  of  Gustavus'  can  uze  a  singl  letter  insted  of 
the  ful  839.715  and  save  5  caracters  in  numbering  each  note;  or  a  dash 
may  be  writn  for  all  but  the  last  figure,  thus  ' — 5'.  A  body  of  such  notes 
can  be  inserted  together  in  their  place  in  an  index  at  839715,  with  a 
colord  card  to  mark  the  special  groups,  with  litl  danjer  of  confuzion. 
Stil  a  stickler  for  theoretic  completeness  wil  write  a  ful  index  number 
for  each  separate  sUp. 


I 


3  Use  of  alfabet  or  cronolojy  for  final  subdivisions  While  our  plan  is 
decimal  as  distinguisht  from  'dictionary'  we  always  alfabet  wherever 
that  is  more  useful.  Indeed,  the  main  feature  of  our  plan  is  its  alfabetic 
Relativ  Index.  Frequently  in  minute  divisions  it  is  economy  to  arranje 
alfabeticly  or  by  dates  without  uzing  a  translation  sistem.  This  is  spe- 
cialy  true  in  index  rerums  and  notes  of  speciaUsts.  After  numbers  hav 
been  uzed  as  far  as  that  is  the  most  useful  form,  then  either  the  name 
chosen  for  hed  or  the  year  can  be  inserted  at  the  end;  e.g.  towns  in  a 
givn  state,  individual  birds  or  insects  cuming  under  one  number,  names 
of  men  writn  about  in  biografy,  etc.  Sum  may  prefer  to  adopt  this  plan 
in  places  where  we  hav  chosen  a  grouping;  e.g.  in  chemistry,  to  put  all 
metals  in  one  alfabet  under  546.3,  insted  of  uzing  numbers  546.3-.99.  If 
this  chanje  is  wisht,  a  more  complete  one  wil  probably  be  better:  put  all 
elements,  metallic  and  nonmetallic,  in  1  alfabet  under  546.  Such  use  of 
the  alfabet  cauzes  no  confuzion  with  tlie  Index,  as  it  simply  subdivides 
more  closely,  unless,  as  in  the  case  of  546.3,  the  alfabet  replaces  beds 
alredy  printed.  In  this  case,  cancel  all  subsections  in  the  Tables  by  draw- 
ing a  line  obhquely  thru  beds  discarded,  and  mark  in  marjin  'Alfabet 
by  elements,'  e.g. 


546.3 


Alfabet  by  elements 


Metals 

Alkali  group 
Potassium 
Sodium 
Lithium 

>idium 
Caesn 
Then  find  each  of  these  beds  in  Index  and  cancel  all  figures  after 

546.3,  e.g. 

Potassium,  inorganic  chemistry,  546. 3X 
Rubidium,  *  546.3\ 

This  plan  has  special  value  in  this  place,  as  new  elements  ar  discoverd 
from  time  to  time,  and  can  redily  be  inserted  in  alfabetic  place.  Stil 
many  chemists  think  it  valuabl  to  hav  similar  metals  groupt  together  for 
convenience  of  study,  and  to  cover  books  writn  on  the  group  as  a  whole, 
and  also  think  it  important  to  hav  a  number  for  rejected  elements,  becauz 
literature  and  references  about  them  remain,  and  must  be  provided  for. 

4  Broken  order  Another  common  and  often  desirabl  variation  for 
shelf  arranjement  is  to  break  sequence  of  numbers,  to  get  most-uzed 
books  nearest  delivery  desk.  Theory  keeps  numbers  in  strict  sequence; 

9S^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey  s  introduction 


i 


but  a  hyer  rule  everywhere  is  ^sacrifice  any  theory  for  a  substantial  gain*. 
Practicaly  there  ar  few  libraries  where  it  is  not  best  to  break  order  of 
clases.  Often  divisions  ar  best  arranjed  out  of  numeric  place;  e.g.  520 
Astronomy  may  be  wanted  in  a  room  accessibl  at  nyt;  fiction,  juvenils 
and  biografy  ar  always  wanted  near  the  delivery  desk  in  a  pubhc  library, 
and  in  strict  order  ar  as  Hkely  to  cum  at  the  most  distant  point.  Number- 
less local  reazons  may  make  a  broken  order  desirabl.  There  need  be  no 
hesitation  in  adopting  it  if  enuf  is  gaind,  but  there  shud  be  charts  clearly 
showing  where  each  division  starts;  e.g.  after  430  Treceding  830*;  after 
520  In  observatory',  it  being  necesary  to  specify  room  for  books  entirely 
removed  from  jeneral  hbrary  arranjement.  The  summary  of  100  divisions 
is  fumisht  by  Library  Bureau,  on  celluloid  charts,  to  show  location.  Op- 
posit  each  division  shud  be  markt  its  beginning  on  shelvs,  and  it  is  eazy 
to  vary  the  order  as  much  as  desirabl,  tho  of  course  the  nearer  the  di- 
visions run  in  regular  order,  000-999,  the  eazier  it  is  for  a  stranjer  to  find 
his  way  about.  Variations  in  order  of  sections  ar  les  wize  and  seldom 
necesary,  but  if  made,  a  wood  or  cardboard  dummy  in  regular  place 
shud  hav  markt  on  its  side  the  actual  location  of  any  section  removed. 

This  broken-order  plan  is  best  for  bringing  together  filolojy  and  litera- 
ture of  each  languaj  without  altering  numbers  or  prefixing  any  letter.  Let 
420  be  shelvd  just  ahed  of  820,  430  ahed  of  830,  and  so  for  all  languajes, 
making  the  jeneral  note  that  all  400s  ar  shelvd  just  ahed  of  correspond- 
ing 800s,  and  remembering  that  after  main  languajes  4  or  more  figures  ar 
required  to  indicate  languaj  alone,  so  Portuguese  filolojy  goes  between 
868  and  869,  Russian  between  891.69  and  891.7,  Bohemian  between 
891.85  and  891.86,  etc. 

5  Pro  and  con  division  of  topics  It  is  very  useful  in  many  cases  to 
separate  books  on  a  topic  with  strongly  markt  sides,  so  either  set  of  views 
and  argiunents  may  be  seen  by  itself.  This  has  been  dun  in  sum  cases  by 
subdivision,  e.g.  337  Protection  and  free  trade.  In  others  it  is  equaly  use- 
ful, and  can  be  indicated  by  an  aded  mark,  e.g.  324.3  Woman  suffraj. 
The  number  may  be  uzed  for  jeneral  works,  giving  facts  etc.  and  ad- 
vocates and  opponents  may  be  separated  by  +  and  —  for  positiv  and 
negativ,  or  by  p  and  c,  the  initials  for  pro  and  con,  which  tho  short,  ar 
too  long  for  a  circulating  library  to  uze  in  charjing  but  may  be  disre- 
garded for  that  purpose  if  book  numbers  ar  so  assynd  as  to  distinguish. 
In  reference  libraries,  on  cards,  etc.  most  wil  prefer  to  write  out  pro  and 
con,  to  mark  the  2  groups.  The  order  on  shelvs  is,  of  course,  alfabetic, 
i.e.  324.3,  324.3c,  324.3p;  or  if  +  and  -  ar  uzed,  the  uzual  order  is  fol- 
lowd:  +,— . 


98 


These  5  notes  sugjest  the  ranje  of  variations  which  may  be  made,  and 
ilustrate  D  C  adaptabihty  to  widely  different  conditions. 

Bibliografic  modifications 

After  study  of  all  other  availabl  sistems  the  Decimal  Clasification  was 
adopted  in  1895  by  the  newly  organized  Institut  International  de  Bib- 
liographie  (known  as  I  IB)  as  best  adapted  for  its  projected  universal 
subject  bibliografy  to  cover  ultimately  all  subjects  in  all  languajes  in  all 
periods  of  the  world's  history. 
Determining  factors  wer: 

1  Decimal  Clasification  was  of  topics,  independent  of  languaj  or  exact 

sinonim  by  which  exprest 

2  Its  notation  was  in  itself  the  only  international  languaj,  since  it  con- 
sisted solely  of  arabic  numerals,  uzed  all  over  the  world 

3  Its  decimal  principl  allowd  indefinit  intercalation 

Overdetaild  as  the  Clasification  ahedy  seemd  to  many  librarians,  lak 
of  subdivision  was  the  Institute's  1st  difficulty  and  it  urjd  us  at  once  to 
enlarj  the  Tables.  State  Library  duties  at  that  time  made  concentration 
on  this  imposibl,  but  we  promist  cooperation  and  criticizm  if  I  I  B  wud 
draft  required  extensions.  When  its  remarkably  rapid  work  precluded 
even  adequate  criticizm,  it  was  authorized  to  pubUsh  its  tables  and  as- 
sured that  the  American  revision  wud  vary  from  them  as  htl  as  prac- 
ticabl.  At  Geneva  in  1924  the  harmonizing  of  the  American  and  Euro- 
pean editions  was  agreed  on  and  to  D  G  editor  was  delegated  the  very 
extensiv  work  of  checking  the  variant  forms  and  recommending  which 
shud  be  kept,  a  work  which  is  now  wel  under  way. 

Ob\dusly,  bibliografic  and  jeneral  library  use  ar  so  different  that  in  sum 
cases  what  is  clearly  best  for  real  needs  of  skolarly  specialists,  where 
any  simbols  can  be  uzed  on  index  cards,  wud  be  quite  impracticabl  for 
a  public  library,  which  must  hav  simbols  that  can  be  markt  on  the  bak 
of  books,  redily  uzed  by  the  unskild  public  in  writing  call  slips,  and 
rapidly  handld  by  low-priced  runners  and  yung  clerks.  This  difficulty 
can,  however,  often  be  obviated  by  allowing  altemativ  forms. 

1 1  B  has  devized  and  uzes  injenius  simbols,  expressing  many  interrela- 
tions and  greatly  increasing  numbering  capacity.  But  these  new  simbols 
ar  tho't  by  many  too  complex  for  ordinary  shelf  or  catalog  use,  tho  25 
years  use  by  1 1  B  with  unskild  clerks  has  proved  that  this  objection  is 
more  fear  than  result  of  fair  tryal.  They  ar  givn  here  broadly  for  personal 
notes  of  specialists  and  other  close  clasifyers,  to  whom  their  vast  prao 

99 


Decimal  Classification 


tical  advantajes  wil  strongly  appeal,  and  as  a  key  to  notation  on  1 1  B 
bibliografic  cards.  Elaborate  details  and  explanations  ar  in  Classification 
decimale,  Brussels,  1905,  of  which  a  new  edition  is  announst  for  1927, 
Obviusly  these  simbols  allow  subdivision  of  the  same  number  in  many 
diflFerent  ways  without  confuzion. 

The  most  important  of  these  devices  ar  3  Relation  syn  and  6  Place  syn 
and  their  use  in  libraries  where  they  hav  been  tryd  has  proved  that  it  is 
entirely  practicabl,  even  for  marking  books. 

The  wide  and  ever-growing  ranje  of  application  of  certain  subjects 
makes  it  imposibl  to  subdivide  satisfactorily  by  assyning  definit  numbers, 
but  use  of  colon  to  show  relation  between  2  subjects  provides  an  auto- 
matic method  which  can  be  uzed  with  any  subject  for  unlimited  sub- 
division. (For  ilustration  see  note  under  150  Sykolojy.) 

Use  of  ( )  round  a  local  number  provides  an  automatic  method  of  local 
subdivision  for  any  subject,  as  there  may  be  need  in  an  individual  li- 
brary, while  the  simbol  shows  instantly  the  local  nature  of  the  subdivi- 
sion. 

1  Accretion  syn  +  This  simplest  of  simbols,  equivalent  to  and',  indi- 
cates exactly  what  it  sugjests,  that  the  articl  so  numberd  treats  of  all 
subject  numbers  connected  by  +;  e.g.  637+614.32  a  work  concerning 
dairies  and  also  on  inspection  of  dairy  products. 

2  Cupling  syn  -  This  is  uzed  for  cupling  to  a  subject  a  series  of  sub- 
divisions common  to  a  group  of  subjects,  as  400  Filolojy  ( e.g.  45-3  Italian 
dictionary,  45^  Itahan  sinonims,  45-5  Italian  grammar;  46-3  Spanish 
dictionary,  46-4  Spanish  sinonims,  46-5  Spanish  grammar),  800  Litera- 
ture (85-3  Italian  fiction,  85-4  Itahan  essays,  85-5  Itahan  oratory;  86-3 
Spanish  fiction,  86-4  Spanish  essays,  86-5  Spanish  oratory),  546  Inor- 
ganic chemistry  (546.51-3  Oxids  of  led,  546.51-4  Sulfid  of  led,  546.51-5 
Chlorid  of  led;  546.56-3  Oxids  of  copper,  546.56-4  Sulfid  of  copper, 
546.56-5  Chlorid  of  copper;  546.57-3  Oxids  of  silver,  546.57-^  Sulfid  of 
silver,  546.57-5  Chlorid  of  silver).  It  shud,  however,  be  uzed  only  where 
such  use  is  specificly  mentiond  in  the  Tables,  as  confuzion  wud  other- 
vvize  result.  This  syn  is  so  similar  to  that  commonly  uzed  for  'to  and  in- 
cluding' that  when  it  is  uzed  with  Institut  meaning  it  is  advizabl  to  uze 
word  'to'  for  the  other  meaning. 

3  Relation  syn  :  This  is  most  useful  simbol  of  all,  as  it  involvs  no 
chanje  of  number  except  omission  of  final  0  by  those  preferring  shortest 
form.  It  indicates  merely  that  subjects  so  connected  ar  considerd  in  rela- 
tion to  each  other,  thus  affording  means  of  expressing  ahnost  limitless 

100 


Melvil  Dewey  s  introduction 


interrelations:  e.g.  ethics  in  relation  to  fine  arts  is  17:7  (or,  better,  in  ful 
170:700).  Vice  versa,  art  in  its  ethical  aspect  is  7: 17  (or  700: 170);  order 
of  numbers  before  and  after  colon  depending  on  emfasis,  or  on  subject 
with  which  they  ar  to  be  arranjed. 

4  Form  syn  (0)    Form  or  jeneralities  ar  exprest  by  a  parenthetic  num- 
ber beginning  with  0.  This  is  further  subdivided  as  follows: 
(0: )  Form  simbol;  e.g.  335  (0:843)  means  Socialism  treated  in  form  of  a 

French  novel. 

(00)  Subdivisions  peculiar  to  a  subject;  e.g.  for  history  it  means  sources. 
It  is  further  subdivided  and  in  sum  cases  modifyd  by  a  hyfend 
figure;  e.g.  9(44)  (001-3)  means  Catalog  of  ofkial  sources  of 
French  history,  (001)  meaning  official  sources  and  -3  meaning  cata- 
logs, indexes,  lists  etc. 

(01  )-(09)  ar  the  same  as  our  regular  form  numbers  01-09.  Obviusly  we 
can  not  replace  our  long  estabHsht  simpl  form  numbers  by  sumthing 
so  much  more  complex  that  it  is  impracticabl  for  shelf  use. 

5  Universality  syn  oo  The  mathematical  syn  of  infinity  is  uzed  with 
place  and  time  syns  to  mean  'Without  limitation :  with  place  syn  (see  6 
below)  it  means  'including  all  places',  e.g.  9  ( cc  )  History  of  all  cuntries; 
with  time  syn  (see  8  below)  it  means  'covering  all  periods',  e.g.  9  ( oo ) 
"oo"  History  of  all  cuntries  at  all  times. 

6  Place  syn  (3)-(9)  These  replace  our  regular  cuntry  subdivisions 
found  in  930-999,  but  do  not  conflict,  as  1 1  B  merely  leavs  D  C  930-999 
vacant,  and  writes  History  of  France  9(44)  insted  of  944.  Other  auxiliary 
place  numbers  indicating  jeneral  rejion,  direction,  jeolojic  place,  prehis- 
toric time,  etc.  ar  also  provided  in  place  curvs. 

7  Languaj  syn  =  This  syn  preceding  languaj  numbers  as  found  in  400 
Filolojy,  indicates  subdivision  by  languaj;  e.g.  523.5=9185  means  a  work 
on  meteors,  in  Polish,  91.85  being  filolojy  number  for  Polish  languaj  m 

400. 

8  Time  syn  "  **    Numbers  denoting  time  division  ar  writn  m  quotes. 

1 1  B  skeme  givs  an  elaborate  time-division  sistem  based  on  exact  dates; 
e.g.  "1922.  12.  11",  meaning  year  1922,  12th  month,  Uth  day. 

9  Jeneral  points  of  view  syn  00  Each  of  the  following  numbers  for 
point  of  view  (except  005)  has  also  a  series  of  subdivisions: 

001  Speculativ:  idea,  purpose,  plan  etc. 

002  Realization:  execution,  construction  etc. 

003  Economic:  industrial  production,  cost  and  sale  prices,  etc. 

004  Servis  and  use:  workings,  administration 

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Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


005  Equipment  and  apparatus 

006  Bildings  and  establishments:  details  of  organization  and  servis 

007  Special  personnel 

10  A  to  Z  Alfabetic  arranjement  by  name  of  person,  place  or  thing  is 
indicated  according  to  circumstances  by  initial  or  whole  name. 

Sequence  of  these  simbols  in  clas  number  may  be  varid  by  uzers  to 
produce  any  special  arranjement  wisht,  but  unless  distinct  notis  of  this 
is  givn,  sequence  is  arbitrary  in  the  following  order: 

( )  "  "  =  :  -  A-Z 
e.g.  9(44)"17"=2  History  of  France  in  18th  century,  writn  in  English 

Other  uses 

Tho  this  sistem  was  devized  1st  for  library  catalog  and  shelf  arranje- 
ment, 54  years  hav  developt  many  new  applications.  Nearly  every  ad- 
^inistrativ  department  feels  directly  the  great  economy,  and  in  every 
field  of  literary  activity  this  clasification  has  been  found  a  great  labor- 
saver,  whose  practical  usefulness  has  exceeded  the  most  sanguin  hopes 

of  its  erly  f rends. 

Bookstores  The  plan  is  a  great  convenience  to  both  dealers  and  cus- 
tomers, when  applyd  to  miscelaneus  stok.  Very  often  a  much  wanted 
book,  specialy  if  not  recently  publisht,  is  reported  not  in  stok',  when 
D  C  arranjement  by  subject  vmd  hav  reveald  its  place  at  once.  Specialists 
often  find  on  shelvs  books  they  wud  never  hav  orderd,  but  ar  glad  to  by 
after  examination.  Experience  proves  it  profitabl  for  a  dealer  to  arranje 
his  books  so  each  person  may  find  what  he  is  interested  in  without  ex- 
amining entire  stok. 

Ofiis  files  A  great  file  of  papers  is  like  a  hbrary  in  miniature.  Experi- 
ence the  world  over  proves  that  while  alfabetic  and  numeric  sistems  ar 
invaluabl  for  many  purposes,  complete  usefulness  demands  close  clasing 
as  material  grows.  The  best  plan  is  to  combine  simpUcity  of  numeric  and 
utility  of  clast  as  in  this  Decimal  Clasification  and  Relativ  Index  uzed  by 
most  libraries.  The  simplest  posibl  printed  index  of  43,000  heds  tels  in- 
stantly by  what  number  to  mark  or  to  find  any  paper.  Insurance  is  markt 
368.  This  means:  clas  3,  Sociolojy;  division  6,  Associations  and  institu- 
tions; section  8,  Insurance.  Fire  insurance  is  1st  subdivision,  so  every 
paper  about  fire  insurance  is  markt  368.1  and  goes  in  the  drawer  in  nu- 
meric order,  where  it  can  instantly  be  found  thru  the  printed  Index. 

54  years  use  in  a  score  of  cuntries  has  proved  this  numeric  sistem,  with 

102 


its  Relativ  Index,  a  marvelus  laborsaver.  Clasification  is  a  necesity  if  all 
material  on  any  givn  subject  is  to  be  redily  found.  The  labor  of  making 
one's  own  clasification  is  uzualy  prohibitiv,  if  wel  dun.  By  adopting  the 
skeme  in  jeneral  use  by  libraries  this  labor  is  saved  and  numbers  ar  in 
harmony  with  those  of  thousands  of  other  catalogs  and  indexes  in  which 
the  same  number  has  the  same  meaning;  for,  as  pointed  out  at  a  recent 
international  congress,  these  numbers  ar  the  only  international  languaj  of 
perfectly  definit  meaning  amung  all  civilized  nations;  and  also  cheapest 
and  quickest  in  application. 

A  successful  man  is  uzualy  a  clasifyer  and  chartmaker.  This  applys  as 
much  to  modem  business  as  to  syence  or  libraries.  Hyer  education  diflFers 
from  elementary  in  studying  not  mere  facts,  but  their  relations  to  all 
other  facts.  Alex.  Bain  wizely  said  'to  lern  to  clasify  is  in  itself  an  educa- 
tion'. The  man  of  much  business  or  affairs  must  study  every  problem  in 
its  manifold  relations;  i.e.  must  clasify  and  make  charts  of  his  results. 
Without  these  he  is  like  a  sailor  in  stranje  waters,  sooner  or  later  shiprekt 
unless  he  uzes  charts  to  find  safe  channels  as  wel  as  to  avoid  roks  and 
shoals.  A  larj  business  or  work  unclasifyd  or  uncharted  is  not  a  worthy 
organization  but  mere  material  from  which  a  clever  brain  may  construct 
one.  It  differs  in  efficiency  from  the  ideal  as  a  mob  of  men  differs  from  a 
wel  disciplind  army.  Piles  of  brik  and  mortar  ar  not  a  tempi  any  more 
than  heaps  of  typ  ar  Shakspere  s  works,  tho  if  clasifyd'  and  set,  each  in 
ryt  relation  to  the  rest,  the  transformation  is  bro't  about. 

Scrapbooks  The  plan  has  proved  the  best  for  keeping  newspaper  clip- 
pings. Uze  manila  sheets  of  uniform  size  (we  find  20x25cm  best) 
Write  clas  number  of  subject  in  uzual  place  on  paje,  and  mount  clippings 
on  sheets  as  in  a  common  scrapbook.  These  sheets  ar  arranjed  numericly 
Hke  a  clast  card  catalog,  sheets  of  each  clas  being  further  arranjed,  when 
desirabl,  under  alfabetic  subheds.  When  one  sheet  is  ful,  insert  another 
at  the  exact  place.  Thus  perfect  clasification  is  kept  up  without  blank 
sheets,  and  at  smallest  outlay  of  money  and  trubl.  Scraps  thus  mounted 
ar  shelvd  either  in  manila  pamflet  cases  or  in  patent  binders,  or  ar  kept 

in  vertical  files. 

Index  rerums  These  ar  best  made  on  standard  P  size  (7.5xl2.5cm) 
cards  or  slips.  Lyt  weight  catalog  card  stok  is  best  for  private  indexes, 
etc.  It  costs  only  %  as  much  as  hevy  bristol,  takes  only  %  room,  and 

handls  eazily. 

Where  durability  and  convenience  of  handUng  ar  les  important  than 
cheapness  uze  common  hevy  writing  paper.  Novises  often  greatly  di- 

103 


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Decimal  Classification 


minish  usefulness  of  the  card  sistem  by  uzing  ordinary  machine-cut  cards 
or  slips  varying  in  hyt  so  much  as  to  make  quik  and  accurate  manipula- 
tion imposibl.  Extreme  variation  to  be  tolerated  is  1  mm  or  y2  5  inch.  This 
wil  be  understood  by  placing  a  7.4cm  card  between  two  7.5cm  cards. 
In  rapid  turning,  fingers  make  a  brij  across  taller  cards  and  mis  the  lower 
one  entirely.  Cards  must  be  accurately  cut  or  they  lose  half  their  value 
and  in  many  cases  necesitate  recopying  material  at  a  cost  10-fold  greater 
than  to  hav  thrown  away  imperfectly  cut  cards  or  slips  at  the  outset. 

Clas  number  is  writn  in  upper  left  corner,  any  alfabetic  subject  hed 
follows  at  ryt,  and  notes  fil  card  below.  Cards  ar  then  filed  in  order  of 
clas  numbers,  the  cards  of  each  clas  being  further  arranjed  like  scrap 
sheets,  according  to  any  alfabetic  subheds. 

Paper  the  size  of  scrap  sheets,  20x25cm,  arranjed  and  stored  the  same 
way  may  be  uzed  insted  of  cards.  This  has  the  advantaj  of  a  ful  letter 
paje  in  syt  at  once,  and  holds  over  5  times  as  much  as  card.  While  the 
sistem  can  be  applyd  to  slips  or  sheets  of  any  size,  there  ar  literaly  hun- 
dreds of  accessories  and  conveniences  exactly  adapted  to  these  2  sizes, 
which  ar  uzed  much  more  than  all  others  combined;  so  it  is  folly  to  begin 
on  another  size,  and  lose  the  advantajes  of  this  uniformity.  If  inter- 
mediate sizes  must  be  had,  the  best  ar  Billet  10x15cm,  Note  12.5x20cm, 
and  Ms  15x25cm.  Often  uzers  of  sum  other  size  finaly  find  it  profitabl 
to  chanje  to  either  P,  7.5x12.5,  or  to  L,  20x25cm,  even  at  cost  of  re- 

v^riting  many  notes. 

After  50  years  use  of  P  size,  countless  millions  of  cards  ar  in  catalogs 
and  indexes  in  scores  of  cuntries,  so  it  wud  be  quite  imposibl  to  chanje 
from  7.5xl2.5cm.  But  recent  study  and  experiments  hav  shown  that 
sheet  or  room  proportions  ar  most  pleazing  in  ratio  of  1  to  square  root 
of  2,  or  about  5  to  7,  i.e.  ratio  of  the  side  of  an  equal-side  triangl  to  its 
hypotenuse.  An  immense  practical  advantaj  is  that  this  is  the  only  ratio 
where  continuus  halving  givs  always  the  same  ideal  proportion.  This  re- 
sults in  markt  economy  in  cutting  sizes  from  larj  standard  sheets.  The 
favorit  letter  sheet  is  19x27  cm.  This  fits  most  vertical  and  other  files. 
We  now  uze  it  insted  of  20x25  and  15x25.  Half  this  size  is  a  pleazing 
small  quarto,  13.5x19,  and  its  quarter  is  a  very  convenient  pocket  size, 
9.5xl3.5cm.  These  replace  our  old  Note  and  Billet  sizes. 

Note  books  ar  best  in  loos-leaf  form.  A  much  poorer  method  is  to  take 
a  bound  blank  book,  and  assyn  clas  numbers  in  order,  giving  about  the 
space  it  is  tho't  each  wil  require,  and,  when  pajes  so  assynd  ar  ful,  note 
at  bottom  where  rest  of  the  material  may  be  found.  This  has  all  objec- 

104 


Melvil  Dewey  s  introduction 


tions  of  old  fixt  location  as  compared  to  relativ,  and  wil  hardly  be  adopted 
by  any  person  who  has  ever  seen  loos-leaf  simplicity  and  economy. 

Scores  of  devices  for  convenient  handling  and  storing  of  these  slips  and 
sheets  and  of  pamflets  ar  manufactured.  The  ful  descriptiv  and  ilustrated 
catalogs  of  Library  Bureau  giv  details. 

Topical  indexes  Clas  numbers  ar  uzed  to  index  books  red.  Simpl  num- 
bers  take  the  place  of  a  series  of  words,  and  results  can  be  handld,  ar- 
ranjed  and  found  much  quicker.  Such  entries  may  be  kept  separate  or 
combined  with  index  rerums. 

Advantajes  for  making  topical  indexes  of  colected  works,  periodicals, 
transactions  etc.  wil  be  evident  to  every  indexer  or  librarian.  These  con- 
solidated indexes  may  be  arranjed  together  with  the  card  catalog  of  the 
books,  or  by  themselvs,  as  seems  best  in  each  case. 

These  ar  only  a  few  of  the  sistem's  varid  applications.  Enuf  hav  been 
mentiond  to  show  its  wide  adaptability  to  wants  of  librarian,  student 
and  business  man. 


This  brief  account  has  probably  faild  to  meet  sxim  objections  which 
may  be  raizd  and  could  eazily  be  anserd. 

Tho  much  elaborated  and  in  sum  few  points  alterd,  the  essential 
caracter  of  the  plan  has  remaind  unchanjed  from  the  first.  Revision  and 
expansion  constantly  in  progress  involv  many  new  interrelations.  As  ex- 
tensiv  advance  testing  of  new  skemes  is  not  always  posibl,  practical  ap- 
plications ar  sure  to  develop  unnotist  faults.  Clasifyers  ar  therefore  askt 
to  uze  new  tables  criticaly  and  report  defects  of  any  kind,  with  proposed 
remedies  and  any  needed  subdivisions,  also  any  heds  needed  for  the 
Index.  All  such  criticizms  ar  a  decided  help  and  favor. 

Aknowlejments 

The  labor  on  Clasification  and  Index  has  been  wholy  beyond  apprecia- 
tion of  any  who  hav  never  attempted  a  similar  task. 

In  his  varid  reading,  correspondence  and  conversation  on  the  subject, 
the  author  has  doutless  recievd  many  sugjestions  and  gaind  ideas  which 
it  is  now  imposibl  for  him  specificly  to  aknowlej.  The  Nuovo  sistema  di 
catalogo  bibliografico  generate  of  Natale  Battezzati,  of  Milan,  adopted 
by  the  ItaUan  pubhshers  in  1871,  tho  he  copid  nothing  from  it,  more 

^05 


Decimal  Classification 


Melvil  Dewey's  introduction 


than  any  other  singl  sistem  stimulated  his  study  of  the  problem.  The 
plan  of  the  St  Louis  PubHc  School  Library  and  that  of  the  Apprentices' 
Library  of  New  York,  which  in  sum  respects  resembld  his  own,  wer  not 
seen  til  all  essential  features  wer  decided  on,  tho  not  givn  to  the  public. 
In  filling  the  9  clases  of  the  skeme,  the  inverted  Baconian  arranjement 
of  the  St  Louis  Library  was  foUowd.  The  author  has  no  wish  to  claim 
orijinal  invention  for  any  part  of  his  sistem  where  another  has  been  be- 
fore him,  and  wud  gladly  make  specific  aknowlejment  of  every  aid  and 
sugjestion  wer  it  in  his  power.  Tho  at  its  start  a  litl  book,  it  came  not 
forth  except  by  grievus  labor. 

Much  valuabl  aid  has  been  renderd  by  specialists,  who  hav  assisted 
greatly  in  developing  tables.  Amung  these  ar  many  wel-known  skolars, 
and  to  all  most  cordial  aknowlejment  is  made.  Without  such  assistance, 
the  present  development  cud  not  hav  been  attaind,  for  many  minds  wer 
necesary  to  supply  teknical  and  special  lerning  absolutely  essential  in 
filling  minute  beds.  Indeed,  in  many  subjects  the  author's  share  has  been 
limited  to  modification  necesary  for  teknical  adjustment  to  his  skeme,  of 
material  prepared  by  specialists.  To  many  prominent  librarians  we  ar 
indetted  for  valuabl  sugjestions  and  appreciativ  criticizm.  While  these 
frends  ar  in  no  way  responsibl  for  any  remaining  imperfections,  they 
shud  hav  credit  for  many  improvements  made  in  these  54  years  of  revi- 
sion, during  the  1st  3  of  which  the  skeme  was  kept  in  manuscript,  that 
its  many  details  myt  be  subjected  to  actual  tryal,  and  modifyd  where 
improvement  was  found  practicabl. 

We  ar  under  deep  obligation  to  Institut  International  de  Bibliographie 
for  its  great  volume  of  valuabl  work,  covering  almost  the  whole  ranje  of 
subjects,  and  also  for  its  advice  and  criticizm  during  progress  of  our  own 
expansions.  To  Dr  C  W  Andrews,  John  Crerar  Librarian,  Chicago,  and 
to  American  Library  Association  clasification  committee,  of  which  for 
past  10  years  he  has  been  chairman,  we  ar  greatly  indetted  for  interest 
and  advice. 

W  S  Biscoe  From  1st  publication  to  the  present,  the  most  extended 
and  valued  assistance  has  cum  from  my  colej  clasmate,  associate  and 
frend,  Walter  Stanley  Biscoe,  my  1st  assistant  in  Amherst  College  Li- 
brary, in  charj  of  which  he  succeeded  me,  resyning  to  accept  again  in 
1883  the  place  next  me  in  Columbia  College  Library,  and  again  resyning 
in  1889  to  becum  librarian  in  charj  of  clasification  and  catalogs  in  New 
York  State  Library.  This  book  is  witness  to  the  rare  unselfishness  with 

io6 


which  he  has  givn  time  taken  from  rest  and  recreation  to  this  work,  in 
which  he  shared  my  interest  and  faith. 

May  Seymour  Except  a  year  in  charj  of  clasification  in  the  Osterhout 
Library  she  was  with  me  34  years,  from  her  entrance  to  the  1st  Library 
School  clas  in  1887  til  her  deth,  June  14,  1921.  At  New  York  State  Li- 
brary, clasification  was  her  department  til  she  was  made  director's  as- 
sistant. For  32  years  every  item  of  work  on  new  editions  past  thru  her 
hands.  For  each  of  editions  4-10  she  did  all  editorial  and  much  con- 
structiv  work,  secured  expert  cooperation,  cald  attention  to  faults  or 
omissions,  and  sought  the  best  availabl  compromize  where  doctors  dis- 
a<^reed,  devoting  to  this  vast  labor  rare  skolarly  industry  and  a  loyalty 
for  which  no  words  of  thanks  can  be  adequate.  She  shared  my  faith  in  its 
immense  usefulness,  did  the  hardest  work,  and  deservs  the  gratitude  of 
all  who  profit  by  this  invaluabl  laborsaver.  I  often  askt  that  her  name 
appear  on  the  title-paje  of  the  book  to  which  she  gave  so  much,  but  she 

persistently  refuzed. 

Her  place  as  editor  was  taken  by  one  of  her  own  choosing,  Dorcas 
Fellows,  who  more  than  anyone  else  had  workt  closely  with  Mis  Seymour 
for  25  years,  and  who  wil  giv  future  editions  the  benefit  of  cumulativ 
experience  in  which  she  so  larjly  shared.  D  C  uzers  ar  congratulated 
that  Mis  Seymour's  position  is  held  by  the  one  whom  she  herself  chose 
as  best  adapted  to  carry  on  her  work.  For  5  years  past  her  hedquarters 
hav  been  in  New  York  State  Library  at  Albany,  which  has  long  been 
regarded  by  many  as  D  C's  library  home,  but  recent  developments  in  re- 
lations of  American  Library  Association,  Library  of  Congress  and  Deci- 
mal Clasification  hav  resulted  in  an  invitation  from  L  C  to  D  C  to  make 
its  home  henceforth  at  that  Library,  where,  most  appropriately,  D  C's 
servis  to  American  Ubraries,  which  is  the  chief  factor  in  its  work,  wil  be 
coordinated  with  undertakings  previusly  instald  by  the  national  library, 
extending  stil  further  the  latter's  ahedy  great  servises  to  the  libraries  of 
the  cuntry  at  larj. 

Future  of  D  C 

Mis  Seymour  had  a  stedily  growing  wish  to  make  D  C  a  permanent 
force  for  education,  by  greatly  improving  its  ful,  short  and  oudine  edi- 
tions, and  by  printing  cheap  special  editions  (indext)  for  many  prom- 
inent divisions;  e.g.  education,  medicin,  enjineering,  agriculture.  As  a 

lay 


Decimal  Classification 


memorial  to  her,  all  copyryts  and  control  of  all  editions  hav  been  givn  to 
Lake  Placid  Club  Education  Foundation,  in  establishing  which  she  had 
been  warmly  and  activly  interested,  and  which  was  charterd  by  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  State  of  New  York,  Jan.  26,  1922,  with  these  objects: 

'as  an  educational  institution,  to  restore  to  helth  and  educational  ef- 
ficiency teachers,  librarians  and  other  educators  of  moderate  means,  who 
hav  becum  incapacitated  by  overwork;  to  establish,  maintain  and  aid 
skools,  libraries  or  other  educational  institutions,  specialy  at  Lake  Placid; 
and  to  institute,  organize  or  foster  other  movements  to  advance  public 
welfare  thru  education,  by  means  of  the  Foundation  pres,  conferences, 
forums,  addresses,  gyded  reading,  and  similar  ajencies'. 

To  this  Foundation  was  at  once  givn  all  voting  stok  and  surplus  of 
Lake  Placid  Co.  which  owns  the  10,000  akers  and  391  bildings  of  Lake 
Placid  Club,  thus  assuring  permanent  financial  support,  which  has  alredy 
been  further  increast  by  gifts  and  bequests  from  interested  f rends.  Under 
Foundation  auspices  future  editions  of  D  C  wil  be  pubHsht,  on  absolute 
condition  that  entire  reciets  abuv  necesary  expenses  be  uzed  forever 
solely  for  improving  D  C  and  extending  its  usefulness,  thereby  prevent- 
ing posibility  that  the  work  shud  ever  be  made  a  source  of  either  indi- 
vidual or  institution  profit.  A  committee  on  D  C,  consisting  of  the  most 
interested  Foundation  trustees,  in  consultation  with  committees  of  Amer- 
ican Library  Association  and  Institut  International  de  Bibliographic,  wil 
insure  observance  of  the  abuv  condition. 

D  C  has  becum  an  international  laborsaver.  It  therefore  justly  belongs 
to  its  uzers  as  a  whole.  All  who  contribute  to  the  stedy  improvement  of 
future  editions  may  kno  that  they  ar  helping  to  make  stil  more  useful  a 
sistem  which  is  so  greatly  helping  stedily  increasing  thousands  scatterd 
all  over  the  civilized  world. 


Melvil  Dew^y 


Lake  PiAcm  Club  N  Y 
Dec.  10,  1926 


Previus  editions  hav  been  dated  Amherst  College  Library,  June  10, 
1876;  Columbia  College  Library,  Aug.  10,  1885,  and  Aug.  30,  1888;  New 
York  State  Library,  Dec.  25,  1890;  Lake  Placid  Club,  Ap.  10,  1911, 
Ap.  10,  1913,  Oct.  1,  1915,  Aug.  11,  1919,  and  Aug.  31,  1922. 

io8 


Summaries 


First  Summary 
The  10  Classes 


000  Generalities 

100  Philosophy  &  related  disciplines 

200  Religion 

300  The  social  sciences 

400  Language 

500  Pure  sciences 

600  Technology  ( Applied  sciences ) 

700  The  arts 

800  Literature  &  rhetoric 

900  General  geography,  history,  etc. 


log 


Second  Summary 
The  100  Divisions 


Third  Summary 
The  1000  Sections 


ii 


' 


f, 


000  Generalities 

010  Bibliographies  &  catalogs 

020  Library  science 

030  General  encyclopedic  works 

040 

050  General  periodicals 

060  General  organizations 

070  Newspapers  &  journalism 

080  General  collections 

090  Manuscripts  &  book  rarities 

100  Philosophy  &  related 

110  Ontology  &  methodology 

120  Knowledge,  cause,  purpose,  man 

130  Pseudo-  &  parapsychology 

140  Specific  philosophic  viewpoints 

150  Psychology 

160  Logic 

1 70  EtWcs  ( Moral  philosophy ) 

180  Ancient,  med..  Oriental  philos. 

190  Modem  Western  philosophy 

200  Religion 

210  Natural  religion 

220  Bible 

230  Christian  doctrinal  theology 

240  Christ,  moral  &  devotional  theol. 

250  Christ,  pastoral,  parochial,  etc. 

260  Christ,  social  &  eccles.  theol. 

270  Hist.  &  geog.  of  Chr.  church 

280  Christ,  denominations  &  sects 

290  Other  religions  &  compar.  rel. 

300  The  social  sciences 

310  Statistical  method  &  statistics 

320  Political  science 

330  Economics 

340  Law 

350  Public  administration 

360  Welfare  &  association 

370  Education 

380  Commerce 

390  Customs  &  folklore 

400  Language 

410  Linguistics  &  nonverbal  lang. 

420  English  &  Anglo-Saxon 

430  Germanic  languages 

440  French,  Provencal,  Catalan 

450  Italian,  Romanian,  etc. 

460  Spanish  &  Portuguese 

470  Italic  languages 

480  Classical  &  Greek 

490  Other  languages 


500     Pure  sciences 


510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 

600 

610 

620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 

700 

710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 

800 

810 
820 
830 
840 
850 
860 
870 
880 
890 

900 

910 
920 
930 
940 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 


Mathematics 

Astronomy  &  allied  sciences 

Physics 

Chemistry  &  allied  sciences 

Earth  sciences 

Paleontology 

Anthropolog.  &  biol.  sciences 

Botanical  sciences 

Zoological  sciences 

Technology  ( Applied  sci. ) 

Medical  sciences 
Engineering  &  allied  operations 
Agriculture  &  agric.  industries 
Domestic  arts  &  sciences 
Business  &  related  enterprises 
Chemical  technology  etc. 
Manufactures  processible 
Assembled  &  final  products 
Buildings 

The  arts 

Civic  &  landscape  art 

Architecture 

Sculpture  &  the  plastic  arts 

Drawing  &  decorative  arts 

Painting  &  paintings 

Graphic  arts 

Photography  &  photographs 

Music 

Recreation  ( Recreational  arts ) 

Literature  &  rhetoric 

American  literature  in  English 
Engl.  &  Anglo-Saxon  literature 
Germanic  languages  literature 
French,  Provencal,  Catalan  lit. 
Italian,  Romanian  etc.  literature 
Spanish  &  Portuguese  literature 
Italic  languages  literature 
Classical  &  Greek  literature 
Lits.  of  other  languages 

General  geog.  &  history  etc. 

General  geography 
General  biog.,  geneal.,  etc. 
Gen.  hist,  of  ancient  world 
Gen.  hist,  of  modern  Europe 
Gen.  hist,  of  modern  Asia 
Gen.  hist,  of  modem  Africa 
Gen.  hist,  of  North  America 
Gen.  hist,  of  South  America 
Gen.  hist,  of  rest  of  world 


Generalities 

000 

Generalities 

050      ( 

001 

Knowledge 

051 

002 

052 

003 

053 

004 

054 

005 

055 

006 

056 

007 

057 

008 

058 

009 

059 

010 

Bibliographies  &  catalogs 

060     < 

on 

General  bibliographies 

061 

012 

Of  individuals 

062 

013 

Of  specific  classes  of  writers 

063 

014 

Of  anonymous  &  pseudon.  works 

064 

OlS 

Of  works  from  specific  places 

065 

016 

Of  specific  subjects 

066 

017 

General  subject  catalogs 

067 

018 

General  author  catalogs 

068 

019 

General  dictionary  catalogs 

069 

020 

Library  science 

070 

021 

The  library 

071 

022 

Physical  plant  of  libraries 

072 

023 

Library  personnel  &  positions 

073 

024 

Regulations  for  use  of  libraries 

074 

025 

Library  economy 

075 

026 

Special  libraries 

076 

027 

General  libraries 

077 

028 

Reading  &  reading  aids 

078 

029 

Indexing  &  documentation 

079 

030 

General  encyclopedic  works 

080 

031 

American 

081 

032 

Other  English-language 

082 

033 

Other  Germanic  languages 

083 

034 

French,  Provengal,  Catalan 

084 

035 

Italian,  Romanian,  etc. 

085 

036 

S  Danish  &  Portuguese 
Slavic  languages 

086 

037 

087 

038 

Scandinavian  languages 

088 

039 

Other  languages 

089 

040 

090 

041 

091 

042 

092 

043 

093 

044 

094 

045 

095 

046 

096 

047 

097 

048 

098 

049 

099 

General  periodicals 

American 

Other  English-language 
Other  Germanic  languages 
French,  Provengal,  Catalan 
Itahan,  Romanian,  etc. 
Spanish  &  Portuguese 
Slavic  languages 
Scandinavian  languages 
Other  languages 

General  organizations 

In  North  America 

In  England  6e  Wales 

In  central  Europe 

In  France 

In  Italy  &  adjacent  territories 

In  Iberian  Peninsula  etc. 

In  eastern  Europe 

In  other  countries 

Museums 

Newspapers  &  journalism 

In  North  America 

In  England  &  Wales 

In  central  Europe 

In  France 

In  Italy  &  adjacent  territories 

In  Iberian  Peninsula  etc. 

In  eastern  Europe 

In  Scandinavia 

In  other  countries 

General  collections 

American 

Other  Enghsh-language 
Other  Germanic  languages 
French,  Provencal,  Catalan 
Italian,  Romanian,  etc. 
Spanish  &  Portuguese 
Slavic  languages 
Scandinavian  languages 
Other  languages 

Mss,  &  book  rarities 

Manuscripts 

Block  books 

Incunabula 

Notable  printing 

Notable  binding 

Notable  illustrations  &  materials 

Notable  ownership  &  origin 

Notable  content 

Notable  format 


lio 


111 


Decimal  Classification 


Summaries 


Philosophy  and  related  disciplines 


Religion 


■^A 


100     Philosophy  &  related 


101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 

110 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 

120 

121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 

130 

131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 

140 

141 

142 
143 

144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 


150     Psychology 


Theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  etc. 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 
Study  &  teaching 
Collections  &  anthologies 
Historical  treatment 

Ontology  &  methodology 

Ontology 

Classification  of  knowledge 

Origin  of  universe 

Space 

Time,  duration,  eternity 

Motion  &  change 

Matter  &  form 

Force  &  energy 

Number  &  quantity 

Other  metaphysical  topics 

Epistemology 

Cause  &  effect 

Freedom  &  necessity 

Teleology 

Finite  &  infinite 

Consciousness  &  personahty 

Unconscious  &  subconscious 

Man 

Origin  &  destiny  of  soul 

Pseudo-  &  parapsychology 

Pseudopsychology 

Parapsychology  &  occultism 

Dreams  &  the  mystic  traditions 

Personality  anal.  &  improvement 

Physiognomy 

Phrenology 

Specific  viewpoints 

Ideahsm  &  related  systems 
Critical  philosophy 
Intuitionism  &  Bergsonism 
Humanism  &  related  systems 
Sensationalism  &  ideology 
Naturahsm  &  related  systems 
Pantheism  &  related  systems 
Liberalism  &  other  systems 
Other  systems  &  doctrines 


151 
152 
153 
154 

155 
156 
157 

158 
159 

160 

161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182 
183 
184 

185 
186 
187 
188 
189 

190 

191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 
197 
198 
199 


Physiological  &  experimental 
Intelligence  &  intellect 
Subconscious  states  &  processes 
Differential  &  genetic  psychology 
Comparative  psychology 
Abnormal  &  clinical  psychologies 
Applied  psychology 
Other  aspects 

Logic 

Induction 
Deduction 

Symbolic  &  mathematical  logic 
Fallacies  &  sources  of  error 
Syllogism 
Hypothesis 

Argument  &  persuasion 
Analogy 
Ethics  (Moral philosophy) 

Systems  &  doctrines 

Ethics  of  political  relationships 

Ethics  of  family  relationships 

Profes.  &  occupational  ethics 

Ethics  of  recreation 

Sexual  ethics 

Ethics  of  social  relations 

Ethics  of  temperance  etc. 

Other  apphcations  of  ethics 

Anc,  med.,  Oriental 

Oriental 

Pre-Socratic 

Sophistic,  Socratic  &  related 

Platonic 

Aristotelian 

Skeptic  &  Neoplatonic 

Epicurean 

Stoic 

Medieval  Western 

Modem  Western  philosophy 

United  States  &  Canada 

British  Isles 

Germany  &  Austria 

France 

Italy 

Spain  &  Portugal 

Russia  &  Finland 

Scandinavia 

Other 


200 

201 

202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 

210 

211 
212 
213 

214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 

220 

221 
222 
223 
224 

225 
226 
227 
228 
229 

230 

231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 

240 

241 
242 
243 
244 
245 
246 
247 
248 
249 


Religion 

Philosophy  of  Christianity 
Miscellany  of  Christianity 
Dictionaries  of  Christianity 

Serial  pubis,  on  Christianity 
Organizations  on  Christianity 
Study  of  Christianity 
Collections  on  Christianity 
Hist.  &  geography  of  Christianity 

Natural  religion 

Knowledge  of  God 
Nature  of  God 
Creation 
Theodicy 
Science  &  religion 
Good  &  evil 
Worship  &  prayer 
Immortahty  &  eternity 
Analogy 

Bible 

Old  Testament 

Historical  books 

Poetic  books 

Prophetic  books 

New  Testament 

Gospels  &  Acts 

Epistles 

Revelation  (Apocalypse) 

Apocrypha,  pseudepigrapha,  etc. 

Christian  doctrinal  theology 

God,  Trinity,  Godhead 

Jesus  Christ  &  his  family 

Man 

Salvation  (Soteriology) 

Invisible  world 

Eschatology 

Creeds  &  confessions  of  faith 
Apologetics  &  polemics 

Christ,  moral  &  devotional 

Moral  theology 
Prayers  &  meditations 
Evangelistic  writings 

Hymns 

Symbolism  etc. 
Sacred  furniture  etc. 
Personal  religion 
Worship  in  family  life 


250 

251 
252 
253 
254 

255 
256 
257 

258 
259 

260 

261 
262 
263 
264 
265 
266 
267 
268 
269 

270 

271 

272 
273 
274 
275 
276 
277 
278 
279 

280 

281 

282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 

290 

291 
292 
293 
294 
295 
296 
297 
298 
299 


Christ,  pastoral  &  parochial 

Preaching  (Homiletics) 

Sermons 

Pastor 

Parish  govt.  &  administration 

Rehgious  congregations  &  orders 

Parochial  welfare  work 
Other  parochial  activities 

Chr.  social  &  eccles.  theoL 

Social  theology 

Church  govt.,  org.,  nature 

Times  of  religious  observance 

Public  worship 

Other  rites  &  ceremonies 

Missions 

Associations  for  religious  work 

Rehgious  training  &  instruction 

Organized  spiritual  renewal 

Hist.  &  geog.  of  Chr.  church 

Rehgious  congregations  &  orders 

Persecutions 

Heresies 

Christian  church  in  Europe 

Christian  church  in  Asia 

Christian  church  in  Africa 

Christian  church  in  No.  America 

Christian  church  in  So.  America 

Christian  church  elsewhere 

Christ,  denominations  &  sects 

Primitive  &  Oriental  churches 

Roman  Catholic  Church 

Anglican  churches 

Protestants  of  Continental  origin 

Presb.,  Amer,  Ref.,  Congr.  chs. 

Bapt.,  Disc,  of  Christ,  Adventists 

Methodist  churches 

Unitarianism 

Other  denominations  &  sects 

Other  religions  etc. 

Comparative  religion 

Classical  (Gr.  &  Rom.)  religion 

Germanic  religion 

Brahmanism  &  related  religions 

Zoroastrianism 

Judaism 

Islam  6e  its  derivatives 

Other  religions 


112 


^^3 


\ 


Decimal  Classification 


Summaries 


i 


I 


ft. 


I'he  social 

sciences 

300 

The  social  sciences 

350 

Public  administration 

301 

Sociology 

351 

Central  governments 

302 

VJV 

352 

Local  units  of  government 

303 

353 

United  States  federal  &  states 

304 

354 

Other  central  governments 

305 

355 

General  mihtary  administration 

306 

356 

Foot  forces 

307 

357 

Mounted  forces 

308 

358 

Armored,  technical,  air,  space 

309 

Social  situation  &  conditions 

359 

Sea  ( Naval )  forces 

310 

Statistical  method  &  statistics 

360 

Welfare  &  association 

311 

Statistical  method 

361 

Organization  of  social  welfare 

312 

Statistics  of  populations 

362 

Welfare  services  to  spec,  groups 

313 

363 

Other  services 

314 

General  statistics  of  Europe 

364 

Criminology 

315 

General  statistics  of  Asia 

365 

Penology 

316 

General  statistics  of  Africa 

366 

Association 

317 

Gen.  statistics  of  North  America 

367 

Social  clubs 

318 

Gen.  statistics  of  South  America 

368 

Insurance 

319 

Gen.  statistics  of  rest  of  world 

369 

Other  kinds  of  associations 

320 

Political  science 

370 

Education 

321 

Types  &  forms  of  states 

371 

The  school 

322 

Relation  of  state  to  org.  groups 

372 

Elementary  education 

323 

Rel.  of  state  to  individuals  etc. 

373 

Secondary  education 

324 

Suffrage 

374 

Adult  education 

325 

International  migration 

375 

Curriculums 

326 

Slavery  &  emancipation 

376 

Education  of  women 

327 

International  relations 

377 

Schools  &  religion 

328 

Legislation 

378 

Higher  education 

329 

Practical  politics 

379 

Govt,  supervision  &  support 

330 

Economics 

380 

Commerce 

331 

Labor 

381 

Internal  commerce 

332 

Lucrative  capital 

382 

International  commerce 

333 

Land  ( Natural  resources ) 

383 

Postal  communication 

334 

Cooperative  systems 

384 

Other  systems  of  communication 

335 

Collectivist  systems  &  schools 

385 

Railroad  transportation 

336 

Public  finance 

386 

Inland  waterway  transportation 

337 

387 

Water,  air,  space  transportation 

338 

Production 

388 

Ground  transportation 

339 

Distribution  &  consumption 

389 

Metrology  &  standardization 

340 

Law 

390 

Customs  &  folklore 

341 

Intemat.  law  ( Law  of  nations ) 

391 

Costimie 

342 

Constitutional  law 

392 

Customs  of  life  cycle 

343 

Criminal  law 

393 

Death  customs 

344 

Martial  law 

394 

Public  &  social  customs 

345 

United  States  statutes  &  cases 

395 

Etiquette 

346 

British  statutes  &  cases 

396 

347 

Private  law  &  judicial  system 

397 

348 

398 

Folklore 

349 

Statutes  &  cases  not  U.S.-Brit. 

399 

Customs  of  war 

Language 


400 

401 
402 
403 
404 
405 
406 
407 
408 
409 

410 

411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 
418 
419 

420 

421 

422 
423 
424 
425 
426 
427 
428 
429 

430 

431 
432 
433 
434 

435 
436 
437 
438 
439 

440 

441 

442 
443 
444 
445 
446 
447 
448 
449 


Language 

Philosophy  &  theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  etc. 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 
Study  &  teaching 
Collections  &  anthologies 
Hist.  &  geographical  treatment 

Linguistics  &  nonverbal 

Notations 

Etymology 

Polyglot  dictionaries 

Phonology 

Structural  systems 

Prosody 

Dialectology  &  paleography 

Usage  ( Applied  linguistics ) 

Nonverbal  language 

English  &  Anglo-Saxon 

Written  &  spoken  English 
English  etymology 
English  dictionaries 

English  structural  system 
English  prosody 
Nonstandard  English 
Standard  English  usage 
Anglo-Saxon  (Old  English) 

Germanic  languages 

Written  &  spoken  German 
German  etymology 
German  dictionaries 

German  structural  system 
German  prosody 
Nonstandard  German 
Standard  German  usage 
Other  Germanic  languages 

French,  Provencal,  Catalan 

Written  &  spoken  French 
French  etymology 
French  dictionaries 

French  structural  system 
French  prosody 
Nonstandard  French 
Standard  French  usage 
Provengal  &  Catalan 


450     Italian,  Romanian,  etc. 

Written  &  spoken  Italian 
Italian  etymology 
Itahan  dictionaries 


451 
452 
453 
454 
455 
456 
457 
458 
459 

460 

461 
462 
463 
464 
465 
466 
467 
468 
469 

470 

471 
472 
473 
474 
475 
476 
477 
478 
479 

480 

481 

482 
483 
484 
485 
486 
487 
488 
489 

490 

491 

492 
493 
494 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 


Italian  structural  system 
Italian  prosody 
Nonstandard  Italian 
Standard  Italian  usage 
Romanian  &  Rhaeto-Romanic 

Spanish  &  Portuguese 

Written  &  spoken  Spanish 
Spanish  etymology 
Spanish  dictionaries 

Spanish  structural  system 
Spanish  prosody 
Nonstandard  Spanish 
Standard  Spanish  usage 
Portuguese 

Italic  languages 

Written  &  spoken  Latin 
Latin  etymology 
Latin  dictionaries 

Latin  structural  system 
Latin  prosody 

Old,  Postclassical,  Vulgar  Latin 
Standard  Latin  usage 
Romance  &  other  Italic  langs. 

Classical  &  Greek 

Written  &  spoken  classical  Greek 
Classical  Greek  etymology 
Classical  Greek  dictionaries 

Class.  Greek  structural  system 
Classical  Greek  prosody 
Postclassical  Greek 
Standard  classical  Greek  usage 
Other  Greek  languages 

Other  languages 

East  Indo-European  &  Celtic 
Semitic  languages 
Hamitic  &  other  languages 
Ural-Altaic,  Dravidian,  etc. 
East  &  Southeast  Asian  langs. 
African  languages 
North  American  Indian  langs. 
South  American  Indian  langs. 
Austronesian  &  other  languages 


114 


lis 


Decimal  Classification 


Pure  sciences 


Summaries 


Technology  ( Applied  sciences ) 


if* 

?ij'? 


fife 


500     Pure  sciences 


501 
502 
503 
504 
505 
506 
507 
508 
509 

510 

511 
512 
513 
514 
515 
516 
517 
518 
519 

520 

521 

522 

523 

524 

525 

526 

527 

528 

529 

530 

531 
532 
533 
534 
535 
536 
537 
538 
539 

540 

541 
542 
543 

544 
545 
546 
547 
548 
549 


550     Earth  sciences 


li  s'l 


H 


Philosophy  &  theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  etc. 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 
Study  &  teaching 
Collections,  travels,  surveys 
Hist.  &  geographical  treatment 

Mathematics 

Arithmetic 

Algebra 

Synthetic  geometry 

Trigonometry 

Descriptive  geometry 

Analytic  (Coordinate)  geometry 

Calculus 

Probabilities  &  statistical  math. 

Astronomy  &  allied  sci. 

Theoretical  astronomy 
Practical  &  spherical  astronomy 
Descriptive  astronomy 

Earth  (Astronomical  geography) 
Mathematical  geography 
Celestial  navigation 
Ephemerides  (Naut.  almanacs) 
Chronology 

Physics 

Mechanics 

Mechanics  of  fluids 

Mechanics  of  gases 

Sound  &  related  vibrations 

Visible  light  etc. 

Heat 

Electricity  &  electronics 

Magnetism 

Modem  physics 

Chemistry  &  allied  sciences 

Physical  &  theoret.  chemistry 
Laboratories  &  equipment 
General  analytical  chemistry 
Qualitative  analytical  chemistry 
Quantitative  analytical  chemistry 
Inorganic  chemistry 
Organic  chemistry 
Crystallography 
Mineralogy 


551 

552 
553 
554 
555 
556 
557 
558 
559 

560 

561 
562 
563 
564 
565 
566 
567 
568 
569 

570 

571 
572 
573 
574 
575 
576 
577 
578 
579 

580 

581 
582 
583 

584 
585 
586 
587 
588 
589 

590 

591 

592 
593 
594 
595 
596 
597 
598 
599 


Physical  &  dynamic  geology 
Petrology 
Economic  geology 
Geology  of  Europe 
Geology  of  Asia 
Geology  of  Africa 
Geology  of  North  America 
Geology  of  South  America 
Geology  of  other  parts  of  world 

Paleontology 

PcJeobotany 

Invertebrate  paleozoology 
Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa 
MoUusca  &  moUuscoidea 
Other  invertebrates 
Vertebrate  paleozoology 
Anamnia  ( Fishes  etc. ) 
Sauropsida  ( Reptiles  &  birds) 
Manmialia  (Mammals) 

Anthropol.  &  biological  sci. 

Human  races  (Ethnology) 

Somatology  ( Phys.  anthropol. ) 

Biology 

Organic  evolution 

Microbiology 

Gen.  properties  of  living  matter 

Microscopes  &  microscopy 

Coll.  &  preservation  of  specimens 

Botanical  sciences 

Botany 

Spermatophyta 

Dicotyledones 

Monocotyledones 

Gymnospermae 

Cryptogamia 

Pteridophyta 

Bryophyta 

Thallophyta 

Zoological  sciences 

Zoology 
Invertebrates 

Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa 
MoUusca  6e  moUuscoidea 
Other  invertebrates 
Chordata  ( Vertebrates ) 
Anamnia  ( Fishes  etc. ) 
Reptiles  &  birds 
Mammaha  (Mammals) 


ii6 


600  Technology  (Applied  sci.) 

60 1  Philosophy  &  theory 

602  Miscellany 

603  Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  etc. 

604 

605  Serial  publications 

606  Organizations 

607  Study  &  teaching 

608  Collections,  patents,  etc. 

609  Hist.  &  geographical  treatment 

610  Medical  sciences 

611  Human  anatomy 

612  Human  physiology 

613  General  &  personal  hygiene 

614  Public  health 

615  Therapeutics  &  pharmacology 

616  Medicine 

617  Surgery 

618  Other  speciahzed  medicine 

619  Compar.  &  experim.  medicine 

620  Engineering  &  allied 

621  Applied  physics 

622  Mining  engineering  &  operations 

623  Military  &  naval  engineering 

624  Civil  engineering 

625  Railroads  &  highways 
626 

627  Hydraulic  engineering  etc. 

628  Sanitary  &  municipal  engineering 

629  Other  branches 

630  Agriculture  &  agr.  indus. 

631  Farming 

632  Plant  pathology  &  its  control 

633  Field  crops 

634  Orchards,  small  fruit,  forestry 

635  Garden  crops  ( Horticulture ) 

636  Livestock  &  domestic  animals 

637  Dairy  &  related  industries 

638  Insect  culture 

639  Nondomesticated  animals 

640  Domestic  arts  &  sciences 

641  Food  &  drink 

642  Food  &  meal  service 

643  The  home  &  its  equipment 

644  Household  utilities 

645  Household  furnishings 

646  Clothing  &  care  of  body 

647  Housekeeping 

648  Household  sanitation 

649  Child  rearing  &  home  nursing 


650     Business  &  related 


651 
652 
653 
654 

655 
656 
657 
658 
659 

660 

661 
662 
663 
664 
665 
666 
667 
668 
669 

670 

671 
672 
673 
674 
675 
676 
677 
67S 
679 

680 

681 

682 
683 
684 
685 
686 
687 
688 
689 

690 

691 
692 
693 
694 
695 
696 
697 
698 
699 


Office  services 

Writing 

Shorthand 

Printing  &  related  activities 

Accounting 

Management 

Other  activities  &  techniques 

Chemical  technology  etc. 

Industrial  chemicals 
Explosives,  fuels,  etc. 
Drinks,  stimulants,  etc. 
Food  technology 
Industrial  oils,  fats,  gases 
Ceramic  &  allied  industries 
Cleaning,  color  &  related 
Other  organic  products 
Metallurgy 

Manufactures  processible 

Metal  manufactures 

Ferrous  metals  manufactures 

Nonferrous  metals  manufactures 

Lumber,  cork,  wood-using  indus. 

Leather  &  fur  industries 

Pulp  &  paper  industries 

Textiles 

Elastomers  &  their  products 

Other  products 

Assembled  etc.  products 

Precision  mechanisms  etc. 

Small  forge  work 

Hardware 

Furnishings  &  wheeled  supports 

Leather  goods  &  substitutes 

Clothing 

Other  final  products 

Buildings 

Materials 

Construction  practices 
Systems  of  construction 
Wood  construction 
Roofing  &  auxiliary  structures 
Plumbing,  heating,  ventilating 
Heating,  ventilating,  etc. 
Detail  finishing 


117 


f 


Decimal  Classification 


Summaries 


\i"^ 


t- 


^  The  arts 

700  The  arts  750 

701  Philosophy  &  theory  751 

702  Miscellany  752 

703  Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  etc.  753 

704  Collections,  iconography,  etc.  754 

705  Serial  publications  755 

706  Organizations  756 

707  Study  &  teaching  757 

708  Galleries,  museums,  etc.  758 

709  Hist.  &  geographical  treatment  759 

710  Civic  &  landscape  art  760 

711  Area  planning  (Civic  art)  761 

712  Landscape  design  762 

713  Landscape  design  of  trafficways  763 

714  Water  in  landscape  design  764 

715  Woody  plants  in  landscape  design  765 

716  Herbaceous  plants  in  design  766 

717  Structures  in  landscape  design  767 

718  Landscape  design  of  cemeteries  768 

719  Natural  landscapes  769 

720  Architecture  770 

721  Architectural  construction  771 

722  Ancient  period  772 

723  Medieval  period  773 

724  Modem  period  774 

725  Public  structures  775 

726  Buildings  for  religious  purposes  776 

727  Bldgs.  for  educational  purposes  777 

728  Residential  buildings  77S 

729  Design  &  decoration  779 

730  Sculpture  &  plastic  arts  780 

731  Processes  etc.  of  sculpture  781 

732  Ancient  nonclassical  sculpture  782 

733  Ancient  classical  sculpture  783 

734  Medieval  sculpture  784 

735  Modem  sculpture  785 

736  Carving  &  carvings  786 

737  Numismatics  787 

738  Ceramic  arts  788 

739  Art  metalwork  789 

740  Drawing  &  decorative  arts  790 

741  Freehand  drawing  &  drawings  791 

742  Perspective  792 

743  Freehand  drawing  by  subject  793 

744  Technical  drawing  794 

745  Design  &  crafts  795 

746  Textile  handicrafts  796 

747  Interior  decoration  797 

748  Glass  798 

749  Furniture  &  accessories  799 

ii8 


Literature  (Belles-lettres)  and  rhetoric 


Painting  &  paintings 

Processes  &  forms 

Color  theory  &  practice 

Abstractions,  mythology,  etc. 

Subjects  of  everyday  life 

Religion  &  religious  symbolism 

Historical  events 

Human  figures  &  their  parts 

Other  subjects 

Hist.  &  geographical  treatment 

Graphic  arts 

Relief  processes  for  prints 

Lithographic  processes 
Chromolithography  &  serigraphy 
Metal  intaglio  processes 
Mezzotinting  etc.  processes 
Etching  &  drypoint  processes 

Prints 
Photography  &  photographs 

Equipment,  supplies,  chemistry 
Metallic  salt  processes 
Pigment  processes  of  printing 


Specific  fields  of  photography 
Collections  of  photographs 

Music 

General  principles  &  techniques 
Dramatic  music 
Sacred  music 
Voice  &  vocal  music 
Instrumental  ensembles  &  music 
Keyboard  instruments  &  music 
String  instruments  &  music 
Wind  instruments  &  their  music 
Percussion,  mechan.,  electr.  inst. 

Recreation  (Recr.  arts) 

Public  entertaimnent 
Theater  ( Stage  presentations ) 
Indoor  games  &  amusements 
Indoor  games  of  skill 
Games  of  chance 
Athletic  6e  outdoor  sports 
Aquatic  &  air  sports 
Equestrian  &  animal  sports 
Fishing,  hunting,  shooting 


I 


800 

801 
802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
807 
808 
809 

810 

811 
812 
813 
814 
815 
816 
817 
818 
819 

820 

821 

822 
823 
824 
825 
826 
827 
828 
829 

830 

831 

832 
833 
834 
835 
836 
837 
838 
839 

840 

841 
842 
843 
844 
845 
846 
847 
848 
849 


Literature  &  rhetoric 

Philosophy  &  theory  of  literature 
Miscellany  about  hterature 
Dictionaries  etc.  of  hterature 

Serials  of  &  about  literature 
Organizations  on  literature 
Study  &  teaching  of  literature 
Rhetoric  &  collections  of  lit. 
History  &  criticism  of  literature 

American  lit.  in  English 

Poetry 

Drama 

Fiction 

Essays 

Speeches 

Letters 

Satire  &  humor 

Miscellany 

English  &  Anglo-Saxon  lit. 

English  poetry 
English  drama 
English  fiction 
English  essays 
Enghsh  speeches 
English  letters 
English  satire  &  humor 
English  miscellany 
Anglo-Saxon  (Old  Enghsh) 

Germanic  languages  lit. 

German  poetry 
German  drama 
German  fiction 
German  essays 
German  speeches 
German  letters 
German  satire  &  humor 
German  miscellany 
Other  Germanic  languages 

French  etc.  literature 

French  poetry 
French  drama 
French  fiction 
French  essays 
French  speeches 
French  letters 
French  satire  &  humor 
French  miscellany 
Provengal  &  Catalan 


850     Italian  etc.  Hterature 


851 

852 
853 
854 
855 
856 
857 
858 
859 

860 

861 
862 
863 
864 
865 
866 
867 
868 
869 

870 

871 

872 
873 
874 
875 
876 
877 
878 
879 

880 

881 
882 
883 
884 
885 
886 
887 
888 
889 

890 

891 
892 
893 
894 
895 
896 
897 
898 
899 


Itahan  poetry 

Italian  drama 

Italian  fiction 

Italian  essays 

Italian  speeches 

Italian  letters 

Italian  satire  &  humor 

Italian  miscellany 

Romanian  &  Rhaeto-Romanic 

Spanish  &  Portuguese  lit. 

Spanish  poetry 
Spanish  drama 
Spanish  fiction 
Spanish  essays 
Spanish  speeches 
Spanish  letters 
Spanish  satire  &  humor 
Spanish  miscellany 
Portuguese 

Italic  languages  literature 

Latin  poetry 

Latin  dramatic  poetry  &  drama 

Latin  epic  poetry  &  fiction 

Latin  lyric  poetry 

Latin  speeches 

Latin  letters 

Latin  satire  &  humor 

Latin  miscellany 

Other  Itahc  languages 

Classical,  modem  Greek  lit. 

Classical  Greek  poetry 
Classical  dramatic  poetry 
Classical  epic  poetry  &  fiction 
Classical  Greek  lyric  poetry 
Classical  Greek  speeches 
Classical  Greek  letters 
Classical  Greek  satire  &  humor 
Classical  Greek  miscellany 
Modem  Greek 

Lits.  of  other  languages 

East  Indo-European  &  Celtic 
Semitic  languages 
Hamitic  &  other  languages 
Ural-Altaic,  Dravidian,  etc. 
East  &  Southeast  Asian  langs. 
African  languages 
North  American  Indian  langs. 
South  American  Indian  langs. 
Austronesian  &  other  languages 


^^9 


Decimal  Classification 


General  geography  and  history  and  related  disciplines 


M 

ri 


900 

901 
902 
903 
904 
90S 
906 
907 
908 
909 

910 

911 
912 
913 
914 
915 
916 
917 
918 
919 

920 

921 
922 
923 
924 
925 
926 
927 
928 
929 

930 

931 
932 
933 
934 
935 
936 
937 
938 
939 

940 

941 
942 
943 
944 
945 
946 
947 
948 
949 


Gen.  geog.  &  history  etc. 

Philos.  &  theory  of  gen.  hist. 
Miscellany  of  general  history 
Dictionaries  etc.  of  gen.  hist. 
Collected  accounts  of  events 
Serial  publications  of  gen.  hist. 
Organizations  on  gen.  hist. 
Study  &  teaching  of  gen.  hist. 
Collections  of  generd  history 
World  history 

General  geography 

Historical  geography 
Atlases,  maps,  charts,  etc. 
Geography  of  ancient  world 
Geography  of  modem  Europe 
Geography  of  modem  Asia 
Geography  of  modem  Africa 
Geography  of  North  America 
Geography  of  South  America 
Geography  of  rest  of  world 

Gen.  biography,  geneaL,  etc. 


Genealogy,  names,  insignia 

Gen.  hist,  of  ancient  world 

China 

Egypt 

Palestine 

India 

Mesopotamia  &  Iranian  Plateau 

Northern  &  western  Europe 

Italian  peninsula  &  adjacent 

Greece 

Other  parts  of  ancient  world 

Gen.  hist,  of  modem  Europe 

Scotland  &  Ireland 

British  Isles 

Central  Europe 

France 

Italy  &  adjacent  territories 

Iberian  Peninsula  &  adjacent  isls. 

Eastern  Europe 

Scandinavia 

Other  parts  of  Europe 


950 

Gen.  hist,  of  modem  Asia 

951 

China  &  adjacent  areas 

952 

Japan  &  adjacent  islands 

953 

Arabian  Peninsida  &  adj.  areas 

954 

South  Asia 

955 

Iran  (Persia) 

956 

Middle  East 

957 

Siberia  ( Asiatic  Russia ) 

958 

Central  Asia 

959 

Southeast  Asia 

960 

Gen.  hist,  of  modem  Africa 

961 

North  Africa 

962 

Egypt  &  Sudan 

963 

Ethiopia 

964 

Northwest  coast  &  offshore  isls. 

965 

Algeria 

966 

West  Africa  &  offshore  islands 

967 

Central  Africa  &  offshore  islands 

968 

South  Africa 

969 

South  Indian  Ocean  islands 

970 

Gen.  hist,  of  North  America 

971 

Canada 

972 

Middle  America 

973 

United  States 

974 

Northeastern  states  of  U.S. 

975 

Southeastern  states  of  U.S. 

976 

South  central  states  of  U.S. 

977 

North  central  states  of  U.S. 

978 

Western  states  of  U.S. 

979 

Great  Basin  &  Pacific  Slope 

980 

Gen.  hist,  of  South  America 

981 

Brazil 

982 

Argentina 

983 

Chile 

984 

Bohvia 

985 

Peru 

986 

Northwestern  South  America 

987 

Venezuela 

988 

Guiana 

989 

Other  parts  of  South  America 

990 

Gen,  hist,  of  rest  of  world 

991 

Malay  Archipelago 

992 

Sunda  Islands 

993 

New  Zealand  &  Melanesia 

994 

Australia 

995 

New  Guinea  ( Papua ) 

996 

Other  parts  of  Pacific 

997 

Atlantic  Ocean  islands 

998 

Arctic  islands 

999 

Antarctica 

120 


General  Tables 


1" 


X 


"4 ' 

*5^ 


f1 
'it 


Vi^ 


V 


lit 


If  . 


u^; 


vfci" 


r^. 


Use  of  the  General  Tables 


000 


Full  instructions  on  use  appear  in  the  Editor's 
Introduction,  section  3. 

A  number  in  square  brackets  is  not  in  force  or 
is  no  longer  in  force  with  the  meaning  indicated. 


12% 


000  Generalities 

001  Knowledge 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Scope:  spread  of  knowledge 


SUMMARY 

001.2            Intellectual  life  (Scholarship  and  learning) 

.3            Humanities 

•4           Research 

•S           Communication 

.9           Controversial  and  spurious  knowledge 

^ 

Intellectual  life  (Scholarship  and  learning) 

^ 

Humanities 

.4 

Research  {^formerly  007] 

[.401  8] 

Methodology 

Do  not  use;  class  in  001.42 

.42 

Methodology 

Scope:  surveys  and  appraisals 

.422 

Statistical  method 

.424 

Operations  research 

Experimental  models,  design,  programing 

.425 

Empirical  tests  and  testing 

.426 

Case  studies 

.429 

Collecting  and  collections 

.44 

Incentives 

Endowment  [formerly  378.32],  prizes,  awards,  scholarships, 
fellowships,  medals,  certificates,  honors 

123 


Decimal  Classification 


Knowledge 


fM 


001.5 

.501 


.51 


Conununication  [formerly  384] 

Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  001.51 

Theories  [formerly  006] 


.53 

Cybernetics  [formerly  006] 

.532 

Prototypes  (Bionics) 

.533 

Self -organizing  systenjs 

.534 

Perception  theory 

.535 

Artificial  intelligence 

.539 

Information  theory 

.539  2 

Recall 

.539  3 

Uncertainty 

.539  4 

Relevance  and  irrelevance 

.55 

Counimnication  thru  records 

.552 

Printed  and  v^^itten  mediums   (The  book   [formerly 

002]) 

.552  2 

Conventional  size 

.552  3 

Microreproductions  [formerly  099] 

.553 

Other  visual  mediums 

.553  2 

Motion-picture  films 

.553  3 

Filmstrips 

.553  4 

Slides 

.553  5 

Unprojected  illustrations 

.554 

Audio  medimns 

.554  2 

Mechanical 

.554  3 

Magnetic 

.554  4 

Electronic 

001.9 

Controversial  and  spurious  knovv^ledge 

.92 

Controversies 

.93 

Curiosities 

.94 

Mysteries 

.95 

Deceptions  and  hoaxes 

.96 

Errors,  delusions,  superstitions 

[002] 

The  book 

Class  generalities  in  001.552,  bookmaking  and  book  arts  in  655 

003 

004 

005 

[006] 

Communication  theories  and  cybernetics 

008 
009 


Class  communication  theories  in  001.51,  cybernetics  in  001.53 


[007]      Research 


/ 


Class  in  001.4 


.555 


Other 


124 


125 


Decimal  Classification 


I  '-J 


I  s 


M 


010     Bibliographies  and  catalogs 


.28 


Oil 


•02 


012 


013 


.9 


015 


of  books,  other  printed  and  written  mediums,  nonmusical  recordings, 
information  fibns  and  slides 

Class  book  collecting  in  020.75,  documentation  in  029.7  [both  formerly 
010] 

For  bibliographies  and  catalogs  of  books  for  children  and  young 
adults,  see  028.52 

Preparation 
General  bibliographies 

Lists  of  works  not  limited  to  a  specific  kind  of  coverage  or  place  of 
publication 

Including  general  classified  bibliographies  [formerly  016] 
Reference  works 


012-016  Special  bibhographies  and  catalogs 
Of  individuals 

Works  by  or  about  persons  not  clearly  associated  with  a  specific 
subject 

Of  specific  classes  of  writers 

Works  whose  authors  have  common  characteristics 

Divide  like  920.1-928.9,  e.g.,  bibhographies  and  catalogs  of  writings 
of  librarians  013.02 

For  bibliographies  and  catalogs  of  individuals,  see  012 

Residents  of  specific  continents,  countries,  localities 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  013.9 


014  Of  anonymous  and  pseudonymous  works 

Divide  like  031-039,  e.g.,  bibliographies  of  anonymous  and 
pseudonymous  works  in  French  014.41   ' 


Of  works  from  specific  places 

Works  issued  or  printed  in  specific  continents,  countries,  localities,  or 
by  specific  firms 

Scope :  national  bibliographies 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  015 

126 


016 


.1 

.2 

.3 
.4 


.5 
.6 
.7 
S 


018 


019 


Bibliographies  and  catalogs 


Of  specific  subjects 

If  preferred,  class  in  standard  subdivision  016 

Use  016.000  1-016.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  bibliographies  of  mathematics  016.51,  of 
newspapers  in  England  016.072 

Class  general  classified  bibliographies  [forjuerly  016]  in  Oil 

For  bibliographies  and  catalogs  of  music  scores  and  parts,  see 
781.97 


017-019  General  catalogs 

Lists  of  works  held  in  a  specific  collection  or  group  of  collections 
and  not  limited  to  a  specific  kind  of  coverage  or  place  of  publi- 
cation 


017  Subject  catalogs 


017.1-017.4  Classified 
Catalogs  of  non-private  libraries 
Catalogs  of  private  and  family  libraries 
Auction  catalogs 
Booksellers'  catalogs 

For  auction  catalogs,  see  017.3 


017.5-017.8  Alphabetically  arranged  Iformerly  019] 
Catalogs  of  non-private  libraries 
Catalogs  of  private  and  family  libraries 
Auction  catalogs 
Booksellers'  catalogs 

For  auction  catalogs,  see  017.7 

Author  catalogs 

Divide  like  017.1-017.4,  e.g.,  catalogs  of  private  and  family  libraries 
018.2 

Dictionary  catalogs 

Divide  hke  017.1-017.4,  e.g.,  auction  catalogs  019.3 

Class    alphabetically   arranged    subject   catalogs    [formerly    019]    in 


017.5-017.8 


i2y 


t: 


Decimal  Classification 


Library  science 


r^ 


I 


i.'. 


lu 


020     Library  science 

The  knowledge  and  skill  by  which  printed  and  written   records   are 
recognized,  collected,  organized,  utilized 

For  bibliographies  and  catalogs,  see  010 

•6  Organizations 

Class  friends-of-the-library  organizations  [formerly  020.6]  in  021.7 


.62 

Permanent  nongovernment  organizations 

.621 

International 

.622 

National 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  020.622 

.623 

Regional,  state,  provincial 

.623  2 

Regional 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  020.623  2 

.623  4  State  and  provincial 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  020.623  4 

.624  Local 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  020.624 

«7  Study  and  teaching 

,71  Institutions  offering  instruction  in  library  science 

.711  Library  schools 

[.713]  In-service  training 

Class  in  023.5 

.715  Institutes  and  workshops 

.75  Book  collecting  [formerly  QIO] 

021  The  library 

Use  021.001-021.008  for  standard  subdivisions 


.009 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  specific  libraries  and  kinds  of  libraries  in  026-027 
128 


021.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.62 


.63 
.64 


[.65] 


.7 


.82 


.83 
.84 
.85 


.88 
[.89] 


021.1-021.8  Establishment  and  purpose  of  libraries 
Libraries  as  storage  centers 
Libraries  as  educational  force 

Libraries  in  relation  to  other  educational  institutions 
Libraries  as  social  force 
Library  extension  and  cooperation 

Extension  units 

Class  branches  [formerly  021.62]  in  027.4 

Centralization  of  systems 

Cooperation 

Including  union  catalogs,  bibliographical  centers  [both 
formerly  025.35] 

For  cooperation  in  a  specific  activity,  see  the  activity,  e,g 
cooperative  cataloging  025.35 

Bookmobiles 
Class  in  027.4 

Promotion  of  libraries 

Including  friends-of-the-library  organizations  [formerly  020.6] 
For  friends  of  specific  libraries,  see  026-027 

Libraries  and  the  state 
Library  commissions 

Including  governing  boards  [formerly  023.3] 

Monetary  aid  and  subsidies 

Gifts  of  books  and  copyright  deposits 

OflBcial  exchange  of  publications 

Class  United  States  Book  Exchange  [formerly  021.85]  in 
025.26 

Political  pressures 
Library  laws 

Class  in  340 

i2g 


Decimal  Classification 


022  Physical  plant  of  libraries 

Scope:  school  libraries  [fonnerly  also  371.622] 
For  maintenance  of  physical  plant,  see  025.9 

.1  Location  and  site 

[.2]  Building  materials  and  insurance 

Class  building  materials  in  022.3,  insurance  in  368 

♦3  Planning  for  buildings 

Requirements  based  on  function 

Including  building  materials  [formerly  also  022.2] 

Class  library  architecture  [formerly  022.3]  in  727.8 

[.309]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  022.33 

.31  By  kinds  of  libraries 

Divide  like  027,  e.g.,  planning  of  college  libraries  022.317 
For  geographical  treatment,  see  022.33 

.33  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  022.33 

•4  Stacks  and  shelving 

.5  Reading  rooms 

For  reading  rooms  for  special  materials,  see  022.6 

.6  Administrative  and  special  rooms 

Including  reading  rooms  for  special  materials 

.7  Lighting 

S  Heating,  ventilation,  air  conditioning 

,9  Furniture  and  equipment 

For  stacks  and  shelving,  see  022.4 

023  Library  personnel  and  positions 

[.3]  Governing  boards 

Class  in  021.82 

130 


Library  science 


023.4 
.5 


[.502  02] 


[.8] 


.9 


024 


.6 


025 


023.4-023.5  Personnel 
For  titles  and  job  descriptions,  see  023.7 

Administrative 

Staff 

Qualifications  and  organization 

Including  in-service  training  [formerly  020.713] 

StafiF  manuals,  rules,  codes 
Do  not  use;  class  in  023.9 

Titles  and  job  descriptions 

Use  023.700  1  -  023.700  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Classification,  pay,  retirement  plans 

Class  pension  and  retirement  plans  in  658.325,  classification  and 
pay  plans  in  658.322  2 

Staff  manuals,  rules,  codes 

Regulations  for  use  of  libraries 
Interlibrary  loans 

Library  economy 

Practical  appUcation  of  library  science  to  the  founding,  organizing, 
administration  of  libraries 
Use  025.001-025.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  indexing  and  documentation,  see  029 


.02 


Technical  processes 


SUMMARY 

025.1  Administration 

^  Acquisitions 

^  Cataloging 

•4  Classification 

S  Services  to  patrons 

JS  Circulation  services 

.7  Binding  and  repair  services 

^  Maintenance  and  preservation  of  collections 

.9  Maintenance  of  physical  plant 

131 


Decimal  Classification 


025.1 
.11 


.12 
.129 


Administration 

Finance 

Class  accounting  [formerly  025.11]  in  657.834 

Printing  and  publishing 
Duplication  processes 


.17 


.171 
.172 

.173 
[.175] 

.176 
.177 


.1771 


.177  3 


Treatment  of  special  materials 
Anrangement,  care,  use 

For  a  special  kind  of  treatment,  see  the  kind,  e.g.,  cataloging 
of  special  materials  025.34 

Manuscripts,  archival  materials,  rarities 

Vertical  file  [formerly  also  029.3] 
Including  clippings  [formerly  025.175] 

Serials,  documents,  report  literature 
Clippings 

Class  in  025.172 

Maps,  atlases,  globes 


Audio-visual  materials 

For  recordings,  see  025.178;  maps,  atlases,  globes,  025.176; 
realia,  025.179 

Art  materials 

Pictures  and  prints 

Films  and  slides 


.178 


.179 


.179  2 


Recordings  and  music  scores 

Other  special  materials 

Including  microreproductions,  realia 

Books  in  raised  characters 
Braille  and  others 
132 


Library  science 


21 

23 
.25 

,26 


025.2  Acquisitions 


Selecting   and   acquiring  books,  periodicals,   other  materials  by 
purchase,  exchange,  gift 

Book  selection 

Principles  and  theory 

Order  work 

Physical  preparation  for  shelves 

Exchange  and  gift  work 

Including  United  States  Book  Exchange  [formerly  021.85] 


3 

.32 
.33 


Cataloging 

Descriptive  cataloging 

Subject  cataloging 

Use  025.330  001  -  025.330  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  classification,  see  025.4 


.330  01-.339  99 


.34 


.35 


.37 


Subject  headings 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  subject  headings  in  science 
025.335 


Cataloging  of  special  materials 

Divide  like  025.17,  e.g.,  cataloging  of  maps  025.346 

Cooperative  cataloging 

Class   union  catalogs,  bibliographical   centers    [both  formerly 
025.35]  in  021.64 

Filing 


.4 

.43 

.46 


Classification 

Principles,  systems,  notations 

General  classification  schedules 

Classification  of  special  subjects 

Use  025.460  001  -  025.460  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  classification  of  music  025.467  8 

^33 


Decimal  Classification 


025,5 


.52 


.54 


.542 
.544 
.6 


.7 
.8 

.81 
.82 
.84 

.9 


Services  to  patrons 

For  a  specific  service,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  circulation  services 
025.6;  reference  and  reader  advisory  services  to  special  groups, 
027.6 

Reference  services 

Class  reference   and  research   libraries    [formerly   025.52]    in 
027.424 

For  use  of  books  as  sources  of  information,  see  028.7 

Reader  advisory  services  [formerly  also  028.8] 

For  books  as  sources  of  recreation  and  self-development,  see 
028.8 

To  individuals 

To  groups 

Circulation  services 

Lending  materials,  keeping  records  of  loans 

For  regulations  for  interlibrary  loans,  see  024.6 

Binding  and  repair  services 

Maintenance  and  preservation  of  collections 

Arrangement 

Inventory 

Preservation 

For  binding  and  repair,  see  025.7 

Maintenance  of  physical  plant 


026-027  Specific  kinds  of  libraries 

Scope:  specific  libraries,  friends  of  specific  libraries 

Class  a  specific  library  activity  or  service  w^ith  the  subject 


026  Special  libraries 


.001-.999 


Use  026.000  1  -  026.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  libraries  for  special  groups  and  specific  organizations,   see 
027.6 

Libraries  devoted  to  specific  subjects 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  medical  libraries  026.61 

^34 


Library  science 


027  General  libraries 

Use  027.001-027.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

.009  Historical  treatment 

Class  geograpliical  treatment  in  027.01-027.09 

.01 -.09  Geographical  treatment 

Add   area   notations    1-9    to   027.0,   e.g.,   general   libraries   in 
France  027.044 


027.1-027.5  By  form  of  ownership 

For  libraries  for  special  groups  and  specific  organizations,  see 
027.6;  libraries  devoted  to  specific  subjects,  026.001-026.999 


.1 


Private  and  family  libraries 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  027.1 


Proprietary  libraries 

Semiprivate  libraries  requiring  subscription  or  membership  fees  for 
general  use 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  027.2 

Rental  libraries 

Libraries  whose  materials  are  available  for  use  on  conmiercial  basis 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  027.3 


.4 


Public  libraries 

Institutions  that  serve  free  all  residents  of  a  community,  district,  or 
region,  usually  receiving  their  financial  support,  in  whole  or  in 
part,  from  public  funds 

Including  bookmobiles  [formerly  021.65],  branches  [formerly 
021.62] 


.409 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
027.43-027.49 


.42 


Specific  kinds  of  public  libraries 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  027.43-027.49 

^35 


Decimal  Classification 


027.422 
.424 

.43-.49 


County  and  regional  libraries 
Reference  and  research  libraries  [formerly  025.52] 
Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  3-9  to  027.4 


.5  Government  libraries 

National,  state,  provincial 

.509  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  specific  institutions  in  027.53-027.59 

.53-.59  Specific  institutions 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  027.5 

Class  United  Nations  Library  [formerly  027.574  71]  in  027.68 

.6  Libraries  for  special  groups  and  specific  organizations 

Scope:  reference  and  reader  advisory  services  to  special  groups 

For    libraries    for    educational    institutions,    see    027.7-027.8; 
libraries  devoted  to  specific  subjects,  026.001-026.999 

.62  Libraries  for  specific  age  groups 

.622  For  old-age  groups 

.625  For  children 

.625  ]  Storytelling 

.626  For  young  adults 

,63  Libraries  for  minority  groups 

,65  Government  libraries  for  special  groups 

.66  Welfare  institution  libraries 

.662  Hospital  libraries 

Comprehensive  works  on  patient  and  medical  libraries 
Class  medical  Ubraries  in  026.61 

.663  Libraries  for  the  blind 

.665  Prison  libraries 

.67  Religious  organization  libraries 

136 


027.68 


.69 


.709 


.73-.79 


.8 

.809 


.82 


.822 


Library  science 


Non-profit  organization  libraries 

Including  libraries  of  learned  societies  [formerly  027.7],  United 
Nations  Library  [formerly  027.574  71] 

Business  and  industrial  libraries 


027.7-027.8  Libraries  for  educational  institutions 

For  libraries  devoted  to  specific  subjects,  see  026.001-026.999 

College  and  university  libraries 

Class  libraries  of  learned  societies  [formerly  027.7]  in  027.68 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  specific  institutions  in  027.73-027.79 

Specific  institutions 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  027.7 

School  libraries 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  specific  libraries  in  027.823-027.829 

By  level  and  by  place 

For  libraries  in  church-supported  schools,  see  027.83 

Types  by  level 

For   specific   libraries,   see   027.823-027.829;    college   and 
university  libraries,  027.7 


.822  2 

Elementary 

.822  3 

Secondary 

.823-.829 

Specific  libraries 

.83 


Add  area  notations  3-9  to  027.82 

Libraries  in  church-supported  schools 

Libraries   in  schools   conducted   by   religious   groups,   usually 
without  tax  support 


^37 


Decimal  Classification 


028 


.074 
.1 


.5 

.52 

.7 
.8 


.9 


029 


[•1] 


.5 

[.6] 

.7 


Reading  and  reading  aids 

Exhibits  and  displays 

Book  reviews 

Class    technique    of    book    reviewing    in    808.066  028  1,    critical 
appraisal  of  literature  in  809 

Reading  of  children  and  young  adults 

Bibliographies  and  catalogs 
Use  of  books  and  libraries  as  sources  of  information 

Use  of  books  as  sources  of  recreation  and  self -development 

Class  reader  advisory  services  [formerly  028.8]  in  025.54 

Reading  interests  and  habits 
Indexing  and  documentation 

Former  heading:  Literary  methods  and  labor  savers 

Study  techniques 

Class  in  371.302  81 


[.3]  Clippings  and  files 


Class  vertical  file  in  libraries  in  025.172,  filing  systems  in  o£Bce 
services  in  651.53   . 

Indexing 

Authorship  and  editorial  techniques 

Class  in  808.02 

Documentation  [jormerly  010] 

Assembling,  coding,  disseminating  recorded  knowledge  as  an 
integral  procedure  to  achieve  maximum  accessibility  and  usabihty, 
utihzing  semantics,  psychological  aids,  techniques  of  reproduction 

Including  information  storage  and  retrieval 


13S 


General  encyclopedic  works 


030 


General  encyclopedic  works 

Divide  by  language  in  which  originally  written  as  below;  but,  if  it  is 
desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  encyclopedias 
of  a  specific  language,  place  them  first  by  use  of  a  letter  or  other 
symbol,  e.g.,  Arabic-language  encyclopedias  03A  (preceding  031) 


031 


.02 


032 


.02 


033 


.1 
.9 


.92 

.93 

.931 

.932 

.936 

.94 


034 


.1 

.9 

.91 
.99 


031-032  English-language 
American 

English-language  encyclopedias  originating  in  Western  Hemisphere 
and  Hawaii 

Books  of  miscellaneous  facts 

Other  English-language 

Encyclopedias  originating  outside  Western  Hemisphere  and  Hawaii 
Books  of  miscellaneous  facts 

Other  Germanic  languages 
Cennan 
Other 

Class  Scandinavian-language  encyclopedias  in  038 

Frisian 

Dutch,  Flemish,  Afrikaans 

Dutch 

Flemish 

Afrikaans 
Low  German 

French,  Provencal,  Catalan 
French 
Provencal  and  Catalan 

Provengal 
Catalan 


139 


Decimal  Classification 


General  collected  essays,  addresses,  lectures 


^ 


035 

Italian,  Romanian,  Rhaeto-Romanic 

.1 

Italian 

.9 

Romanian  and  Rhaeto-Romanic 

.91 

Romanian 

.99 

Rhaeto-Romanic 

036 

Spanish  and  Portuguese 

.1 

Spanish 

.9 

Portuguese 

037 

Slavic  languages 

.1 

Russian 

.8 

Other 

For  Ukrainian-  and  Belorussian-language  encyclopedias,  see  037.9 

.81 

Bulgarian  and  Macedonian 

.811 

Bulgarian 

.819 

Macedonian 

.82-.89         Other 

Divide  like  491.82-491.89,  e.g.,  Polish-language  encyclopedias 

037.85 

.9 

Ukrainian  and  Belorussian 

.91 

Ukrainian 

.99 

Belorussian 

038 

Scandinavian  languages 

.6 

West  Scandinavian 

.61 

Old  Norse  (Old  Icelandic) 

.69 

Modem  Icelandic  and  Faeroese 

.691 

Modern  Icelandic 

.699 

Faeroese 

.7-.8 

East  Scandinavian 

039 


Divide  like  439.7-439.8,  e.g.,  Swedish-language  encyclopedias 
038.7 

Other  languages 

Divide  hke  420-490,  e.g.,  Japanese-language  encyclopedias  039.956 

140 


[040]  General  collected  essays,  addresses,  lectures 

Class  in  080 


041 
042 
043 
044 
045 
046 
047 
048 
049 


141 


s 


050 


052 


053 


054 


055 


056 


057 


058 


059 


Decimal  Classification 


General  organizations 


General  periodicals  and  their  indexes 

Divide  by  language  as  below;  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis 
and  a  shorter  number  to  periodicals  of  a  specific  language,  place  them 
first  by  use  of  a  letter,  e.g.,  Hindi-language  periodicals  05H  (preceding 
051) 

If  preferred,  arrange  periodicals  alphabetically  under  050,  using  Al  for 
comprehensive  works  about  them  and  Z9  for  general  indexes  to  them 


►  051-052  English-language 

051  American 

English-language  periodicals  of  Western  Hemisphere  and  Hawaii 


Other  English-language 

Periodicals  outside  Western  Hemisphere  and  Hawaii 

Other  Germanic  languages 

Divide  like  033,  e.g.,  German-language  periodicals  053.1 

Class  Scandinavian-language  periodicals  and  their  indexes  in  058 

French,  Provencal,  Catalan 

Divide  like  034,  e.g.,  Catalan-language  periodicals  054.99 

Italian,  Romanian,  Rhaeto-Romanic 

Divide  hke  035,  e.g.,  Romanian-language  periodicals  055.91 

Spanish  and  Portuguese 

Divide  like  036,  e.g.,  Spanish-language  periodicals  056.1 

Slavic  languages 

Divide  like  037,  e.g.,  Polish-language  periodicals  057.85 

Scandinavian  languages 

Divide  like  038,  e.g.,  Swedish-language  periodicals  058.7 

Other  languages 

Divide  Uke  420^90,  e.g.,  Japanese-language  periodicals  059.956 

142 


060     General  organizations 


Societies,   academies,   foundations,   associations,   conferences,   congresses 
whose  activity  is  not  limited  to  a  specific  field 

Scope:  comprehensive  works  on  organizations 

Including  general  international  organizations  [formerly  also  341.11] 

Class  organizations  having  a  specific  purpose,  field  or  subject  with  the 

subject 

Divide   geographically   as   below;   but,    if   it   is    desired   to    give   local 

emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  organizations  in  a  specific  country, 

place  them  first  by  use  of  a  letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g.,  organizations  in 

Pakistan  06P  (preceding  061) 

061  In  North  America 

Class  organizations  in  Middle  America  in  068.72 

•1  Canada 

Divide  like  area  notation  71,  e.g.,  general  organizations  in  British 
Columbia  061.11 

.3-.9         United  States 

Divide  like  area  notations  73-79,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Ohio  061.71 
Class  organizations  in  Hawaii  in  068,969 

062  In  England  and  Wales 

Divide  like  area  notation  42,  e.g.,  organizations  in  London  062.1 
Class  organizations  in  Scotland  and  Ireland  in  068.41 

063  In  central  Europe 

Divide  like  area  notation  43,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Poland  063.8 


064 


In  France 

Divide  like  area  notation  44,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Lyons  064.582 


065  In  Italy  and  adjacent  territories 


066 


Divide  like  area  notation  45,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Rome  065.632 

In  Iberian  Peninsula  and  adjacent  islands 

Divide  like  area  notation  46,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Portugal  066.9 


Decimal  Classification 


Newspapers  and  journalism 


067  In  eastern  Europe 

Divide  like  area  notation  47,  e.g.,  organizations  in  Ukraine  067.71 

068  In  other  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  068 

069  Museums 

Class  museums  specializing  in  a  specific  subject  in  standard 
subdivision  074 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  specific  museum  buildings  [formerly  069.09]  in  069.2 

♦1  Educational  functions 

.2  Buildings  and  service  facilities 

Including  specific  museum  buildings    [formerly   069.09],   school 
museums  [formerly  also  371.622] 

3  Equipment  and  furnishings 

.4  Collecting  and  preparing  specimens 

•5  Collections  and  exhibits 
.51  Acquisition  and  disposal 

.52  Registration  and  recording 

.53  Exhibit  methods  and  techniques 

.54  Thefts  and  forgeries 

[.6]  Office  methods  and  accounting 

Class  oflBce  methods  in  651.9,  accounting  in  657.834 

.7  Printing  and  publishing 


070     Newspapers  and  journalism 

Use  070.01-070.08  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1 


.11 

[.13] 
[.3] 

.4 

•41 

.43 


.44 
.48 

.482 

.484 


.486 


144 


070.1-070.4  Journalism 

Collecting,  writing,  editing  information  and  opinion  of  current 
interests  for  presentation  in  newspapers,  periodicals,  newsreels, 
radio,  television 

Class  journals  on  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject,  general 
periodicals  in  050,  general  newspapers  in  071-079 

The  press 

Dissemination  of  news  and  opinion  thru  publication  and 
broadcasting 

Responsibility  to  the  public 

Press  law 
Class  in  340 

Business  management  of  newspapers  and  periodicals 

Class  in  658 

Editorial  management  and  journalistic  techniques 

Journalistic  editing 

News  and  news  sources 

Class  news  and  editorial  writing   [both  formerly  070.43]   in 
808.066 

Features  and  special  topics 
Journalism  for  special  groups 
For  school  journalism,  see  371.897 

Religious  groups 

Foreign-language  groups 

Journalism  in  languages  foreign  to  the  country  where 
disseminated 

Occupational  and  employee  groups 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  newspapers  and 
journalism 

Class  treatment  by  country  and  locality  in  071-079 

^45 


Decimal  Classification 


071 


.1 


.3-.9 


072 


074 


071-079  Treatment  of  newspapers  and 
journalism  by  comitry  and  locality 

Scope:    specific   general   newspapers   and   works   about   them 

Divide  geographically  as  below;  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local 
emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  newspapers  and  journalism  of 
a  specific  country,  place  them  first  by  use  of  a  letter,  e.g.,  news- 
papers and  journalism  in  Nigeria  07N  ( preceding  071 ) 

If  preferred,  arrange  newspapers  alphabetically  under  070, 
using  Al  for  comprehensive  works  about  them 

In  North  America 

class  newspapers  and  journalism  in  Middle  America  in  079.72 

In  Canada 

Divide  like  area  notation  71,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
British  Columbia  071.11 

In  United  States 

Divide  like  area  notations  73-79,  e.g..  New  York  Times  071.471 
Class  newspapers  and  journalism  in  Hawaii  in  079.969 

In  England  and  Wales 

Divide  like  area  notation  42,  e.g..  Times  of  London  072.1 

Class  newspapers  and  journalism  in  Scotland  and  Ireland  in  079.41 


073  In  central  Europe 


Divide  like  area  notation  43,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
Austria  073.6 

In  France 

Divide  like  area  notation  44,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
Lyons  074.582 


075  In  Italy  and  adjacent  territories 


Divide  like  area  notation  45,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journahsm  in  Rome 
075.632 


146 


Newspapers  and  journalism 


076  In  Iberian  Peninsula  and  adjacent  islands 

Divide  like  area  notation  46,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
Portugal  076.9 

077  In  eastern  Europe 

Divide  like  area  notation  47,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
Ukraine  077.71 


078 


In  Scandinavia 

Divide  like  area  notation  48,  e.g.,  newspapers  and  journalism  in 
Sweden  078.5 


079 


In  other  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  079 


080 


081 


082 


General  collections  and  anthologies 

Scope:  general  collected  essays,  addresses,  lectures  [all  formerly  040], 

quotations 

Divide  by  language  as  below;  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis 

and    a    shorter    number   to    collections    and    anthologies    in    a    specific 

language,   place   them   first   by   use    of   a   letter,   e.g.,   collections    and 

anthologies  in  Urdu  08U  (preceding  081) 

If  preferred,  arrange  collections  and  anthologies  alphabetically  under  080 


081-082  English-language 
American  \Jormerly  also  082] 

English-language  collections  and  anthologies  of  Western  Hemisphere 
and  Hawaii 

Class  other  English-language  collections  and  anthologies  in  082, 
collections  and  anthologies  in  other  languages  in  083-089  [both 
formerly  081] 

Other  English-language  \Jormerly  also  081] 

Collections  and  anthologies  outside  Western  Hemisphere  and  Hawaii 

Class  American  collections  and  anthologies  in  081,  collections  and 
anthologies  in  other  languages  in  083-089  [both  formerly  082] 


M7 


fc 


083 


084 


085 


086 


088 


089 


Decimal  Classification 


Manuscripts  and  book  rarities 


083-089  Other  languages  Iformerly  081-082] 
Other  Germanic  languages 

Divide  like  033,  e.g.,  Gennan-language  collections  and  anthologies 

083.1 

Class  Scandinavian-language  collections  and  anthologies  in  088 

French,  Provencal,  Catalan 

Divide  like  034,  e.g.,  Catalan-language  collections  and  anthologies 
084.99 

Italian,  Romanian,  Rhaeto-Romanic 

Divide  like  035,  e.g.,  Romanian-language  collections  and  anthologies 
085.91 

Spanish  and  Portuguese 

Divide  like  036,  e.g.,  Spanish-language  collections  and  anthologies 
086.1 


087  Slavic  languages 


Divide  like   037,   e.g.,  Polish-language  collections  and   anthologies 
087.85 

Scandinavian  languages 

Divide  like  038,  e.g.,  Swedish-language  collections  and  anthologies 
088.7 

Other  languages 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  Japanese-language  collections  and 
anthologies  089.956 


091 
092 
093 


094 


.4 


095 
096 


.1 
.2 


097 
098 


090     Manuscripts  and  book  rarities 

Description  and  history 


.1 

,11 

.12 
.3 


099 


Manuscripts 
Block  books 
Incunabula 

Books  printed  before  1501 

Including  books  printed  by  Caxton  [formerly  094] 

Books  notable  for  printing 

Limited  editions,  special  editions,  typographic  masterpieces 
Class  books  printed  by  Caxton  [formerly  094]  in  093 
For  block  books,  see  092;  incunabula,  093 

First  editions 
Books  notable  for  bindings 
Books  notable  for  illustrations  and  materials 

Illustrations 

Materials 

Leaves  of  vellum  and  silk,  letters  of  silver  and  gold 

Books  notable  for  ownership  or  origin 

Works  notable  for  content 
Prohibited  works 

By  religious  authorities 
By  civil  authorities 
Literary  forgeries  and  hoaxes 

Books  notable  for  format 

Miniature  editions,  unusual  dimensions  and  shapes 
Class  microreproductions  [formerly  099]  in  001.552  3 


148 


M9 


Ontology  and  methodology 


100 


100  Philosophy  and  related  disciplines 

Use  100.1-100.9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  philosophy  of  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject,  e.g.,  philosophy  of 
history  901 


101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 

109 


110 

111 


101-109  Standard  subdivisions  of  philosophy 
Theory 
Miscellany 
Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  concordances 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 
Study  and  teaching 
Collections  and  anthologies 

Class  collected  writings  of  individual  philosophers  in  180—190 

Historical  treatment 

Not  limited  by  period  or  place 

Class  history,  description,  critical  appraisal,  biographical  treatment  of 
philosophy  of  specific  periods  and  places  in  180-190 


110-120  Metaphysics  (Speculative 
philosophy ) 

Ontology  and  methodology 

Ontology 

Nature  of  relations  and  being 
For  cosmology,  see  113-119 


ui.i 

Existence  and  essence 

Class  existentialism  [formerly  111.1]  in  142.7 

.8 

Transcendental  properties  of  being 

.82 

Unity 

.83 

Truth 

.84 

Goodness  and  evil 

.85 

Beauty  (Esthetics) 

112 

Classification  of  knowledge 

► 

113-119  Cosmology 

113 

Origin  of  universe 

JZ 

Nature 

.6 

Cosmic  harmony 

A 

Life 

114 

Space 

Including  relation  of  space  and  matter 

115 

Time,  duration,  eternity 

Including  relation  of  time  and  motion 

.4 

Space  time 

Implications  of  theories  of  relativity 

116 

Motion  and  change 

117 

Matter  and  form 

118 

Force  and  energy 

119 

^  limber  and  quantity 

120 

Knowledge,  cause,  purpose,  man 

121 

Epistemology 

Origin,  sources,  limits,  validity  of  knowledge 

For  logic,  see  160 

151 

Decimal  Classification 


Pseudopsychology,  parapsychology,  occultism 


121.5 

Doubt  and  denial 

.6 

Belief  and  certitude 

.7 

Faith 

.8 

Worth  and  theory  of  values 

122 

Cause  and  effect 

Including  chance  versus  cause 

For  final  cause,  see  124 

123 


.3 


125 


Freedom  and  necessity 

Determinism  and  indeterminism 

Chance 

For  chance  versus  cause,  see  122 


124  Teleology 


Design,  purpose,  final  cause 

Finite  and  infinite 


•'^\ 


126  Consciousness  and  personality  (The  self) 

127  The  unconscious  and  the  subconscious 

128  Man 
a  Soul 

For  origin  and  destiny  of  the  individual  soul,  see  129 

JZ  Mind 

3  Man  s  nature 

For  soul,  see  128.1;  mind,  128.2 

•5  Nature  of  life  and  death 

129  Origin  and  destiny  of  the  individual  soul 
A  Incarnation  and  reincarnation 

•6  Immortality 

15^ 


130  Pseudopsychology,  parapsychology,  occultism 

131  Pseudopsy  cholo  gy 

Class  physiological  psychology  [formerly  131]  in  152 

For   pseudopsychology    of   character   and    mental   capacity,    see 
137-139 

,3  Personal  well-being,  happiness,  success 

Class  mental  hygiene  [formerly  131.3]  in  614.58 

.32  Favorable  factors 

Tranquihty,  personal  insight,  self-confidence,  faith,  harmonious 
living 

.33  Adverse  factors 

111  health,  fear,  anxiety,  frustrations,  fatigue,  tension 

[ .  34  ]  Psychoanalysis 

Class   psychoanalytic    systems    in    150.195,    psychoanalysis    as 
therapy  in  616.891  7 

.35  Dianetics 

Extrascientific  methods  of  eradicating  mental  disturbances  thru 
rehving  traumatic  experiences 

[132]       Abnormal  and  clinical  psychologies 

Class  in  157 

133  Parapsychology  and  occultism 

For  esoteric  and  cabalistic  traditions,  see  135.4 


SUMMARY 

133.1 

Apparitions  (Ghosts) 

J 

Divinatory  arts 

.4 

Magic,  witchcraft,  demonology 

Ji 

Mundane  astrology 

J6 

Palmistry 

.7 

Frauds  in  occultism 

S 

Extrasensory  perception 

A 

Spiritualism 

^53 

Decimal  Classification 


Pseudopsychology,  parapsychology,  occultism 


I 


133.1  Apparitions  (Ghosts) 

.12  Haunted  places 

.122  Ghosts  in  specific  types  of  locale 

Haunted  graveyards,  churches,  forests,  houses 
FoT  ghosts  in  specific  places,  see  133.129 

,  1 29  Ghosts  in  specific  places 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  133.129 

.14  Specific  kinds  of  apparitions 

Poltergeists,  hobgobUns,  disembodied  spirits 

3  Divinatory  arts 

For  chiromancy,  see  133.64;  dream  hooks,  135.3;  divinatory 
graphology,  137.7 

.32  Predictions 

.322  Crystal  gazing 

.323  Radiesthesia 

'  Location  of  living  and  inert  substances  thru  human 
sensitivity  to  latent  radiations   and   use   of  divining  rods, 
pendulums,  other  devices 


.324  2 
.324  24 
.324  29 
.324  4 
.324  8 


133.323  2  -  133.323  7  Location  of  specific  substances 

.323  2 

Water 

.323  3 

Metals 

.323  7 

Petroleum  and  gases 

.323  9 

Telediesthesia  (Distant  prospection) 

.324 

Fortunetelling 

For  fortunetelling  by  numbers,  see  133.335  4;  horoscopes, 
133.54 

Cartomancy 

By  tarot 

By  other  kinds  of  cards 
By  tea  leaves  and  coffee  grounds 
By  oracles  and  sibyls 
^54 


133.33 


Symbolic  divination 

For  cartomancy,  see  133.324  2 


.333  Geomancy 

.334  Divinatory  signs  and  omens 

.335  Numerology 

.335  4  Fortunetelling  by  numbers 

,335  9  Symbohsm  of  specific  numbers 

.4  Magic,  witchcraft,  demonology 

.42  Demonology 

.422  Satanism  ( Devil  worship ) 

.423  Evil  spirits 

Incubi,  succubi,  vampires,  werewolves 

.425  The  evil  eye 

.426  Demoniac  possession 

.427  Exorcism  of  demons 

.43  Magicians*  manuals 

Grimoire,  black  books,  magic  formulas,  incantations 

.44  Charms,  amulets,  talismans,  mascots 

.442  Love  charms 

.443  Good  luck  charms 

.446  Therapeutic  charms 

.47  Voodooism 

JJ  Mundane  astrology 

.52  Zodiacal  signs 

.53  Planets 

Aspects,  houses,  positions  of  planets 

.54  Horoscopes 

.540  4  Daily  guides  and  birthday  books 

.542  Casting  horoscopes 

.548  Horoscopes  of  specific  individuals 

155 


i 


1> 


133.55 

.56 
.58 


.6 
.62 


.64 


.92 


.93 


Decimal  Classification 


Pseudopsychology,  parapsychology,  occultism 


Ephemerides 

Horary  astrology 

Specific  applications 

Use  133,580  001  -  133.580  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  medical  astrology  133.586  1 

Palmistry 

Chirognomy 

Determination  of  character  and  latent  abilities  thru  study  of 
shape  and  physical  characteristics  of  hand 

Chiromancy 

Divination  thru  study  of  mounts,  lines,  signs  on  hands 


.7 

Frauds  in  occultism 

•8 

Extrasensory  perception 

.82 

Telepathy 

.84 

Clairvoyance 

.85 

Clairaudience 

.86 

Precognition 

.9 

Spiritualism 

Communication  with  discamate  spirits 

.901 

Philosophy  and  theory 

.9013 

Personal  survival 

.91 

Mediumship 

Development  and  practice  of  mediums,  psychic  experiences  of 

individual  mediums 

For  a  specific  phenomenon,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  levitation 
133.92 


Physical  phenomena 

Table-tipping,  rapping,  levitation,  dematerialization,  ectoplasm 

Psychic  phenomena 

Ouija  board  messages,  automatic  writings  and  utterances 


135 


3 

1.37] 

.4 

.42 
.43 

[136] 


137 


.7 


138 


[134]       Hypnotism 


Class  in  154.7 

Dreams  and  the  mystic  traditions 

Class  sleep  phenomena  [formerly  135]  in  154.6 

Dream  books 

Daydreams 
Class  in  154.3 

Esoteric  and  cabalistic  traditions 

Mysteries  of  the  ancient  elements 
Rosicrucian  mysteries 

DiflFerential  and  genetic  psychology 

Class  in  155 


137-139  Pseudopsychology  of  character  and 
mental  capacity 

Personality  analysis  and  improvement 

Class  psychology  of  personahty  [formerly  137]  in  155.2 
For  physiognomy,  see  138 

Analytic  and  divinatory  graphology 
Physiognomy 

Determination  of  character  from  analysis  of  features 


139  Phrenology 


Determination  of  mental  capacities  from  skull  structure 


157 


Decimal  Classification 


140 


141 


.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 


142 


,3 

.7 


Specific  philosophical  viewpoints 

Class  specific  philosophers  in  180-190,  a  specific  branch  of  philosophy 
with  the  subject 

Idealism  and  related  systems  and  doctrines 

Including  spirituaHsm,  panpsychism,  subjectivism,  voluntarism, 
Platonism,  Neoplatonism 

Transcendentalism 
Individualism 
Personalism 
Romanticism 

Critical  philosophy 

For  critical  realism,  see  149.2 

Kantianism  and  neo-Kantianism 
Phenomenalism  and  phenomenology 

Including  existentialism  [formerly  111.1] 


143  Intuitionism  and  Bergsonism 

For  mysticism,  see  149.3 


144 


3 
.5 
J6 


145 
146 


Humanism  and  related  systems  and  doctrines 

Pragmatism 

Instrumentalism 

Utilitarianism 

Sensationalism  and  ideology 

Naturalism  and  related  systems  and  doctrines 

Including  dynamism,  energism 

Materialism 

Includinii  dialectical  materialism 


.4 


Positivism  ( Comtism ) 

Inchulin;^  logical  positivism 

15^ 


Specific  philosophical  viewpoints 


146.5 
.6 
.7 

147 


3 

A 


148 


149 


.1 

3 
.5 

.6 
.7 


Atomism 

Mechanism  and  neomechanism 

Evolutionism 
Pantheism  and  related  systems  and  doctrines 

Including  panentheism,  animism,  vitalism,  paralleUsm,  occasionalism 

Monism 

Dualism  and  pluralism 

Liberalism,  eclecticism,   syncretism,  traditionalism, 
dogmatism 

Other  philosophical  systems  and  doctrines 
Nominalism  and  conceptualism 
Realism,  neorealism,  critical  realism 
Mysticism  and  anthroposophy 
Optimism  and  meliorism 
Pessimism 

Rationalism  and  related  systems  and  doctrines 
Including  intellectualism,  innatism,  nativism 


72 

Agnosticism 

.73 

Skepticism 

.8 

Nihilism  and  fatalism 

For  existentialism,  see  142.7 

.9 

Other  systems  and  doctrines 

.94 

Semantics 

159 


II 


r  i 


Decimal  Classification 


150     Psychology 

This  schedule  is  completely  new,  prepared  with  little  reference  to  earlier 
editions  and  assigning  new  meanings  to  many  numbers.  Such  numbers 
are  itahcized 

[.13]  Applied  psychology 

Class  in  158 

.19  Systems,  schools,  viewpoints 

.192  Speculative  systems 

Rational,  faculty,  phenomenological,  existential  schools 


.1924] 

Gestalt  psychology 

Class  in  150.198  2 

.193 

FunctionaUsm 

.193  2 

Dynamic  psychologies 

.193  3 

Purposive  psychologies 

.193  32 

Holistic 

.193  33 

Honnic 

.193  34 

Organismic 

.194 

Reductionisni 

.194  3 

Behaviorism 

.194  32 

Watsonian  behaviorism 

Systems  of  Watson,  Spranger,  Hunter,  Lashley 

.194  34 


.194  4 


Neobehaviorism  (Pragmatic  reductionism) 
Systems  of  Guthrie,  Hull,  Skinner,  Tolman 

Reflexology  (Associationism) 

Systems  of  Pavlov,  Bekhterev,  Thomdike 


.195 

Psychoanalytic  systems  [formerly  131,34] 

.195  2 

Freudian 

.195  3 

Adlerian 

.195  4 

Jungian 

.195  7 

Neopsychoanalytic 

Systems  of  Homey,  Fromm,  Sullivan 

i6o 

. 

Psychology 

150.198 

Other  systems 

.198  2 

Gestalt  psychology  [formerly  150.192  4] 

.198  4 

Field  theory 

J2 

Research 

Class  experimental  psychology  [formerly  150.72]  in  152 

[151] 

Intelligence  and  aptitudes 

Class  in  153.9 


[.3]  Comparative  psychology 


Class  in  156 


152 


.1 


Physiological  [formerly  131]  and  experimental 
[formerly  150.72]  psychology 

SUMMARY 

152.1  Sensory  perception 

.3  Movements  and  motor  functions 

.4  Emotions  and  feelings 

J  Motivation  (Drives) 

•8  Quantitative  psychology 

Sensory  perception 

Receptive  processes  and  functions 

Scope:  attributes,  thresholds,  discrimination,  tests 

.14  Visual  perception 

.142  Spatial  perception 

.142  2  Visual  acuity 

Discrimination  of  spatial  distribution  of  dark  and  light  in 
visual  field 

.142  3  Pattern  perception 

.142  5  Movement  perception 

Real  and  apparent 

.143  Brightness  perception 

.145  Color  perception 

.148  Other  perceptional  attributes 

Optical  illusions,  afterimages 
i6i 


152.15 
.152 
.154 
.157 


.158 
.16 
.166 
.167 
.18 
.182 
.182  2 
.182  3 
.182  4 
.182  8 


.188 
.188  2 
.188  6 


.189 
[•2] 


.32 

.322 
.322  3 
.322  4 


Decimal  Classification 


Psychology 


Auditory  perception  [formerly  152.2] 

Pitch  perception 

Volume  perception 

Timbre  perception 

Tone  discrimination,  musical  psychology 

Localization 
Chemical  sensory  perception 

Olfactory  perception  [formerly  152.3] 
Gustatory  perception  [formerly  152.4] 
Other  types  of  sensory  perception 

Cutaneous  (Tactile)  perception  [formerly  152.5] 
Thermal  perception 
Pressure  perception 
Pain  perception 
Derived  sensory  perception 

Perception  of  vibration,  itch,  tickle 

Proprioceptive  perceptions  [formerly  152.6] 
Orientational  perceptions 
Visceral  perceptions 

Hunger,  thirst,  well-being,  fatigue 

Synesthesia 
Auditory  perception 

Class  in  152.15 

Movements  and  motor  functions  [formerly  158.3] 

Class  olfactory  perception  [formerly  152.3]  in  152.166 


152.32-152.33  Automatic  movements  [formerly  158.4] 
Involuntary  movements 
Reflexes 

Innate  reflexes 

Conditioned  reflexes 
162 


I            152.324 

Instinctive  movements 

I                  .33 

Habits  and  habit  formation 

I                  .334 

Motor  learning 

I                 .335 

Handedness  and  laterality 

■                  .35 

Voluntaiy  movements  [formerly  158.5] 

.38 

Special  motor  functions   formerly  158.8 

.382 

Locomotion 

.384 

Expressive  movements 

.384  2 

Vocal  expressions 

.384  5 

Graphic  expressions 

.385 

Coordination 

A 

Emotions  and  feelings  Iforuierly  157] 

Affective  processes  and  reactions 

1 

Class  gustatory  perception  [formerly  152.4]  in  152.167 

L     "^^ 

Expression  of  emotions 

■     .43 

Types  of  emotions 

■                  .432 

Primitive  and  uncontrolled  emotions 

B                  .434 

Secondary  emotions 

.44 

Feeling  and  feelings 

Including  conation  and  feeling  [formerly  158.1] 

.442 

Expression  of  feeUngs 

.443 

Types  of  feelings 

.444 

Feeling  tone 

.45 

States  affected  by  feelings 

.452 

Sentiments  and  attitudes 

.454 

Moods  and  dispositions 

.5 


.52 


Motivation  (Drives)  Iformerhf  159.4] 

Class  cutaneous  (tactile)  perceptions  [formerly  152.5]  in  152.182 

Types 

Biological,  secondary,  social  drives 


.58 


Measurements 


163 


Decimal  Classification 


[152.6] 


[.7] 


JS2 
J&3 


153 


Proprioceptive  perceptions 

Class  in  152.188 

Perceptual  processes 

Class  in  153.7 

Quantitative  psychology 

Psychophysical  methods 

Class  a  specific  application  with  the  subject 

Threshold  and  discrimination  studies 
Reaction-time  studies 

Intelligence,  intellectual  and  conscious  mental 
processes 


SUMMARY 

153.1 
.2 

Memory  and  learning 
Ideation 

.3 
.4 
.7 
.8 
.9 

Imagination  and  imagery 
Cognition  (Knowledge) 
Perceptual  processes 
Volition  (Will) 
Intelligence  and  aptitudes 

Memory  and  learning  Iformerly  154] 

Class  concepts  and  concept  formation  [formerly  153,1]  in  153.23 


.12 

Memory  processes 

.122 

Retention 

.123 

Recall  and  reproduction 

.124 

Recognition 

.125 

Forgetting 

.13 

Types  of  memory 

.132 

Visual 

.133 

Auditory 

.134 

Visual-auditory 

.136 

Other 

164 

Psychology 


153.14 

Mnemonic  systems 

.15 

Learning 

.152 

Methods 

.152  2 

Repetition  and  rote  learning 

.152  3 

Imitation 

.152  4 

Trial  and  error 

.1526 

Association 

.152  8 

Discrimination 

.153 

Factors 

.153  2 

Attention  and  concentration 

.153  3 

Interest  and  enthusiasm 

.153  4 

Motivation 

.154 

Transfer  of  leaiiiing 

.158 

Learning  curves 

3 

Ideation 

.22 

Association  of  ideas 

.23 

Concepts  and  concept  formation  [formerly  153.1] 

.24 

Abstraction  [formerly  153.3 

.25 

Inspiration 

J 

Imagination  and  imagery  Iformerly  155] 

Class  abstraction  [formerly  153.3]  in  153.24 

.32 

Eidetic  imagery 

.35 

Creativity 

•4 

Cogniticm  (Knowledge) 

For  ideation,  see  153.2 


.42 


.422 
.423 


Thought  and  thinking 
For  reasoning,  see  153.43 

Reflective  thought 
Imageless  thought 


16s 


Decimal  Classification 


153.43 

Reasoning  [formerly  153.6^ 

.432 

Inductive 

.433 

Deductive 

.44 

Intuition  [formerly  156 

.45 

Value 

.46 

Judgment  [formerly  153.5] 

[•5] 

Judgment 

Class  in  153.46 

[.6] 

Reasoning 

Class  in  153.43 

.7 


Perceptual  processes  ^formerly  152.7] 

Perceptual  apprehension  and  understanding 

For  sensory  perception,  see  152.1;  extrasensory  perception, 
133.8 


.73 

Basic  elements 

.733 

Attention 

.734 

Apperception 

.735 

Preperception 

.736 

Subliminal  perception 

.74 

Errors  ( Normal  illusions ) 

.75 

Types  of  perception 

.752 

Space  perception 

.753 

Time  and  rhythm  perception 

.754 

Movement  perception 

J 

Volition  (Will)  iformerly  159.2] 

Class  depth  psychology  [fomierly  153.8]  in  154 

.83 

Choice  and  decision  [formerly  159.1] 

.85 

Modification  of  will 

.852 

Persuasion 

.853 

VIenticide  ( Brainwashing ) 

.854 

Conformity 

i66 


Psychology 


153.9  Intelligence  and  aptitudes  Iformerly  151] 

,92  Factors  affecting  intelligence 

.93  General  intelligence  tests 

.932  Individual 

.932  3  Verbal 

.932  4  Nonverbal 

.933  Group 

.933  3  Verbal 

.933  4  Nonverbal 

.94  Aptitude  tests 

Individual,  group,  verbal,  nonverbal  tests  for  special  abilities 
Use  153.940  001  -  153.940  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  tests  for  musical  ability  153.947  8 

.98  Superior  intelligence 

For  exceptional  children,  see  155.45 

154  Subconscious  states  and  processes 

Depth  psychology  [formerly  153.8] 

Class  memory  and  learning  [formerly  154]  in  153.1 

•2  The  subconscious 

.22  Elements 

Id,  ego,  superego 

.24  Activities 

Sublimation,  transference,  reasoning,  conflicts,  complexes 

J  Secondary  consciousness 

Daydreams  [formerly  135.37],  fantasies,  reveries 


.6 

Sleep  phenomena  {formerly  135] 

.62 

Sleep 

.63 

Dreams 

.632 

Types 

.634 

Analysis 

167 


Decimal  Classification 


Psychology 


154.64  Somnambulism 

.7  Hypnotism  Iformerly  134] 

,72  Mesmerism  and  animal  magnetism 

.76  Induction  of  hypnosis 

,77  Hypnotic  phenomena 

.772  Trance  phenomena 

.774  Posthypnotic  phenomena 

.78  Special  developments 

155  DiflFerential  and  genetic  psychology  \Jormerly  136] 

Class  imagination  and  imagery  [formerly  155]  in  153.3 


J 


22 
.23 
.232 
.234 


.24 

.25 

.26 

.262 

.264 


SUMMARY 

155.2 

Individual  psychology 

.3 

Sex  psychology 

.4 

Child  psychology 

J 

Adolescents 

A 

Adults  and  aged 

.7 

Evolutional  psychology 

S 

Ethnopsychology  and  national  psychology 

.9 

Psychology  of  influence,  pattern,  example 

Individual  psychology 

Personality  [formerly  137],  character,  individuality 

Individual  differences 
Personality  traits  and  determinants 

Specific  traits 

Determinants 

Biological,  moral,  social,  mental  determinants 

Adaptability  [formerly  159.3] 
Personality  development  and  modification 
Typology 

Classical  (Hippocrates'  theory  of  temperaments) 

Modem 

Classification   schemes   of   Jung,   James,   Stem,   Rorschach, 
Kretschmer,  Sheldon 

i68 


155.28 

Appraisals  and  tests 

.282 

Diagnostic  graphology 

.283 

Inventories  and  questionnaires 

.284 

Projective  techniques 

.284  2 

Rorschach  tests 

.284  3 

Szondi  tests 

.284  4 

Thematic  apperception  tests 

J 

Sex  psychology 

.31 

Erogenity  and  libido 

32 

Sex  and  personality 

33 

Sex  differences 

332 

Masculinity 

.333 

Femininity 

.334 

Bisexuality 

.34 

Sex  relations 

.41 

.412 


.413 


.418 


155.4-155.7  Developmental  psychology 

For  sex  psychology,  see  155.3 

Child  psychology 

Thru  age  eleven 

Basic  behavior  patterns 

Motor  behavior 

Development  of  posture,  locomotion,  coordination 

Adaptive  behavior 

Development    of    intelligence,    intellectual    and    conscious 
mental  processes 

Personal-social  behavior 

Development  of  interpersonal   relations,   responsiveness   to 
gestures  and  speech,  self-help  habits 


i6q 


Decimal  Classification 


Psychology 


AAA 

,445 
.446 

.45 


155.42-155.45  Specific  groupings 

Observe  the  following  table  of  precedence,  e.g.,  preschool 
boys  155.423 

Exceptional  children 

By  class,  type,  relationships 

By  age  groups 

By  sex 


155.42 

By  age  groups 

.422 

Infants 

From  birth  to  age  two 

.423 

Preschool  children 

.  Ages  three  to  five 

.424 

School  children 

Ages  six  to  eleven 

.43 

By  sex 

.432 

Boys 

.433 

Girls 

.44 

By  class,  type,  relationships 

.442 

The  only  child 

.443 

Siblings 

Brothers  and  sisters  not  of  the  same  birth 

Twins,  triplets,  quadruplets 

Brothers  and  sisters  of  the  same  birth 

Adopted  and  foster  children 
Institutionalized  children 

Exceptional  children 

Divide  like  371.9,  e.g.,  psychology  of  gifted  children  155.455 


.5 

Adolescents 

Ages  twelve  to  twenty 

.53 

By  sex 

.532 

Young  men 

.533 

Young  women 

JS 

Adults  and  aged 

155.61-155.64  Adults 

.61 

Mental  and  creative  productivity 

.63 

By  sex 

For  adults  by  status,  type,  relationships,  see  155.64 

.632 

Men 

.633 

Women 

M 

By  status,  type,  relationships 

.642 

Single  status 

.642  2 

Bachelors 

.642  3 

Spinsters 

.643 

Divorst  status 

.643  2 

Men 

.643  3 

Women 

.644 

Widowed  status 

.644  2 

Men 

.644  3 

Women 

.645 

Married  status 

MS  2 

Men 

.645  3 

Women 

.646 

Parents 

Class    divorst    parents    in    155.643,    widowed    parents    in 
155.644 


170 


.646  2 
.646  3 


Fathers 
Mothers 


171 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Psychology 


I 


155.67 
.671 
.672 


.7 


.82 
.84 


.89 


«9 

.91 
.911 


.915 
.916 
.92 


.93 
.935 


.936 


Aged 

Mental  and  physical  impairments 

Adaptability  problems 

Psychological  aspects  of  retirement,  change  in  status, 
institutional  life 

Evolutional  psychology 

Influence  of  heredity  on  personal  characteristics 

Ethnopsychology  and  national  psychology 

Primitive  man 


155.82-155.84  Ethnopsychology 
Race  diflEerences 

Specific  races 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  psychology  of  Jews  155.849  24 

National  psychology 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  155.89 

Psychology  of  influence,  pattern,  example 

Physical  influences 

Sensory 

Divide  like  152.1,  e.g.,  psychology  of  color  155.911  45 

Climatic 

Deformities,  injuries,  diseases 

Social  influences 

Divide  like  158.2,  e.g.,  influences  of  family  members  155.924 

Situational  influences 

Catastrophic  disasters 

Behavior  patterns   during   earthquakes,   floods,   hurricanes, 
fires,  bombings 


Accidents 


155.94 

.942-.944 


.945 

.95 

.96 
.962 
.963 
.964 


,965 
.966 


156 


A 
.7 


Housing  and  community  influences 
Specific  types  of  communities 

Divide  like  area  notations  173  2-173  4,  e.g.,  urban  influences 
155.942 

Housing 

Clothing 

.    Spatial  and  restrictive  influences 
Prisons 
Submarine  structures 

Subterranean  structures 

Behavior  patterns  in  underground  shelters,  caves,  mines, 
tmmels  and  similar  structures 


Aircraft  (Aviation  psychology) 
Spacecraft  (Space psychology) 

Comparative  psychology  [formerly  151.3] 

Ontogenic  and  phylogenic  studies  of  behavior  mechanisms  in  loA^er 
organisms 

Class  intuition  [formerly  156]  in  153.44 


156.2-156.7  Animal  psychology 
Physiological  psychology 

Divide  like  152,  e.g.,  reaction-time  studies  of  animals  156.283 

Intelligence  and  intellectual  processes 

Divide  hke  153,  e.g.,  learning  curves  of  animals  156.315  8 

Subconscious  states  and  processes 
Abnormal  behavior 

Plant  behavior 


iy2 


^73 


f 


i 


.6 


.7 


.8 


.9 
.92 


Decimal  Classification 


Psychology 


157  Abnormal  and  clinical  psychologies  Iboth  formerly 

132] 

Class  emotions  and  feelings  [formerly  157]  in  152.4 


.94 


157.1-157.8  Abnormal  psychology 

Study    of    behavior    patterns    of    psychotic,     psychoneurotic, 
mentally  deficient  individuals 

For  exceptional  children,  see  155.45 


157.1-157.2  Psychoses 

Organic 

Paresis,  cerebrovascular  disorders,  chorea,  epilepsy 

Functional 

Divide    like    616.895-616.898,    e.g.,    manic-depressive    psychoses 
157.25 


157.3-157.7  Psychoneuroses 
Hysteria  and  related  disorders 

Divide  like  616.852,  e.g.,  amnesias  157.33 

Speech  and  language  disorders 

Divide  like  616.855,  e.g.,  aphasias  157.52 

Psychoneurotic  addictions  and  intoxications 

Divide  like  613.8,  e.g.,  alcoholism  157.61 

Disorders  of  character  and  personality 

Divide  like  616.858  2  -  616.858  4,  e.g.,  homosexuality  157.734 

Mental  deficiency 

Divide  like  616.858  8,  e.g.,  imbeciles  157.823 

Clinical  psychology 

Psychodiagnoses 

Appraising  adjustment  problems  of  individuals 


Rehabilitation 


[.2] 


158  Applied  psychology  [formerly  150.13] 

class  specific  applications  with  the  subject 

J  Successful  living 

Class  conation  and  feeling  [formerly  158.1]  in  152.44 

.2  Interpersonal  relations 

.24  With  family  members 

.25  With  friends  and  neighbors 

.26  With  work  associates 

.27  With  strangers 

J  Interviewing 

Class  movements  and  motor  functions  [formerly  158.3]  in  152.3 

.4  Leadership 

Class  automatic  movements  [formerly  158.4]  in  152.32-152.33 

.5  Cooperation 

Class  voluntary  movements  [formerly  158.5]  in  152.35 

,6  Vocational  interests 

.7  Industrial  psychology 

[.8]  Special  motor  functions 

Class  in  152.38 

159  Other  aspects 

[.1]  Choice  and  decision 


[.4] 


Class  in  153.83 

Volition  (Will) 
Class  in  153.8 


[.3]  Adaptability 


Class  in  155.24 

Motivation  (Drives) 

Class  in  152.5 


^74 


^75 


Decimal  Classification 


160     Logic 

Science  of  reasoning  processes 

161  Induction 

For  hypothesis,  see  167;  analogy,  169 

162  Deduction 

For  syllogism,  see  166 

163 

1 64  Symbolic  and  mathematical  logic 


It 


165 


166 
167 
168 
169 


165-169  Specific  topics 
Fallacies  and  sources  of  error 

Contradiction,  paradox,  fictions 

Syllogism 

Hypothesis 

Argument  and  persuasion 

Analogy 


iy6 


Ethics  ( Moral  philosophy) 


170     Ethics  (Moral  philosophy) 

.202  Practical  ethics  ( Conduct  of  life ) 


170.202  2  -  170.202  4  For  specific  classes 

.202  2 

Specific  age  groups 

.202  22 

Children 

.202  23 

Young  adults  (Adolescents) 

.202  232 

Men 

.202  233 

Women 

.202  26 

Aged 

.202  4 

Groups  by  sex 

For  practical  ethics  for  specific  age  groups,  see  170.202  2 

.202  42 

Male 

.202  44 

Female 

171 


.1 


•4 


Systems  and  doctrines 

Based  on  authority 

Class  morals  and  duties  in  comparative  religion  in  291.5;  in  a 
specific  religion  with  the  reUgion,  e.g..  Christian  moral  theology 
241 

Based  on  intuition  and  moral  sense 

For  systems  and  doctrines  based  on  conscience,  see  171.6 

Perfectionism 

Systems  and  doctrines  based  on  self-realization,  fulfihnent  of 
personahty 

Hedonism 

Systems  and  doctrines  based  on  achievement  of  individual  pleasure 
or  happiness 

Utilitarianism 

Systems  and  doctrines  based  on  achievement  of  the  greatest 
happiness  of  the  greatest  number 

Based  on  conscience 

Including  casuistry,  conflict  of  duties 

177 


Decimal  Classification 


171.7 
.8 


.9 


172 


.1 


.2 


.4 


174 


Based  on  evolution  and  education 

Based  on  altruism 

For  utilitarianism,  see  171.5 

Based  on  egoism 

For  hedonism,  see  171.4 


172-179  Applied  ethics 

Inherent  Tightness  and  wrongness  of  specific  human  qualities, 
relationships,  activities 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  practical  ethics  in  170.202 

Ethics  of  political  relationships 

Citizenship 

Duties  of  citizens  to  community,  state,  nation  with  respect  to 
defense,  obedience  to  law,  payment  of  taxes,  civic  and  poUtical 
activity,  revolution,  civil  war 

Public  oflBce 

Duties  of  officials  with  respect  to  public  administration  and 
welfare,  security,  justice,  education,  freedom  of  citizens 

International  relations 

Foreign  policies,  war  and  peace,  disarmament,  espionage 


173  Ethics  of  family  relationships 


Marriage,  separation,  divorce,  responsibilities  of  parents  for  children 
and  home  life,  of  children  to  parents 

Professional  and  occupational  ethics  [formerly 
standard  subdivision  069] 

If  preferred,  class  in  standard  subdivision  017 


.1 

Of  clergy 

.2 

Of  medical  professions 

.22 

Hippocratic  oath 

.24 

Euthanasia 

.26 

Economic  questions 

Medical  advertising,  fee  splitting 

178 

Ethics  (Moral philosophy ) 


174.3  Of  legal  professions 

A  Of  trade,  manufacture,  finance  ( Business  ethics ) 

.6  Of  gambling  business  and  lottery  management 

Class  ethics  of  games  of  chance  in  175.5.  of  betting  in  175.9 

,9  Of  other  professions  and  occupations 

Including  military  ethics   [formerly  355.13],  ethics  of  musicians 

[formerly  780.071] 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  ethics  of  librarianship  174.902 

1 7  5  Ethics  of  recreation 

Scope:  sportsmanship,  fair  play 
.1  Of  radio,  television,  motion  pictures,  circuses 

J2  Of  theater,  opera,  musical  performances 

•3  Of  dancing 

,4  Of  games  of  skill 

For  ethics  of  card  games,  see  175.5 

^  Of  games  of  chance 

Including  card  games,  dice  games,  roulette 

JS  Of  human  and  animal  combat 

Boxing,  wrestling,  bullfights,  cockfights 

,7  Of  racing 

Man,  animals,  vehicles 

J^  Of  recreational  reading 

For  ethics  of  obscenity  in  literature,  see  176.8 

.83  Reading  comics 

.9  Of  betting 

For  ethics  of  games  of  chance,  see  175.5 

U9 


Decimal  Classification 


Ethics  ( Moral  philosophy ) 


176  Sexual  ethics 

Including  chastity,  celibacy,  continence,  adultery,  artificial 
insemination 

.5  Of  prostitution 

.7  Of  obscenity  in  art 

.8  Of  obscenity  in  literature 

177  Ethics  of  social  relations 

.1  Of  courtesy,  politeness,  hospitality 

Class  etiquette  in  395 

2  Of  conversation,  gossip,  scandal 

.3  Of  slander,  flattery,  truthfulness,  lying 

.4  Of  personal  appearance 

Exposure  of  person,  display  of  dress 

.5  Of  slavery,  discriminatory  practices 

.6  Of  friendship  and  courtship 

For  sexual  ethics,  see  176 

.7  Of  philanthropy,  benevolence,  kindness 

Including  liberality,  charity  [both  formerly  also  179.9] 

178  Ethics  of  temperance  and  intemperance 
.1  In  use  of  alcoholic  beverages 

Abstinence,  moderate  or  social  drinking,  heavy  drinking 


.5] 

Prohibition 

Class  in  340 

.7 

In  use  of  tobacco 

Ji 

In  use  of  narcotics 

Ji 

In  other  forms 

Gluttony,  greediness 

1 79  Other  applications  of  ethics 

.01-.09         Standard  subdivisions  of  cruelty 


2 

.36 
.4 
.5 
A 

.7 


.9 


179.2-179.3  Cruelty 

Class  standard  subdivisions  in  179.01-179.09 

To  children 

To  animals 

For  vivisection,  see  179.4 

Birds 
Vivisection 

Profanity,  blasphemy,  obscenity  in  speech 
Courage  and  cowardice 

Respect  for  hiunan  life 

Genocide,  homicide,  suicide,  capital  punishment,  dueling 

For  ethics  of  war,  see  172.4;  of  civU  war,  172.1;  of  euthanasia, 
174.24 

Vices,  faults,  failings 

Not  otherwise  provided  for 

Pride,  covetousness,  envy,  anger,  sloth,  jealousy,  avarice,  hatred, 

cheating 

Virtues 

Not  otherwise  provided  for 

HumiHty,  gentleness,  patience,  diligence,  self-reliance,  self-control, 

toleration,  honesty,  modesty,  prudence,  cheerfulness,  gratitude 

Class  liberality,  charity  [both  formerly  179.9]  in  177.7 


i8o 


i8i 


Decimal  Classification 


Ancient,  medieval,  Oriental  philosophy 


^  180-190  Historical  and  geographical 

treatment  of  philosophy 

Scope:    development,   description,   critical   appraisal,   collected 
writings,  biographical  treatment  of  individual  philosophers  re- 
gardless of  viewpoint 
Class  historical  treatment  not  limited  by  period  or  place  in  109 

180  Ancient,  medieval,  Oriental  philosophy 

Use  180.01-180.09  for  standard  subdivisions 
.1-9  Standard  subdivisions  of  ancient  philosophy 

181  Oriental 

Not  limited  by  period 

Use  181.001-181.009  for  standard  subdivisions 


.04-.09 


Based  on  specific  religions 

Divide  like  294-299,  e.g.,  Buddhist  philosophy  181.043 

Class  Hindu-Brahmanical  philosophy  in  181.41-181.48, 
Judaistic  philosophy  in  181.3,  Christian  philosophy  in  189-199 


181. 1-181 ,9  Of  specific  places 

Divide  geographically  as  belovi^;  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local 
emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  philosophy  of  a  specific 
country,  place  it  first  by  use  of  a  letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g., 
philosophy  of  Lebanon  181.L  (preceding  181.1) 


.1 

Far  East  and  South  Asia 

For  philosophy  of  India,  see  181.4 

.11 

China  and  Korea 

.12 

Japan 

.15 

Pakistan 

.16 

Indonesia 

.17 

Philippines 

.19 

Southeast  Asia 

Divide   like   area   notation    59,   e.g.,   philosophy    of   Thailand 
181.193 

182 


181.2 


.4 


.41 

.42 

.43 

.44 

.45 

.452 

.48 

.482 

.483 

.484 

.4841 

.484  2 

.484  3 

.484  4 

.49 

.5 

.6 


.9 


Egypt 

Palestine,  Judea,  Israel 

Class  here  Judaistic  philosophy 

India 

Class  philosophy  of  Pakistan  in  181.15 


181.41-181.48  Hindu-Brahmanical 
Sankhya 

Mimamsa 

Nyaya 

Vaisheshika 

Yoga 

Patanjali 
Vedanta 

Sankaracharya  (Advaita) 

Ramanujacharya  (Visistadvaita) 

Dualistic  school 

Madhvacharya  (Dvaita) 

Bhedabheda 

Nimbarka  (Dvaitadvaita) 

Vallabhacharya  (Suddhadvaita) 

Other 
Persia  and  Iran 

Mesopotamia 

Philosophy  of  Assyria,  Babylonia,  Chaldea 

Phoenicia 

Other 

Divide  like  area  notation  39,  e.g.,  philosophy  of  Arabia  181.947 

183 


Decimal  Classification 


► 

182-188  Ancient  Western 

^ 

182-185  Greek 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  182 

For  Skeptic  and  Neoplatonic  philosophy,  see  186 

182 

Pre-Socratic 

.1 

Ionic 

.2 

Pythagorean 

^ 

Eleatic 

.4 

Heraclitean 

.5 

Empedoclean 

.7 

Democritean 

.8 

Anaxagorean 

183 

Sophistic,  Socratic  and  related  philosophies 

.1 

Sophistic 

.2 

Socratic 

.4 

Cynic 

.5 

Cyrenaic 

.6 

Megaric 

.7 

Elian  and  Eretrian 

184 

Platonic 

185 

Aristotelian 

186 

Skeptic  and  Neoplatonic 

.1 

Pyrrhonic 

^ 

New  Academy 

.3 

Eclectic 

.4 

Neoplatonic  and  Alexandrian 

^ 

187-188  Roman 

For  Skeptic  and  Neoplatonic  philosophy,  see  186 

187 

Epicurean 

188 

Stoic 

184 

189 


Ancient,  medieval,  Oriental  philosophy 


Medieval  Western 

Scope:  early  Christian  philosophy 


.2 

Patristic 

.4 

Scholastic 

.5 

Mystic 

190     Modern  Western  philosophy 

Scope:  Christian  philosophy 

Class  here   comprehensive   works   on   modern  philosophy,   on  Western 

philosophy 

Divide   geographically   as  below;   but,   if  it  is   desired  to   give  local 

emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  phUosophy  of  a  specific  country,  place 

it  first  by  use  of  a  letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g.,  philosophy  of  Mexico  19M 

(preceding  191) 

For  ancient,  medieval.  Oriental  philosophy,  see  180 


191 

United  States  and  Canada 

192 

British  Isles 

193 

Germany  and  Austria 

194 

France 

195 

Italy 

196 

Spain  and  Portugal 

.1 

Spain 

S 

Portugal 

197 

Russia  and  Finland 

.1 

Finland 

a 

Russia,  Ukraine,  Belorussia 

198 

Scandinavia 

.1 

Norway 

J 

Sweden 

^ 

Denmark 

199 

Other 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  199 

185 

200 


i 


200  Religion 


.1 

.19 

.2-.3 

.4 

.5-.9 


201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 


.1 
.11 


.12 


Class  comparative  religion  in  291 
Philosophy  and  theory 
Psychological  aspects 

Including  religious  emotions  [formerly  291.12] 

Miscellany,  dictionaries,  encyclopedias 
Religious  mythology 
Other  standard  subdivisions 


201-209  Standard  subdivisions  of  Christian 
religion 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  concordances 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 
Study  and  teaching 

Class  religious  training  and  instruction  in  Sunday  schools,  church 
schools,  vacation  Bible  schools  in  268 

Schools  and  courses 

Colleges  and  universities 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Roman  Catholic  seminaries  207.112 

For  colleges  and  universities  in  specific  places,  see 
207.4-207.9 

Secondary  schools 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Adventist  training  schools  207.126  7 
For  secondary  schools  in  specific  places,  see  207.4-207.9 
i86 


ZOl^i 


.4-.9 


208 
209 


Religion 

Research,  museums,  collecting,  review,  use  of  equipment, 

competitions 

Divide  Uke  standard  subdivisions  072-079,  e.g.,  museums  and 
exhibits  on  Christian  rehgion  207.34 

Schools  in  specific  places 

Colleges,  universities,  secondary  schools 

Scope;  specific  schools 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  207 

Collections  and  anthologies 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  Christian  church  in 
270 


-^ 


210 


211 


3 
.4 
Ji 
.6 
.7 
.8 


212 


,2 
.3 
.4 
.5 


Natural  religion 

Religious  belief  attained  thru  observation  and  interpretation  of  evidence 
in  nature,  speculation,  reasoning 

Knowledge  of  God 
Theism 
Rationalism  (Free  thought) 

Deism 

Humanism,  secularism,  humanitarianism 

Agnosticism  and  skepticism 

Atheism 

Nature  of  God 
Polytheism 
Dualism 
Monotheism 

Pantheism 

Including  theosophy 


.8 


Anthropomorphism 


187 


Decimal  Classification 


Bible 


213 


.5 


214 


.8 


215 


Creation 

By  fiat,  by  evolutionary  growth  and  change 

OfUfe 

Including  man 

Theodicy 

Vindication  of  God's  justice  and  goodness  in  permitting  existence  of 
evil  and  suflFering 

Providence 
Science  and  religion 

Antagonism  and  reconciliation 
For  creation,  see  213 


•1 

Mathematics 

.2 

Astronomy 

.24 

Life  on  other  worlds 

.25 

Man  in  space 

.3 

Physics 

.4 

Chemistry 

.5 

Geology 

.6 

Paleontology 

.7 

Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 

.72 

Anthropology  and  ethnology 

.74 

Biology  and  natural  history 

.8 

Archeology 

.9 

Medical  science 

216 

Good  and  evil 

For  theodicy,  see  214 

217 

Worship  and  prayer 

218 

Immortality  and  eternity 

219 

Analogy 

Religious  belief  based  on  correspondences 

i88 


^  220-280  Christian  reHgion 

220     Bible 

For  Biblical  theology,  see  230 


.01 

.013 

.02-.09 


.1 

.12 

.13 

.14 

.15 

.2 

3 


.4 


Philosophy  and  theory 
Value  [formerly  220.6] 

Other  standard  subdivisions 

Class  concordances  in  220.2,  dictionaries  and  encyclopedias  in 
220.3 


220.1 

.4 

JS 
.7 
A 
.9 


220.1-220.9  General  principles 

SUMMARY 

Origins  and  authenticity 

Concordances  and  indexes 

Dictionaries  and  encyclopedias 

Original  texts  and  early  versions 

Modem  versions 

Criticism  and  interpretation 

Commentaries 

Special  subjects  treated  in  Bible 

Geography,  history,  chronology  of  Bible  lands  in 

Bible  times 


Origins  and  authenticity 
Canon 

Bible  as  Holy  Scripture 

Inspiration 

Authorship 

Prophetic  message 
Concordances  and  indexes 
Dictionaries  and  encyclopedias 


220.4-220.5  Texts  and  versions 

Scope:  textual  criticism 

For  commentaries  with  text,  see  220.77 

Original  texts  and  early  versions 

Codices  and  translations  into  modern  languages 

189 


Decimal  Classification 


Bible 


220.42 
.43 
.44 


.45 
.46 


.47 


.48 


.49 


.5 


Chaldee 
Syriac 

Hebrew 

For  translations  of  Hebrew  texts  into  modern  languages,  see 
220.5 

Samaritan 
Other  Semitic 

Including  Ethiopic,  Arabic 

Latin 

Including  Itala,  Vulgate 

Class    translations    of    Vulgate    text    into    modem   languages 
[formerly  220.47]  in  220.5 

Greek 

Including  Septuagint 

For  translations  of  Greek  texts  into  modern  languages,  see 
220.5 

Other  early  versions 

Including  Armenian,  Coptic,  Gothic 

Modem  versions 

Translations  into  modem  languages  from  Vulgate  [formerly  dso 
220.47],  Hebrew,  Greek  texts 


.51 

Polyglot 

.52 

In  English 

.5201 

Early  before  1582 

.520  2 

Douay 

.520  3 

Authorized  (King  James) 

.520  4 

Revised 

English    revised,    American    revised,    revised    standard, 
American  standard 

.520  5  Confraternity 

.53-.  59         In  other  languages 

Divide  like  430-490,  e.g.,  German-language  versions  220.53 

190 


220.6 


.61 
.63 

.64 
.65 
.66 
.67 
.68 

.7 

J7 
.8 


[.88] 

.9 

.91 

.92 

.93 
.95 


.950  5 


Interpretation  and  higher  criticism 

Class  value  of  Bible  [formerly  220.6]  in  220.013 
For  commentaries,  see  220.7 

Isagogics 
Hermeneutics 

Science  of  interpretation 

Symbolism  and  typology 

Harmony 

Exegesis  ( Higher  criticism ) 

Historical  criticism 

Mythological,  allegorical,  numerical,  astronomical 

interpretations 

Commentaries 

Criticism  and  interpretation  arranged  in  textual  order 

With  text 
Special  subjects  treated  in  Bible 

Use  220.800  01  -  220.800  09  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  natural  science  in  Bible  220.85 

Bible  as  literature 
Class  in  809.935  22 

Geography,  history,  chronology  of  Bible  lands  in  Bible 
times 

Geography  (Description and civihzation) 

Collective  biography 
Archeology  (Material remains) 

History  of  events 

Use  220.950  01  -  220.950  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Bible  stories  retold 


^9^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Bible 


1 


221 


.l-,8 

.9 

.91 
.92 


.93 
.95 

.950  5 


221-229  Specific  parts  of  Bible 
Old  Testament 

For  specific  parts  of  Old  Testament,  see  222-224 

General  principles 

Divide  like  220.1-220.8,  e.g.,  exegesis  221.66 

Geography,  history,  chronology  of  Old  Testament  lands  in 
Old  Testament  times 

Geography  (Description  and  civilization) 

Biography 

Divide  like  standard  subdivision  092,  e.g.,  individual  biography 
221.924 

Archeology  ( Material  remains ) 

History  of  events 

Use  221.950  01  -  221.950  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Old  Testament  stories  retold 


222 


.1 

.11 

.12 

.13 


222-224  Specific  parts  of  Old  Testament 

Use  001-009  for  standard  subdivisions  under  each  subdivision 
identified  by  * 

Add  0  to  each  subdivision  identified  by  *  and  divide  as  follows: 

1-8  General  principles 

Divide  like  220.1-220.8,  e.g.,  exegesis  66 
9  Geography,  history,  chronology 

Divide  like  221.9,  e.g.,  biography  92 

*Historical  books 
*Pentateuch  (Torah) 

*  Genesis 

*Exodus 

For  Ten  Commandments,  see  222.16 

•Leviticus 


Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

1Q2 


222.14 
.15 


.9 


♦Numbers 

*  Deuteronomy 

For  Ten  Commandments,  see  222.16 


.16 

•Ten  Commandments  (Decalog) 

2 

♦Joshua  ( Josue ) 

.3 

*Judges 

.35 

*Ruth 

.4 

*Sauiuel 

.43 

*  Samuel  1 

Also  called  Kings  1 

.44 

*Samuel  2 

Also  called  Kings  2 

.5 

♦Kings 

.53 

♦Kings  1 

Also  called  Kings  3 

.54 

•Kings  2 

Also  called  Kings  4 

.6 

♦Chronicles  (Paraliponiena) 

.63 

•Chronicles  1  ( Paraliponienon  1) 

.64 

•Chronicles  2  (Paraliponienon  2) 

.7 

♦Ezra  ( Esdras  1 ) 

.8 

♦Nehemiah  (Esdras  2,  Nehemias) 

.86 

♦Tobit  ( Tobias ) 

( Optional;  prefer  229.2 ) 

.88 

♦Judith 

(Optional;  prefer  229.24) 

♦Esther 

(Optional:  deuterocanonical  part  of  Esther;  prefer  229.27) 


*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

^93 


Decimal  Classification 


Bible 


223 


.1 
.2 


*Poetic  books 
*Job 


^Psalms 

Including  authorship  and  chronology  [both  formerly  223.3], 
special  groups  [formerly  223 A],  metrical  versions  [formerly 
223.5],  commentaries  [formerly  223.6] 

[.3]  Authorship  and  chronology  of  Psalms 

Class  in  223.2 

[.4]  Special  groups  of  Psalms 

Class  in  223.2 

[.5]  Metrical  versions  and  liturgical  use  of  Psalms 

Class  metrical  versions  in  223.2,  liturgical  use  in  264 

[.6]  Commentaries  on  Psalms 

Class  in  223.2 

,7  *Proverbs 

Ji  *Ecclesiastes 

S  *Song  of  Solomon  ( Canticle  of  Canticles ) 

.96  *Wisdom  of  Solomon  ( Wisdom ) 

( Optional;  prefer  229.3 ) 

.98  *Ecclesiasticus  ( Sirach ) 

(Optional;  prefer  229,4) 

*Prophetic  books 
.1  *Isaiah  (Isaias) 

J2  *  Jeremiah  ( Jeremias ) 

.3  *Lamentations 

.37  *Baruch 

( Optional;  prefer  229.5 ) 

.4  *Ezekiel  (Ezechiel) 

•  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

^94 


224 


224.5 


* 


Daniel 


(Optional:  Song  of  the  three  children,  prefer  229.5;  Susanna,  Bel 
and  the  dragon,  prefer  229.6) 


.6 

*Hosea  (Osee) 

.7 

*Joel 

.8 

*Amos 

.9 

*Minor  prophets 

For  Rosea,  see  224.6;  Joel,  224.7;  Amos,  224.8 

.91 

•Obadiah  ( Abdias ) 

.92 

♦Jonah  ( Jonas ) 

.93 

*Micah  (Micheas) 

.94 

*Nahum 

.95 

•Habakkuk  (Habacuc) 

.96 

•Zephaniah  (Sophonias) 

.97 

•Haggai  ( Aggeus ) 

.98 

*Zechariah  (Zacharias) 

.99 

*  M  alachi  ( M  alachias ) 

.997 

•Maccabees  1  and  2  (Machabees  1  and  2) 

(Optional;  prefer  229.73) 

225  New  Testament 

For  specific  parts  of  New  Testament,  see  226-228 

.1-.8         General  principles 

Divide  like  220.1-220.8,  e.g.,  canon  225.12 

.9  Geography,  history,  chronology  of  New  Testament  lands  in 

New  Testament  times 

.9 1  Geography  ( Description  and  civilization ) 

.92  Biography 

Divide  like  standard  subdivision  092,  e.g.,  individual  biography 
225.924 

For  life  of  Jesus,  see  232.901 

*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

^9S 


H 


Decimal  Classification 


Bible 


225.93 
.95 


.950  5 


Archeology  (Material remains) 

History  of  events 

Use  225.950  01-225.950  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

New  Testament  stories  retold 


226-228  Specific  parts  of  New  Testament 

Use  001-009  for  standard  subdivisions  under  each  subdivision 
identified  by  * 

Add  0  to  each  subdivision  identified  by  *  and  divide  as  in- 
structed under  222-224 


226        *Gospels  and  Acts 

.1  Harmonies  of  the  Gospels 


227 


226.2-226.5  Specific  Gospels 

For  miracles,  see  226.7;  parables,  226.8 


J2 

*Matthew 

For  Lord's  Prayer,  see  226.9 

Ji 

*Mark 

A 

*Luke 

J 

*John 

J6 

*Acts  of  Apostles 

.7 

*Miracles 

A 

*Parables 

.9 

*Lord's  Prayer 

r 

*Epistles 

.1 

*Romans 

^ 

*Corinthians  1 

^ 

♦Corinthians  2 

.4 

*Galatians 

J 

*Ephesians 

227.6 

*PhiIippians 

.7 

*Colossians 

.8 

*Other  Pauline  epistles 

.81 

•Thessalonians  1 

.82 

•Thessalonians  2 

.83 

•Timothy  1 

.84 

•Timothy  2 

.85 

•Titus 

.86 

•Philemon 

.87 

•Hebrews 

.9 

*Catholic  epistles 

.91 

•James 

.92 

•Peter  1 

.93 

•Peter  2 

.94 

•John  1 

.95 

•John  2 

.96 

•John  3 

.97 

•Jude 

228 

*Revelation  ( Apocalypse ) 

229 

Apocrypha,  pseudepigrat 

*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

196 


Use  229.001-229.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.08  General  principles 

Divide  like  220.1-220.8,  e.g.,  commentaries  229.07 

.09  Geography,  history,  chronology  of  lands  of  Apocrypha  in 

times  of  Apocrypha 
.091  Geography  (Description  and  civilization) 

.092  Biography 

Divide  like  standard  subdivision  092,  e.g.,  individual 
biography  229.092  4 

*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 

^97 


Decimal  Classification 


229.093 
.095 


.095  05 


.1 


.2 


.24 


.27 


.3 


.4 


.5 


.6 


Archeology  ( Material  remains) 

History  of  events 

Use  229.095  001  -  229.095  009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Stories  of  Apocrypha  retold 


229.1-229.9  Specific  books 

Use  001-009  for  standard  subdivisions  under  each  subdivision 
identified  by  * 

Add   0   to   each   subdivision   identified   by    *    and   divide    as 
instructed  under  222-224 

*Esdras  1  and  2 

Also  called  Esdras  3  and  4 

*Tobit  (Tobias) 

If  preferred,  class  in  222.86 

*Judith 

If  preferred,  class  in  222.88 

♦Esther 

If  preferred,  class  in  222.9 

*Wisdom  of  Solomon  (Wisdom) 

If  preferred,  class  in  223.96 

*Ecclesiasticus  ( Sirach ) 

If  preferred,  class  in  223.98 

♦Baruch,  Epistle  of  Jeremy,  Song  of  three  children 

If  preferred,  class  Baruch  in  224.37,  Song  of  the  three  children  in 
224.5 

*Susanna,  Bel  and  the  dragon.  Prayer  of  Manasses 

If  preferred,  class  Susanna,  Bel  and  the  dragon  in  224.5 


*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 


198 


Bible 


229.7 

♦Maccabees  (Machabees) 

.73 

♦Maccabees  1  and 2  (Machabees  1  and 2) 

If  preferred,  class  in  224.997 

.75 

•Maccabees  3  and  4  ( Machabees  3  and  4 ) 

.8 

*Pseudo  gospels 

.9 

♦Other  pseudepigrapha 

.91 

*01d  Testament 

.911 

♦Historical  books 

.912 

*Poetic  books 

Including  Odes  of  Solomon 

.913 


.914 


.915 


•Prophetic  books 

Including  Jewish  apocalypses,  Book  of  Enoch,  Assumption 
of  Moses,  Vision  of  Isaiah,  Apocalypse  of  Elias  or  Elijah 

•Testaments 

Including  Testament  of  the  twelve  patriarchs 
•Other  books  by  or  about  the  prophets 


229.92-229.95  New  Testament 

Class  pseudo  gospels  in  229.8 


.92 

•Acts  of  Apostles 

.93 

•Epistles 

.94 

•Apocalypses 

.95 

•Other 

*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  222-224 


^99 


Decimal  Classification 


Doctrinal  theology  {Dogma) 


1 


►  230-270  Specific  elements  of  Christian 

religion 

If  preferred,  class  specific  elements  of  specific  denominations 
and  sects  in  280 

230     Doctrinal  theology  (Dogma) 

Scope:  Biblical  theology 

Use  230.01-230.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


1-.9 


231 


JZ 

.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 

.73 


Doctrines  of  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Methodist  doctrines  230.7 

(Optional:  specific  doctrines  of  specific  denominations  and  sects; 
prefer  231-236.  If  option  is  chosen,  add  0  to  number  resulting 
from  division  like  281-289  and  divide  further  like  231-236,  e.g., 
Methodist  doctrines  on  salvation  230.704) 


231-236  Specific  doctrines 

Scope:  specific  doctrines  of  specific  denominations  and  sects;  if 
preferred,  class  in  230.1-230.9 

Class  doctrines  on  church  government,  organization,  nature  in 
262 

God,  Trinity,  Godhead 

God  the  Father,  Creator 
God  the  Son,  Redeemer 

For  Jesus  Christ,  see  232 

God  the  Holy  Ghost  (Holy  Spirit),  Giver  of  Life,  Sanctifier 

Attributes 

Omniscience,  omnipresence,  omnipotence 

Providence 
Love  and  wisdom 

Divine  law 

Including  Kingdom  of  God,  sovereignty  of  God 

Miracles 

Miraculous  places,  events,  objects,  cures 
Including  stigmata 

200 


231.74 


232 


.12 

.4 
•5 

.7 
A 

.9 


Revelation 

Vision   and   appearing   of  God,   disclosure   to  men   of   divine 
piurpose  and  superhuman  knowledge 

Theodicy 

Vindication  of  God's  justice  and  goodness  in  permitting  existence 
of  evil  and  suffering 

For  Providence,  see  231.5 

Jesus  Christ  and  his  family 

Including  person  and  ofiBces,  royal  office,  priesthood,  intercession  of 
Jesus  Ghrist 


232.1-232.8  Christology 

For  doctrines  on  life  of  Jesus,  see  232.9 

Incarnation  and  messiahship 

Including  typology 

Messianic  prophecies 
Logos  (Word  of  God) 
Atonement 
Sacrifice 
Resurrection 
Second  coming 
Judgment 
Natures  (Divinity  and  humanity) 

Doctrines  on  family  and  life  of  Jesus 

Use  232.900  01  -  232.900  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.900  1-.900  9 
.901 


.903 
.904 
.908 


Standard  subdivisions  of  life  of  Jesus 

Life  of  Jesus 

Class  specific  events  in  232.92,  232.95-232.97 

Character  and  personality  of  Jesus 
Influence  of  Jesus 
Historicity  of  Jesus 

201 


Decimal  Classification 


Doctrinal  theology  (Dogma) 


I  1 


i 


I 


i 


^ 


t 


SUMMARY 

232.91            Mary,  mother  of  Jesus  ( Mariology ) 
,92           Infancy  of  Jesus 
.93            Mary's  husband  and  parents 
.94            John  the  Baptist 
.95            Public  life  of  Jesus 
.96            Passion  and  death  of  Jesus 
.97            Resurrection,  appearances,  ascension  of  Jesus 

.98            Agrapha 

232.91 

Mary,  mother  of  Jesus  (Mariology)  [formerly  232.931] 

.911 

Immaculate  Conception 

.912 

Annunciation 

.913 

Virginity 

.914 

Assumption  (Ascent  to  heaven) 

.915 

Sanctity  and  virtues 

.916 

Spiritual  powers 

.92 

Infancy  of  Jesus 

Including  Holy  Family  [formerly  232.93] 

.921 

Nativity 

.922 

Adoration  of  the  shepherds 

.923 

Three  wise  men  ( Magi ) 

.924 

Circumcision 

.925 

Massacre  of  innocents 

.926 

FHght  into  Egypt 

.927 

Childhood  in  Nazareth 

.928 

Presentation  in  temple 

.929 

Jesus  among  doctors  in  temple 

.93 

Mary's  husband  and  parents 

[.931] 


[.931  7] 


Class  Holy  Family  [formerly  232.93]  in  232.92 

Mary,  mother  of  Jesus  ( Mariology) 
Class  in  232.91 

Sanctuaries  and  shrines 

Class  in  246.9    ■ 
202 


[232.931  8] 


.932 


.933 


.94 
.95 

.954 
.956 
.957 
.958 


Veneration,  prayers,  hymns 

Class  veneration  in  248,  prayers  in  242.74,  hymns  in  245 

Joseph 

Class  veneration  in  248,  sanctuaries  and  shrines  in  246.9  [all 
formerly  232.932] 

Joachim  and  Anne 

Class  veneration  in  248,  sanctuaries  and  shrines  in  246.9  [all 
formerly  232.933] 

John  the  Baptist 

Public  Hfe  of  Jesus 

Including  baptism,  temptation,  calling  of  apostles 

Teachings 

Transfiguration 

Last  Supper 

Last  words  to  disciples 

Class    seven   last   words    on    cross    [formerly   232.958]    in 
232.963  5 


.96 

Passion  and  death  of  Jesus 

.961 

Betrayal  by  Judas 

.962 

Trial  and  condemnation 

.963 

Crucifixion  and  death 

.963  5 

Seven  last  words  on  cross  [formerly  232.958; 

.964 

Burial 

,966 

Relics  of  Passion 

.967 

Descent  into  hell 

.97 

Resurrection,  appearances,  ascension  of  Jesus 

.98 

Aurapha 

Jesus's  words  not  appearing  in  canonical  Gospels 


203 


ft' 


>■■ 


233 


.1 

.11 
.14 

a 


.21 
.22 


*4 
.7 


.1 


.16 


Decimal  Classification 


Doctrinal  theology  ( Dogma ) 


Man 


Including  moral  and  spiritual  heredity,  personality,  natural  and 
spiritual  body 

For  future  state  of  man,  see  236.2;  intermediate  state,  236.4 

Creation  and  fall 

Creation  of  man 

Original  sin  and  fall  of  man 

Sin 

For  original  sin,  see  233.14 

Mortal  and  venial  sin 

Sins  against  the  Holy  Ghost 

Class  specific  mortal  and  venial  sins  in  233.21 

Accountability 

The  soul 

Freedom  of  choice  between  good  and  evil 


234  Salvation  ( Soteriology ) 


Grace 


Including  actual  and  sanctifying  grace,  merit,  innate  virtues,  gifts 
of  the  Holy  Ghost,  righteousness,  holiness,  universal  priesthood 

Sacraments 

Divide  like  265.1-265.7,  e.g.,  baptism  234.161 


.2 

Faith 

.3 

Redemption 

.4 

Regeneration 

.5 

Repentance 

,6 

Obedience 

.7 

Justification 

.8 

Sanctification 

.9 

Predestination  and  free  will 

204 

235 


.2 


.24 


236 


.6 


.7 


Invisible  world 

Saints 

Class  veneration  in  248,  sanctuaries  and  shrines  in  246.9  [all 
formerly  235.2] 

For  Marys  husband  and  parents,  see  232.93;  John  the  Baptist, 

232.94 

Canonization  and  beatification 


235.3-235.4  Spirits 

.3 

Angels 

.4 

Devils  and  demons 

A7 

Satan 

\ 

Eschatology 

.1 

Death 

^ 

Future  state  of  man  (Life  after  death)  [formerly  237] 

Eternal  reward  and  punishment 

21 

Eternity 

,22 

Immortality 

.23 

Annihilationism  (Conditional iiiiaiortality) 

.24 

Heaven 

.25 

Hell 

a 

Millenmiua 

A 

Intermediate  state  of  man 

Probation  after  death 

For  purgatory,  see  236.5;  limbo,  236.6-236.7 

Purgatory 


236,6-236.7  Limbo 

Limbo  of  fathers  (Limbus  patrum) 

Abode  of  souls  of  the  just  who  died  before  coming  of  Jesus  Christ 

Limbo  of  infants  (Limbus  infantum) 

Abode  of  souls  of  the  unbaptized  but  just 

205 


r 


Decimal  Classification 


Doctrinal  theology  ( Dogma ) 


236.8 
.9 

[237] 
238 


.1 

.11 

.14 


.142 
.144 
.19 


•2 


Ressurection  of  the  dead 
Last  judgment 

Future  state  of  man  ( Life  after  death ) 

Class  in  2362 

Creeds,  confessions  of  faith,  covenants,  catechisms 

Class  a  specific  doctrine  with  the  subject 

Early 

Apostles'  Creed 

Nicene  and  post-Nicene  creeds  of  Western  Church 
Including  ConstantinopoUtan  Creed 

Nicene  Creed 
Athanasian  Creed 
Creeds  and  confessions  of  Eastern  Church 

Confession  of  Gennadius  II,  Answers  of  Jeremiah  II,  Confession 
of  Metrophanes,  Orthodox  Confession  of  Peter  Mogila, 
Confession  of  Dositheus 

Later  Roman  Catholic 

Including  Creed  of  Pius  IV 


.3-.9         Other 

Divide  like  283-289,  e.g.,  Augsburg  Confession  238.41 


239 


.1 


Apologetics  and  polemics 

Exposition  of   Christian   doctrines   refuting   alleged   errors   in   other 

systems 

Use  239.001-239.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  apologetics  and  polemics  on  a  specific  doctrine  with  the  subject 

In  apostolic  times 

For  polemics  against  doctrines  of  specific  groups  in  apostolic  times, 
see  239.2-239.4 


239.2 
.3 
.4 


.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 


.9 


239.2-239.4  Against  doctrines  of  specific  groups  in 
apostolic  times 

Jews 

Pagans  and  heathens 
Neoplatonists 


239.5-239.9  Against  doctrines  of  specific  groups  in 
post-apostolic  times 

Class  comprehensive  post-apostolic  defenses  of  and  attacks  on 
doctrines  of  a  specific  denomination  or  sect  in  230.1-230.9;  of  a 
specific  religion  with  the  religion,  e.g.,  doctrines  of  Judaism 
296.3 

Deists 

Encyclopedists 

Rationalists  and  agnostics 

Scientists  and  materialists 

For  communists,  see  239.9 

Communists  and  other  denials 


206 


207 


Decimal  Classification 


240 

Moral  and  devotional  theology 

241 

Moral  theology 

For  conduct  of  Christian  life,  see  248.4 

.1 

Conscience 

a 

Laws 

Natural,  human,  divine 

For  codes  of  conduct,  see  241.5 

Ji 

Sins  and  vices 

A 

Virtues 

.5 

Codes  of  conduct 

^ 

241.52-241.54  Biblical  precepts 

.52 

Ten  Commandments 

.54 

Golden  Rule 

.57 


Precepts  of  church 


242 


.1 


242-245  Devotional  texts 

For  texts  used  in  public  worship,  see  264 

Prayers  [^formerly  248.37]5  meditations, 
contemplations 

Class  value  of  contemplation  in  248.3,  devotional  sermons  in  252 
[both  formerly  242] 

Classics  of  meditation  and  contemplation 

Including  Imitatio  Christi  of  Thomas  a  Kempis 


.3 

.33 


242.2-242.4  Prayers,  meditations,  contemplations  for 
specific  times  and  occasions 

Daily 

For  religious  occasions 

Advent  and  Christmas 

Sio8 


Moral  and  devotional  theology 


242.34 

.35 

.36 

.37 

.4 

.6 


.7 

.72 

.722 

.74 

.742 

.75 

76 

A 


Lent 

For  Holy  Week,  see  242.35 

Holy  Week 

Easter 

Other  feast  and  fast  days 
For  consolation  in  times  of  illness,  troubles,  bereavement 
Meditations   and   contemplations   for   specific   classes   of 
persons 

Divide  like  248.8,  e.g.,  meditations  for  young  women  242.633 

Class    meditations    and    contemplations    for    specific    times    and 

occasions  in  242.2-242.4 


242.7-242.8  Prayers 

Class  prayers  for  specific  times  and  occasions  in  242.2-242.4 

Specific  prayers  and  groups  of  prayers 

To  God  the  Father,  the  Son,  the  Holy  Ghost 

Lord's  Prayer 
To  Mary  [formerly  232.931  8] 

Rosary 
To  Joseph,  Joachim,  Anne 
To  other  saints 
Collections  of  prayers 

For  specific  groups  of  prayers,  see  242.7 


.801-.809 


.82-.89 


By  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  collections  of  private  prayers  for 
Methodists  242.807 

For  specific  classes  of  persons 

Divide  like  248.82-248.89,  e.g.,  collections  of  private  prayers 
for  young  women  242.833 


243 


Evangelistic  writings 

Works  designed  to  convert  readers,  promote  repentance 
Class  evangelistic  sermons  [formerly  243]  in  252 

209 


Decimal  Classification 


Moral  and  devotional  theology 


244 

247.6 

Insignias  of  rank 

245 

Hymns 

.7 

Vestments  and  altar  cloths 

Without  music 

Including  hymns  to  Mary   formerly  232.931  8] 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  hymns  in  English  2452 

.8 

Eucharistic  vessels 

ChRlice,  ciborium,  monstrance,  paten,  pyx 

For  metrical  versions  of  Psalms,  see  223.2 

.9 

Ecclesiastical  emblems 

246 


.1 
.4 


.7 


247 


.1 


.4 
.5 


246-247  Art,  artifacts,  places 
Symbolism  and  symbolic  objects  and  places 


246.1-246.7  Art  and  decoration  in  Christian  services 

and  buildings 

Byzantine  and  Gothic  symbolism 

Primitive  church  art 

Statuary  and  icons 

Protestantism  and  religious  art 

Emblematic  and  cryptographic  art 

Liturgic  symbolism 

Altar,  colors,  lights 

Music  and  rhythmic  arts 

Including  the  dance 

Buildings,  sanctuaries,  shrines 

Including  sanctuaries  and  shrines  to  Mary  [formerly  232.931  7],  to 
Joseph  [formerly  232.932],  to  Joachim  and  Anne  [both  formerly 
232.933],  to  other  saints  [formerly  235.2] 

Sacred  furniture,  vestments,  insignia 

Church  furniture 

Fonts,  baptisteries,  lecterns,  pulpits,  tabernacles,  rood  screens, 
reredoses 

Stained  glass,  mosaics,  enamels 

Paintings 

2io 


.92 


248 


Cross  and  crucifix 


248-249  Practice  of  religion  in  personal  and 
family  life 

Personal  religion 

Christian  religion  as  an  inner  experience  and  guide  to  daily  living 

Including  veneration  of  Mary  [formerly  232.9318],  of  Joseph 
[formerly  232.932],  of  Joachim  and  Anne  [both  formerly  232.933], 
of  other  saints  [formerly  235.2] 

Class  devotional  texts  in  242-245 


.2 

Religious  experience 

.22 

Mysticism 

.24 

Converts  and  conversion 

.242 

Conversion  of  Protestants  to  Roman  Catholicism 

.244 

Conversion  of  Roman  Catholics  to  Protestantism 

.246 

Conversion  of  non-Christians  to  Christianity 

.25 

Moral  rearmament 

27 

Self -discipline 

Aids  to  perfection 

.272 

Strict  self-denial 

.273 

Fasting  and  abstinence 

.274 

Other  austerities  and  self-denials 

29 

Other 

Including  stigmata,  pilgrimages 


21X 


l:y 


Decimal  Classification 


Moral  and  devotional  theology 


248.3 


[.37] 


.4 


.42 
.48 


.5 
.8 


Private  worship,  prayer,  meditation,  contemplation 

Including  value  of  contemplation  [formerly  242] 

Prayers 
Class  in  242 

Conduct  of  Christian  life 

Application  of  Christian  virtues  to  everyday  living 

General  guides 

Guides  for  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Roman  Catholic  guides  248.482 

Witness  bearing 

Personal  Christianity  for  specific  classes  of  persons 

Class  a  specific  aspect  with  the  subject 


248.82-248.85  For  specific  age  groups 

For  personal  Christianity  for  other  groupings  of  persons,  see 
248.86-248.89 


.82 

Children 

.83 

Young  adults  (Adolescents) 

Scope:  students 

.832 

Men 

.833 

Women 

.84 

Adults 

For  personal  Christianity  for  aged,  see  248.85 

.842 

Men 

.843 

Women 

248.86 
.88 


.89 

.892 

.894 


248.86-248.89  For  other  groupings  of  persons 
Afllicted 

Working  and  professional  classes 

Including  those  engaged  in  specific  occupations 

For  personal  Christianity  for  religious  groups,  see  248.89 

Religious  groups 

Clergy  and  lay  ministers 

Priests,  ministers,  rectors,  vicars,  elders,  deacons 

Persons  in  religious  orders 

ReUgious  and  monastic  life  [formerly  271] 


.894  2 

Men 

.894  22 

Vocation 

.894  25 

Selection  and  novitiate 

.894  28 

Rules 

Including  vows  of  poverty,  chastity,  obedience 

.894  3 

Women 

.894  32 

Vocation 

.894  35 

Selection  and  novitiate 

.894  38 

Rules 

Including  vows  of  poverty,  chastity,  obedience 


249  Christian  worship  in  family  life 


.85 


Aged 


212 


Z13 


*  . 


J 


-l 


w 

•A 


:\ 


I 


Decimal  Classification 


^  250-260  Practical  theology 

250     Pastoral  theology,  parishes,  religious  orders 

Use  250.01-250.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1-.9 


For  public  worship,  see  264;  missions,  266;  religious  training  and 
instruction,  268 

Standard  subdivisions  of  pastoral  theology 


251 


251-253  Pastoral  theology 

Preaching  (Homiletics) 

Use  251.001-251.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  sermons,  see  252 

JOI 

Preparation 

.02 

Sennon  outlines 

.a^ 

Delivery 

Voice,  expression,  gestiu« 

.07 

Radio  and  television  preaching 

.08 

Homiletic  illustrations 

252 


Sermons 

Scope:  devotional  sermons  [formerly  242],  evangelistic  sermons 

[/onnerfy243] 

Use  252.001-252.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  sermons  on  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 


.01-.09 


By  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Anglican  sermons  252.03 


.1 

.5 

.53 

.55 


252.1-252.9  For  specific  occasions  and  audiences 
For  baptisms,  confirmations,  weddings,  funerals 

For  memorial  sermons,  see  252.9 

For  specific  classes  of  persons 

Children 

Young  adults  (Adolescents) 

Including  academic,  chapel,  convocation,  commencement 


sermons 


214 


.594 


.7 


.9 


253 


.2 


Pastoral  theology,  parishes,  religious  orders 


Afflcted  and  aged 

Working  and  professional  classes 

Religious  groups 

Clergy 

Priests,  ministers,  rectors,  vicars,  elders,  deacons 

Persons  in  religious  orders 
Monks,  friars,  nuns 

For  church  and  public  occasions 


252.61-252.67  Church  year 

.61 

Advent  and  Chris  Unas 

.62 

Lent  and  Holy  Week 

.63 

Easter 

.67 

Other  feast  and  fast  days 

.68 

Secular  occasions 

Including  elections,  thanksgivings,  holidays 

For  consecrations,  ordinations,  installations 
For  memorial  occasions 

Pastor 

Life  and  person 

Qualifications,  celibacy,  wife,  family 


253.5-253.7  Duties  and  responsibilities 

For  preaching,  see  251 


.5 

Counseling 

.7 

Evangeh'sni 

.73 

Outdoor 

.75 

In  prisons 

.76 

In  homes 

.78 

By  radio  and  television 

22.5 


14 


Decimal  Classification 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


'i  : 


^  i 


254 


.01-.09 


.2 


.3 
A 

.5 

.6 
.7 


255 


256 
257 
258 


259 


Parish  government  and  administration 

Use  254.001-254.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  parish  office  methods  [formerly  254]  in  651 

By  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  government  and  administration  of 
Roman  Catholic  parishes  254.02 

In  specific  kinds  of  communities 

Divide  like  area  notation  173,  e.g.,  government  and  administration 
of  rural  parishes  254.24 

Radio  and  television  work 
Public  relations  and  publicity 

For  radio  and  television  work,  see  254.3  ; 

Membership 

Promotion  and  service 

Programs 

Planning  and  executing 

Buildings  and  equipment 

Finance 

Budget,  income,  methods  of  raising  money,  expenditures 
Class  compensation  of  clergymen  [formerly  254.8]  in  3312 

Religious  congregations  and  orders  (Monasticism) 

Government,  organization,  administration 
Use  255.001-255.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  271.01-271.98,  e.g.,  Jesuits  255.5 


Parochial  welfare  work 

Provision  by  parish  and  religious  orders  of  assistance,  guidance,  cheer 
to  disadvantaged  members  of  parish 

Other  parochial  activities  by  parish  and  religious 
orders 

Recreation,  work  with  children,  soldiers,  students,  foreigners 

2l6 


^  260-280  Christian  church 

Class  local  church  in  250 

260     Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 

Institutions,  services,  observances,  discipUnes,  work  of  Christianity  and 

Christian  church 

Including  Christian  church  and  the  apostate  and  indifferent 


261 


.2 
.5 


[.6] 

.7 

.72 
.73 

[.75] 

.8 

J83 
£5 

•87 

.873 


Social  theology 

Attitude  of  Christianity  toward  and  influence  on  secular  matters  and 
other  religions 

Christianity  and  other  religions 
Christianity  and  intellectual  development 

Including  attitude  toward  science  [formerly  261.75],  growth  of 
knowledge 

Christianity  and  world  order 

Class  in  261.87 

Christianity  and  civil  government 

Attitude  toward  and  influence  on  pohtical  activities  and  ideologies 

Religious  freedom 

Theocracy  ( Supremacy  of  church  over  civil  government) 

Attitude  toward  science 
Class  in  261.5 

Christianity  and  socioeconomic  problems 

For  Christianity  and  civil  government,  see  261.7 

Social  problems 
The  economic  order 
International  affairs 

Including  Christianity  and  world  order  [formerly  261.6] 


f-.::;- 


War  and  peace 

Including  attitude  of  Christianity  toward  pacifism, 
conscientious  objectors 

^17 


li 


Decimal  Classification 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


ii 


262 


.001 


Church  government,  organization,  nature 
(Ecclesiology) 

Use  262.000  1  -  262.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Philosophy  and  theory  of  government  and 
organization 

Including  ecumenicalism  [formerly  280.1] 


.002-.009  Other  standard  subdivisions  of  government  and 

organization 

.01-.09  Government  and  organization  of  specific  denominations 

and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  government  and  organization  of  the 
Methodist  Church  262.076 


.1 

.11 


.12 
.13 
.131 
.132 

.135 
.136 


.14 


SUMMARY 


V  t 


262.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.7 
.8 
.9 


Governing  leaders 

Parishes  and  religious  orders  in  church  organization 

Systems  governed  by  episcopacy 

Systems  governed  by  election 

General  (Ecumenical)  councils 

Nature  of  the  church 

Church  and  ministerial  authority 

Church  law  and  discipline  ' 

Governing  leaders 
Apostolic  succession 


262.12-262.15  By  rank 
Bishops  and  archbishops 
Popes  and  their  administration 
Papal  infallibility 
Temporal  power  of  the  pope 
Including  extranationality 

College  of  Cardinals 

Administration 

Congregations,  tribunals,  oflSces  of  Curia  Romana 
For  College  of  Cardinals,  see  262.135 


<--'X 


V..--    \^-fi 


Local  clergy 


262.15 


.17 
.18 
.19 

.2 

.22 

.24 


.3 


•4 


.5 

[.6] 

•7 

.72 


.73 

.77 


Laity 


262.17-262.19  By  system  of  government 
Episcopal  system 
Presbyterian  system 
Congregational  system 

Parishes  and  religious  orders  in  church  organization 

Parishes 

For  parish  government  and  administration,  see  254 

Religious  congregations  and  orders 

For  government,  organization,  administration  of  religious 
congregations  and  orders,  see  255 


218 


262.3-262,4  Government  and  organization  of  specific 
church  systems 

Class  a  specific  aspect  with  the  subject,  e.g.,  parishes  262.22 

Systems  governed  by  episcopacy 

Sees,  dioceses,  cathedral  systems 

Systems  governed  by  election 

Synods,  presbyteries,  congregations 

General  (Ecumenical)  councils 

Canons  and  decrees 
Class  in  262.91-262.93 

Nature  of  the  church 

Attributes,  marks,  notes 

Apostolicity,  cathoUcity,  holiness,  unity,  credibiUty,  infaUibiUty, 
necessity,  visibility  and  invisibility 

Communion  of  saints 
Mystical  body  of  Christ 

219 


Decimal  Classification 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


I     I 

H 

ill 


73 


h:1 


262.8 

[.82] 


•9 


.91 


.92 

.922 
.923 
.924 
.925 

.93 
.931 

.932 


.933 


.934 


.935 
.98 


Church  and  ministerial  authority 

Encyclicals,  papal  bulls  and  decrees 
Class  in  262.91 

Church  law  Iformerly  348]  and  discipline 

Canon  or  ecclesiastical  law 


262.91-262.93  Roman  Catholic 
Scope:  canons  and  decrees  [both  formerly  262.6] 

Acts  of  the  Holy  See 

Encyclicals,  papal  bulls  and  decrees    [all  formerly  262.82], 
briefs,  apostolic  letters 

Early  codes  and  treatises  on  them 
To  Gratian,  ca.  1140 
Corpus  iuris  canonici 
Quinque  compilationes  antiquae 
Other 

Codex  iuris  canonici  (1917) 

General  principles  ( Canons  1-86)  :  ^ 

Persons  (Canons  87-725) 
Clergy,  religious,  laity 

Things  (Canons  726-1551) 

Sacraments,    sacred    times    and    places,    worship,    teaching 
office,  benefices,  temporal  goods 

Procedure  (Canons  1552-2194)  :, 

Trials,  cases  of  beatification  and  canonization 

Crimes  and  penalties  (Canons  2195-2414) 

Other  denominations 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Anglican  ecclesiastical  law  262.983 

220 


263  Days  and  times  of  religious  observance 


.1 

.2 
.3 

.4 
[.8] 

.9 

.91-.97 


.98 


264 


263.1-263.8  Sabbath  and  Sunday 
Biblical  Sabbath 
Observance  of  seventh  day 

Christian  Sunday 

For  Sunday  observance,  see  263.4 

Sunday  observance 

Laws  on  Sunday  observance 

Class  in  340 

Other  days  and  times 

Church  year 

Divide  like  252.61-252.67,  e.g.,  observance  of  Advent  263.91 

Specific  saints'  days 
Public  worship 

Divine  services,  religious  ceremonies,  their  conduct  and  texts 
Scope:  liturgical  use  of  Psalms  [formerly  223.5] 
Use  264.001-264.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  Sunday  school  services,  see  268.7;  other  rites,  ceremonies, 

ordinances,  265 


.01 


•02 


264.01-264.09  By  specific  denominations  and  sects 
Primitive  and  Oriental  churches 

Divide  like  281,  e.g.,  liturgy  and  ritual  of  Eastern  Orthodox 
churches  264.019 

Roman  Catholic  Church 

Use  264.020  01  -  264.020  08  for  standard  subdivisions 


.020  09 
.020  1-.020  9 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment   [formerly 
264.029] 

Specific  elements 

History,  meaning,  place  in  public  worship 

Divide  like  264.1-264.9,  e.g.,  scripture  readings 
264.020  3 

221 


Decimal  Classification 


264.021 
.022 

.023 


.024 


.027  4 

.028 
[.029] 

.03 


264.021-264.028  Texts  of  liturgy,  ritual,  prayers 
Calendars  and  ordos 

Ceremonials 

Class  lectionary  [formerly  264.022]  in  264.024 

Missals 

Including  epistles,  gospels  [both  formerly  264.026] 
Class  morning  prayer  [formerly  264.023]  in  264.024 

Breviaries 

Including  lectionary  [formerly  264.022],  morning  prayer 
[formerly  26A.023] 

For  psalter,  see  264.028 


.025 

Rituals 

[.026] 

Epistles  and  gospels 

Class  in  264.023 

.027 

Special  books 

.027  2 

For  specific  times  of  year 

Including  Holy  Week 

^l.i 


.030  09 


.030  1-.030  9 


For  special  liturgical  services 
Including  Forty  Hours  devotion 

Psalter 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  in  264.020  09 

Anglican  churches 

Use  264.030  01  -  264.030  08  for  standard  subdivisions 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment  [formerly 
264.039] 

Specific  elements 

History,  meaning,  place  in  public  worship 
Divide  like  264.1-264.9,  e.g.,  prayer  264.030  1 
222 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


264.031 
.032 
.033 
.034 
.035 
.036 
.037 
.038 
[.039] 

.04-.09 


.1 


.13 


3 
.4 

3 


264.031-264.038  Texts  of  Hturgy,  ritual,  prayers 
Calendars,  festivals,  fasts 
Lectionary  and  rubrics 
Morning  prayer  and  litany 
Evening  prayer  and  vespers 
Sacraments,  ordinances,  services 
Collects,  epistles,  gospels 
Ordinal,  articles,  creeds 
Psalter 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  in  264.030  09 

Other  specific  denominations 

Divide  like  284-289,  e.g.,  Methodist  Episcopal  services  264.076 


264.1-264.9  Specific  elements 

Class  specific  elements  in  public  worship  of  specific  denomina- 
tions and  sects  in  264.01-264.09 

Prayer 

Scope:  comprehensive  works  on  public  and  private  prayer 
For  private  prayer,  see  248.3 

Prayers 

Including  litanies 

Music 

Class  musical  scores  and  parts  in  783 

Scripture  readings  and  the  Mass 
Responsive  readings 

Creeds  and  confessions  of  faith 

Class  texts  in  238 

Sermons,  exhortations,  instructions 

Class  texts  of  sermons  in  252 

223 


Decimal  Classification 


264.7 
3 


Prayer  meetings,  Holy  Hours,  novenas 

Sacramentals 

For  consecrations  and  dedications,  see  265.92 


265  Other  rites,  ceremonies,  ordinances 

Scope:  preparation,  instruction,  performance 
Use  265.001-265.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  sacraments 


.1 

.12 

.13 

.2 

.3 


.4 
.5 
.6 

.61 

.62 
.63 

.64 
.65 


.66 


265.1-265.7  Sacraments 


Class  liturgy  and  ritual  of  sacraments  in  specific  denominations 
in  264.01-264.09 

Baptism 

Infant 

Adult 
Confirmation 
Eucharist,  Holy  Commimion,  Lord's  Supper 

Including  transubstantiation 
For  viaticum,  see  265.7 

Holy  Orders 

Matrimony 

Penance 

Contrition 

Examination  of  conscience,  prayers  preparatory  to  confession 

Confession 

Satisfaction 

Penitential  prayers  and  acts  for  the  remission  of  sin 

Absolution 

Censiues 

Excommunication,  suspension,  interdiction,  withholding 
absolution 


Indulgences 


224 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


265.7 


Ji 

.82 

.85 
.9 


.92 


266 


Anointing  of  the  sick  and  viaticum 

Including  extreme  unction 

Rites  in  illness  and  death 

Religious  ceremonies  for  the  afflicted 
For  anointing  of  the  sick,  see  265.7 

Religious  ceremonies  for  the  dead 

Other  acts 

Including  love  feasts  (agapes),  foot  washing,  laying  on  of  hands, 
exorcism,  ceremonies  of  joining  church 

Consecrations  and  dedications 
Missions  \Jormerhj  also  274-279] 

Scope:  missionary  societies 

Use  266.001-266.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  mission  schools,  see  377.6  .    . 


.02 

Kinds  of  missions 

[.021] 

Missionary  stories 

Class  in  266.09 

.022 

Home 

.023 

Foreign 

.025 

Medical 

.09 

Missionary  stories  [/( 

.1-.9         Of  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  Uke  281-289,  e.g.,  Seventh-Day  Adventist  missions  266.673 

267  Associations  for  religious  work 

For  missionary  societies,  see  266;  religious  congregations  and  orders, 
255 


.1 

.15 
.18 


Of  both  men  and  women 
Salvation  Army 
Of  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  Uke  281-289,  e.g.,  Baptist  Adult  Union  267.186 

22$ 


Decimal  Classification 


Social  and  ecclesiastical  theology 


267.2 
.23 


.24 


.3 

[.309] 


.31 
.32 
,33 
.34 


.35 


.36 


.39 


.4 


.5 


Of  men 

Interdenominational  and  nondenominational 
For  Young  Mens  Christian  Associations,  see  267.3 

Of  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289.  e.g.,  Baptist  societies  267,246 

Young  Men  s  Christian  Associations 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  267.39 

Program  and  objectives 
Buildings  and  equipment 
Organization  and  administration 

StaflE 

Duties,  qualifications,  training 

Departments 

Religious,  educational,  physical,  boys' 

Work  among  special  classes 

Service  to  travelers,  foreign  and  racial  groups,  migrants 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  267.39 

Of  women 

Divide  like  267.2,  e.g..  Baptist  societies  267.446 

For  Young  Women's  Christian  Associations,  see  267.5 

Young  Women  s  Christian  Associations 

Divide  like  267.3,  e.g.,  stafE  267.54 


226 


267.6  Of  young  adults 

.61  Interdenominational  and  nondenominational 

For  Young  Mens  Christian  Associations,  see  267.3;  Young 
Women's  Christian  Associations,  267.5 

613  Young  People's  Society  of  Christian  Endeavor 

.62  Of  specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Methodist  Young  People's  Society 

267.627 

.7  Of  boys 

For  Young  Men's  Christian  Associations,  see  267.3 

.8  Of  girls 

For  Young  Women's  Christian  Associations,  see  267.5 

268  Religious  training  and  instruction 

In  Sunday  schools,  church  schools,  vacation  Bible  schools 
For  religious  instruction  in  nonsectarian  schools,  see  377.1 

^  268.1-268.7  Specific  elements 

,1  Administration 

JZ  Buildings  and  equipment 

.3  Personnel 

.4  Teaching  departments  and  divisions 

Organization,  methods,  records,  niles,  services 

.43  specific  departments  and  divisions 

.432  Children's  division  (Ages  1-12) 

Cradle  roll,  beginners',  primary,  junior  departments 

,433  Young  people's  division 

Intermediate,  senior  departments 

.434  Adult  division 

Men's,  women's  departments 

.435  Home  departments 

227 


Decimal  Classification 


Christian  church  history 


\ 


\ 


268.5 


.6 


.61 


.62 


.63 

.632 
.635 

.67 

.68 

.7 


.8 


269 


J5 


Records  and  rules 

Attendance,  promotion,  prizes,  decorations,  honor  rolls 

Class  records  and  rules  for  specific  departments  and  divisions  in 
268.43 

Methods  of  instruction  and  study 

Scope:  curriculums 

Class  methods  for  specific  age  groups  in  268.43 

Textbooks 

For  catechisms,  see  238  \  .^ 

Textbook  method 

For  textbooks,  see  268,61  •  lu 

Lecture  and  audio-visual  methods 
Lecture  method 
Audio-visual  methods 

Dramatic  method 

Laboratory  methods 

Services 

Order  of  service,  music,  rallies,   anniversaries,  special  days  and 
festivals 

Class  services  for  specific  departments  and  divisions  in  268.43 

Specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Presbyterian  religious  training  and 
instruction  268.85 

For  specific  elements,  see  268.1-268.7 

Organized  spiritual  renewal 
Revivals  and  camp  meetings 

Retreats 

Divide  hke  248.8,  e.g.,  retreats  for  men  269.642 


270 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of 
Christian  church 

Use  270.01-270.08  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  denominations  and  sects,  see  280 


.1 
.2 

.3 

.38 

.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 

.8 

.81 

.82 


271 


270.1-270.8  Historical  periods 
Apostolic  period  to  325 
Period  of  ecumenical  councils,  325-787 
Struggle  between  papacy  and  empire,  787-1054 

Great  schism,  1054 
Period  of  papal  supremacy,  1054-1200 
Late  Middle  Ages  to  Renaissance,  1200-1517 
Reformation  and  Counter-Reformation,  1517-1648 
Peace  of  Westphalia  to  French  Revolution,  1648-1789 

Modem  church,  1789- 
19th  century,  1789-1900 

20th  century,  1900- 


271-273  Special  topics  of  church  history 
Religious  congregations  and  orders 

Use  271.001-271.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  religious  and  monastic  life  [formerly  271]  in  248.894 


228 


271.01- 

-271.09 

Specific  kinds 

.01 

Conteiiiplative 

.02 

Eremitical 

.03 

Teaching 

.04 

Preaching 

.05 

Military 

.06 

Mendicant 

.07 

Nursing 

.08 

Canons  regular 

229 

Decimal  Classification 


271.09 
.092 
.093 
.094 


.1 


.12 

.125 

.13 

.2 

.3 


.36 
.37 

.4 


.5 

.6 

.62 
.64 

.7 

.71 

.73 

.75 

.76 

77 

78 


Brothers,  lay  brothers,  third  orders 
Brothers 
Lay  brothers 
Third  orders 


271.1-271.8  Specific  orders  of  men 


271.1-271.7  Roman  Catholic 

Benedictines 

Including  Celestines,  Cluniacs 

Cistercians  (Bemardines)  r-. 

Trappists 
Olivetans 

Dominicans  ( Friars  Preachers,  Black  Friars ) 

Franciscans  ( Gray  Friars ) 

Including  Observants,  Recollects,  Alcantarinfes 

Capuchins 
Conventuals 

Augustinians 

Including  Augustinian  Recollects 

Jesuits  ( Society  of  Jesus ) 

Fassionists  and  Redemptorists 

Fassionists 
Redemptorists 

Other 

Carthusians 

Carmelites  (White  Friars) 
Sulpicians 
Oblates 
Lazarists 

Christian  Brothers  ( Brothers  of  the  Christian  Schools ) 

230 


271.79 


3 


Christian  church  history 


Otlier  orders 

Including  specific  orders  of  knighthood,  e.g..  Knights  of  Malta 

Non-Roman  Catholic 

Of  women 

Sisterhoods,  convents,  nunneries 

Use  271.900  1  -  271.900  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

.901-.909  Specific  kinds 

Divide  like  271.01-271.09,  e.g.,  contemplative  orders 
[/ormerfi/ 271.96]  271.901 


271.91-271.98  Specific  orders 


.91 


.92 
.93 
.94 
.95 
[.96] 

.97 

.971 

.972 

.973 

.974 

.975 

.976 

.977 

.979 

.98 


271.91-271.97  Roman  Catholic 

Sisters  of  Charity 

Including  Sisters  of  Charity  of  Saint  Vincent  de  Paul 

Sisters  of  Mercy 
Sacred  Heart  orders 
Sisters  of  Bon  Secours 
Little  Sisters  of  the  Poor 
Contemplative  nuns 
Class  in  271.901 

Other 

Carmelites 
Dominicans 

Franciscans  (Poor  Clares) 
Ursulines 
Visitation  orders 
Saint  Joseph  orders 
Presentation  orders 
Other  orders 
Non-Roman  Catholic 

23^ 


Decimal  Classification 


272  Persecutions 

.1  Of  Apostolic  Church  by  imperial  Rome,  lst-4th  centuries 

.2  By  Inquisition 

.3  Of  Waldenses  and  Albigenses,  llth-12th  centuries 

.4  Of  Huguenots 

.5  Of  Molinists  and  Quietists 

^6  Of  Anglican  reformers  by  Mary  I 

.7  Of  Roman  Church  by  Elizabeth  I  and  the  Anglicans 

.8  Of  Quakers,  Baptists,  witches  by  Puritans  and  others 

.9  Other 

273  Heresies 

.1  Gnostic  heresies 

.2  Third-century  heresies 

Including  mystic  heresy 

.23  Manicheism 

.25  Parsee  dualism 

.3  Sabelhan  heresy 

.4  Arian  heresy 

^  Pelagian  heresy 

.6  Antinomian  heresy 

.7  Molinist,  Jansenist,  Pietist  heresies 

.8  Agnostic  heresy 

,9  Other  heresies 


232 


Christian  church  by  place 


274-279  Treatment  by  continent,  country, 
locality 

Class  missions  [formerly  274-279]  in  266 

Class    geographical   treatment   of    a    specific    element    of   the 

Christian  church  with  the  subject 


274 


Europe 

Add  area  notation  4  to  27,  e.g..  Christian  church  in  France  274.4 


275 


Asia 


Add  area  notation  5  to  27,  e.g..  Christian  church  in  Japan  275.2 


276 


277 


278 


279 


Africa 

Add  area  notation  6  to  27,  e.g..  Christian  church  in  South  Africa 
276.8 

North  America 

Add  area  notation  7  to  27,  e.g..  Christian  church  in  Pennsylvania 
277.48 

South  America 

Add  area  notation  8  to  27,  e.g.,  Christian  church  in  Brazil  278.1 

Other  parts  of  world 

Add  area  notation  9  to  27,  e.g..  Christian  church  in  AustraUa  279.4 


233 


Decimal  Classification 


Denomirmtions  and  sects 


280     Denominations  and  sects 

Scope:  general  historical  and  geographical  treatment  of,  comprehensive 
works  on  specific  denominations  and  sects  and  their  individual  local 
churches 

Use  280.01-280.09  for  standard  subdivisions 

(Optional:  specific  elements  of  specific  denominations  and  sects, 
subarranged  as  below;  prefer  230-270) 

To  subarrange  specific  elements,  divide  each  specific  denomination,  sect, 
group  as  follows: 

001-008  Standard  subdivisions 

[009]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  07 
02  Basic  textual  sources 

Class  Bible  in  220 
03-06  Doctrinal  and  practical  theology 

Divide  like  230-260,  e.g.,  the  denomination  and 

world  order  061  87 
07  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  Uke  270,  e.g.,  20th  century  070  82 


[.1] 


.2 

.4 


281 


.1 


.2 


Ecumenicalism 
Class  in  262.001 


280.2-280.4  Branches 

Class  specific  denominations  and  sects  in  281-289 

Catholicism 

Protestantism  [formerly  284] 

Primitive  and  Oriental  churches 


281.1-281.4  Apostolic  Church  to  time  of  great  schism, 

1054 

Scope:  works  of  apostohc  and  church  fathers 

Class  general  history  in  270.1-270.3,  comprehensive  works  in 


281.1 


Comprehensive  works 

For  specific  periods,  see  281.2-281.4 


281.2-281.4  Specific  periods 
Primitive  Apostolic  Church  to  100 

^34 


281.3 

A 


.62 
.63 

.7 

.9 

.909 


.93 


Ante-Nicene  chmrch,  100-325 
Post-Nicene  chm:ch,  325-1054 

Oriental  churches 

For  specific  Oriental  churches,  see  281.6-281.9 


.94-.99 


281.6-281.9  Specific  Oriental  churches 

Monophysite 

Including  Eutychian 

Armenian 
Jacobite 

Coptic  and  Abyssinian 

Nestorian 

Eastern  Orthodox 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
281.94-281.99 

Specific  churches 

Greek,  Russian,  Syrian,  Ukrainian,  other 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
281.94-281.99 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  281.9 


282  Roman  Catholic  Church 


.09 


.4-.9 


Class  Oriental  churches  in  communion  with  Rome  in  281.5-281.8 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  282.4-282.9 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  282 

^35 


i'i 


h. 


Decimal  Classification 


Denominations  and  sects 


283  Anglican  churches 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  283.4-283.9 

.3  Specific  branches 

Including  Reformed  Episcopal  Church  and  its  affiliates 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  283.4-283.9 

.4_.9         Treatment  by  continent,  coimtry,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  283 


284 


Protestant  denominations  of  Continental  origin 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  Protestantism  [formerly  284]  in  280.4 
For  Baptist  churches,  see  286.1-286.5;  Church  of  the  New 
Jerusalem,  289.4;  Mennonites,  289.7  :;  ^ 

.1  Lutheran  churches 

Scope:  Scandinavian  Lutheran  churches  [formerly  284.7] 

.109  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
284.14-284.19 

.13  Specific  churches,  branches,  synods 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  284.14-284.19 

.14-.  19         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  284.1 

Calvinistic  and  Reformed  churches  in  Europe 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
284.24-284.29 

Specific  churches  and  branches 

For  Huguenots,  see  284.5;  treatment  by  continent,  country, 
locality,  284.24-284.29 

,24-.29         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  284.2 


.209 


.23 


284.3 


.5 


.6 


.609 


Hussites  and  Anabaptists 
Albigenses  and  Waldenses 
Huguenots 

Moravians 

For  Hussites,  see  284.3 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locahty  in 
284.64-284.69 


,64_.69  Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  284.6 

[.7  ]  Scandinavian  Lutheran  churches 

Class  in  284.1 

S  Modern  schisms  in  Catholic  Church 

Including  Old  CathoUc,  Gallican  schismatics.  Constitutional 


.84 


Church,  Little  Church  of  France 


Jansenists 


Arminianism  and  Remonstrants 


285  Presbyterian,  American  Reformed,  Congregational 

churches 

Use  285.001-285.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  Presbyterian  churches 


285.1-285.2  Presbyterian  churches 

(If  option  under  280  is  followed,  use  285.000  I  -  285.000  9  for 
standard  subdivisions  of  Presbyterian,  American  Reformed, 
Congregational  churches,  285.001-285.008  for  standard  sub- 
divisions  of  Presbyterian  churches,  285.02-285.07  for  specific 
elements  of  Presbyterian  churches) 


Decimal  Classification 


Denominations  and  sects 


285.1 


United  States  origin 

Scope:  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church  [formerly  285.3],  United 
Presbyterian  Church  of  North  America  [formerly  285.4],  Reformed 
Presbyterian  churches  [formerly  285.5],  other  sects  [formerly 
285.6] 


J09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locahty  in 
285.14-285.19 

.13  Specific  denominations 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  285.14-285.19 

.131  United  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  United  States  of 

America 

.132  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  United  States  of  America 

.133  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  United  States 

.134  United  Presbyterian  Church  of  North  America 

,135  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church 

J  36  Reformed  Presbyterian  churches 

.14-.19         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  285.1 

.2  British  Commonwealth  origin 

.209  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
285.24-285.29 

24-29         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  285.2 

For  United  Church  of  Canada,  see  287.92 


[.3] 


[•4] 


Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church 

Class  in  285.1 

United  Presbyterian  Church  of  North  America 

Class  in  285.1 

238 


[285.5]  Reformed  Presbyterian  churches 

.. .  Class  in  285.1 

[.6]  Other  Presbyterian  sects 

Class  in  285.1 

,7  Reformed  chvirches  in  America 

.709  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
285.74-285.79 

.73  Specific  denominations 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  285.74-285.79 

.731  Christian  Reformed  Church 

,732  Reformed  Church  in  America  (Dutch) 

.733  Reformed  Church  in  the  United  States  (German) 

.734  EvangeHcal  and  Reformed  Church 

.74_.79         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  285.7 

.8  Congregationalism 

.809  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
285.84-285.89 

.83  Specific  denominations 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  285.84-285.89 

.832  Congregational  Churches 

'For  United  Church  of  Canada,  see  287.92 

.833  Congregational  Christian  Churches  ■  - 

For  Christian  Church,  see  286.63 

.834  United  Church  of  Christ  - 

For  Evangelical  and  Reformed  Church,  see  285.734 

239 


h 


Decimal  Classification 


Denominations  and  sects 


285.84-.89 


.9 


Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  285.8,  e.g.,  United  Church  of  Christ 
in  Pennsylvania  285.874  8 

Puritanism 


286  Baptist,  Disciples  of  Christ,  Adventist  churches 

Use  286.001-286.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  Baptist  churches 


u  ^- 


.1 

.109 


.13 


.131 
.132 
.133 
.14-.19 


.2 
.3 
.4 


.5 


286.1-286.5  Baptist  churches 

(If  option  under  280  is  followed,  use  286.000  1  -  286.000  9  for 
standard  subdivisions  of  Baptist,  Disciples  of  Christ,  Adventist 
churches.  286.001-286.008  for  standard  subdivisions  of  Baptist 
churches!  286.02-286.07  for  specific  elements  of  Baptist 
churches ) 

Regular  (Calvinistic)  Baptists 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
286.14-286.19 

Specific  denominations 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see  286.14-286.19 

American  (Northern)  Baptist  Convention 
Southern  Baptist  Convention 
National  ( Negro )  Baptist  Convention 
Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locahty 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  286.1 

Freev>'ill  Baptists 
Seventh-Day  Baptists 
Old  School  Baptists 

Including  Primitive,  Antimission,  Hard-Shell  Baptists 

Other 

Including  Dunkers,  Church  of  the  Brethren 

240 


286.6 

.609 


Disciples  of  Christ  ( Campbellites ) 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 


286.64-286.69 


.63 


.64-.69 


.7 
.709 


73 


.74-79 


287 


•1 

.109 


Specific  denominations 

Including  Christian  Church,  Church  of  Christ 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
286.64-286,69 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  286.6 

Adventists 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
286.74-286.79 

Specific  denominations 

Seventh-Day  Adventists,  Church  of  God  (Adventists),  Advent 
Christian  Church 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
286.74-286.79 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  286.7 

Methodist  churches 

Wesleyan  Methodist  Church 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
287.14-287.19 


i^ 


.14-.19         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  287.1 

.4  Primitive  Methodist  Church 

.409  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 


287.44-287.49 


241 


i 


i 


Decimal  Classificotion 


Denominations  and  sects 


287.44-.49         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  287.4 


.6 

,609 


.63 


The  Methodist  Church 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
287.64-287.69 

Specific  divisions 

For  Methodist  Protestant  Church,  see  287.7;  treatment  by 
continent,  country,  locality,  287.64-287.69 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South 
Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  287.6 

Methodist  Protestant  Church  ; 

Negro  Methodist  churches  in  United  States 

Specific  denominations 

African  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  African  Methodist 
Episcopal  Zion  Church,  Christian  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
287.84-287.89 


.84-.89  Treatment  by  continent,  countiy,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  287.8 


.632 
.633 
.64-.69 


.7 
.8 
JSi 


.92 
.97 


> . 


Other  Methodist  churches 

United  Church  of  Canada 

Other 

Including  Free  Methodist  Church  of  North  America, 
Congregational  Methodist  Church 


288  Unitarianism 

Scope:  Socinianism,  Anti-Trinitarianism 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  288.4-288.9 

.3  Specific  denominations 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  288.4-288.9 

.32  Unitarian  Universalist  Association 

For  Universalist  Church,  see  289.1 

.33  Unitarian  Church 

.4-.9         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  288 

289  Other  denominations  and  sects 


.1 

.109 


Universalist  Church 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 


289.14-289.19 


14-.19  Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.1 

•2  [Permanently  unassigned] 

If  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  a 
specific  denomination  or  sect  not  separately  provided  for,  class  it 
here 


242 


243 


^ 


* 


■ 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Denominations  and  sects 


289.3 
.309 


.32 


.322 


.33 


.34-.39 


.4 

.409 


.44-.49 


.5 

.509 


Latter-Day  Saints  (Mormons) 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty  in 
289.34-289.39 

Sources  (  Sacred  books ) 

Book  of  Mormon 

Specific  branches 

Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day  Saints,  Reorganized 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day  Saints 

For  treatmetvt  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 

289.34-289.39 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.3 

Church  of  the  New  Jerusalem  (Swedenborgianism) 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
289.44-289.49 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.4 

Church  of  Christ,  Scientist  (Christian  Science) 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty  in 
289.54-289.59 


.52 

Sources 

.522 

By  Mary  Baker  Eddy 

.523 

Others 

.54-.59         Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.5 


289.6 

.609 


.63 


.64-.69 


.7 

.709 


.73 


.74-.79 


•9 


Society  of  Friends  ( Quakers ) 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
289.64-289.69 

Specific  branches 

Orthodox  and  Hicksite 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
289.64-289.69 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.6 

Mennonites 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
289.74-289.79 

Specific  branches 

Amish,  Church  of  God  in  Christ,  Defenceless  Mennonites, 
General  Conference  Mennonites,  Hutterian  Brethren 

For  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality,  see 
289.74-289.79 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  289.7  ,  v .' , 

Shakers 

United  Society  of  True  Believers  in  Christ's  Second  Appearing 

Others 

Including  Assemblies  of  God,  Churches  of  God,  Church  of  the 
Nazarene,  Jehovah's  Witnesses,  Pentecostal  Assemblies,  New 
Thought,  United  Brethren,  Unity  School  of  Christianity 

If  desired,  class  a  specific  denomination  or  sect  requiring  local 
emphasis  in  289.2 

For  Salvation  Army,  see  267.15 


244 


^45 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


290  Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 

Scope:  ecclesiastic  laws  [forrmrly  348] 

291  Comparative  religion 

[.012]  Classification 

Do  not  use;  class  in  291.14 

SUMMARY 

291.1  Relationships  and  attitudes  of  religions 

^  Doctrinal  theologies  (Dogmas) 

Ji  Forms  of  worship  and  other  rites  and  ceremonies 

,4  Personal  religion 

.5  Moral  theology 

.6  Leaders  and  organization 

.7  Activities  inspired  by  religious  motives 

.8  Sources 

.9  Sects  and  reform  movements 


•1 

[.12] 


.14 


.17 


.2 

.21 

.211 


< ' 


Relationships  and  attitudes  of  reUgions 

Religious  emotions 
Class  in  200.19 


13  Mythological  foundations 


Constituent  elements,  growth,  changes  in  form  of  rehgious 
myths 

Classification  of  religions 

Polytheistic,  pantheistic,  monotheistic  .^, 

Social  theologies 

Attitude  of  reUgions  toward  and  influence  on  secular  matters 

and  other  religions 

Divide   hke   261,   e.g.,   attitude   of   reUgions   toward   science 

291.175 

Doctrinal  theologies  ( Dogmas ) 
Objects  of  worship  and  veneration 

Attributes  and  functions 

Gods,  goddesses,  other  divinities  and  deities 

Including  animism,  spiritism 
246 


291.212 

.213 

.214 
.215 

.216 
.218 

.22 


.23 


.3 


.32 


.33 
.34 
.35 


.36 

.37 
.38 


Nature 

Sun,  water,  fire,  trees,  sex,  other  natural  phenomena 

Persons 

Ancestors,  the  dead,  monarchs,  heroes,  saints 

Personified  abstractions 
Angels  and  other  good  spirits 
Servants  and  messengers  of  divinity 

Devils,  demons,  other  evil  spirits 

Images  of  divinity  . 

Man  and  his  soul 

Creation,  sin,  salvation,  repentance,  atonement 

Eschatology 

Death,  resurrection.  immortaHty,  other  worlds,  heaven, 
purgatory,  hell,  rewards,  punishments,  reincarnation 

Forms  of  worship  and  other  rites  and  ceremonies 

For  personal  religion,  see  291.4 

Divination 

Omens,  oracles,  prophecies 
Witchcraft 
Offerings,  sacrifices,  penances 

Sacred  places 

Holy  buildings,  temples,  shrines,  pagodas,  grottoes 

Sacred  times 

Liturgic  year,  religious  calendar,  religious  festivals 

Symbolism,  symbolic  objects,  emblems 

Rites  and  ceremonies 

Liturgy,  public  prayer,  public  feasts  and  fasts,  pilgrimages, 
processions 


^ 


I"-:.' 
VI 


K 


i: 


291.4 


.42 


.43 
.44 


J 


.61 


.62 


.63 


.64 


.65 


.7 


Decimal  Classification 


Personal  religion 

Religion  as  an  inner  experience  and  guide  to  daily  living 
For  moral  theology,  see  291.5 

Religious  experience 

Mysticism,  conversion,  asceticism,  self-discipline 

Private  worship,  prayer,  meditation,  contemplation 

Conduct  of  life 

Application  of  religious  virtues  to  everyday  living 

Moral  theology 

Conscience,  sins,  vices,  virtues,  duties 

Leaders  and  organization 


291.61-291.64  Leaders  and  their  v^^ork 

Priests,  ministers,  pastors 

Class  messiahs  [formerly  291.61]  in  291.63 

Men  endowed  with  supernatural  power 

Thaumaturgists,  sorcerers,  magicians,  exorcists 

Divinely  inspired  men 

Messiahs   [formerly  291.61],  founders  of  reUgions   [formerly 
291.64],  prophets 

Interpreters  of  religion 

Writers,  reformers 

Class  founders  of  religions  [formerly  291.64]  in  291.63 
For  priests,  ministers,  pastors,  see  291.61 

Organization  and  organizations 

Institutions,  associations,  orders,  parties,  congregations 
For  laws  and  decisions,  see  291.84 

Activities  inspired  by  religious  motives 

ReUgious  wars,  missions,  religious  training  and  instruction 

248 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


.9 


Sources 

Sacred  books  and  scriptures 
Oral  traditions 
Laws  and  decisions 

Sects  and  reform  movements 

Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  sect  or  reform  movement  with 
the  subject 


292 


292-299  Specific  religions 

Divide  as  below,  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and 
a  shorter  number  to  a  specific  religion,  place  it  first  by  use  of  a 
letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g.,  Hinduism  2H0  (preceding  220). 
or  29H  (preceding  292);  divide  as  provided  under  the  appro- 
priate subdivision  of  292-299,  e.g.,  Shivaism  2H5.13  or  29H.513 

Classical  ( Greek  and  Roman )  religion 

Use  292.001-292.009  for  standard  subdivisions 


292.07-292.08  By  specific  culture 

Class  specific  elements  in  292.1-292.9 


.07 
.08 


Roman 
Greek 


,l-.9         Specific  elements 

Divide  like  291.1-291.9,  e.g.,  classical  gods  and  goddesses  292.211 

i 

293  Germanic  religion 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  eschatology  293.23 

294  Brahmanism  and  related  religions 


.1 

The  Vedas 

.12 

Rigveda 

.13 

Samaveda 

.14 

Yajurveda 

.15 

Atharvaveda 

249 


Decimal  Classification 


294.3-294.4  Heterodox  movements 


294.3 


Buddhism 


[.300  2-.300  8]  Doctrines,  organization,  activities,  sources 

Class  in  294.34-294.38 


[.31] 


[.32] 


.33 


Hinayana  (Southern,  Theravada)  Buddhism 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  294.391;  doctrines,  organization, 
activities,  sources  in  294.34-294.38 

Mahayana  (Northern)  Buddhism 

Class  comprehensive  works  and  sects  and  reform  movements  in 
294.392,  doctrines,  organization,  activities,  sources  in 
294.34-294.38 

Relationships  and  attitudes 

Divide  like  291.1,  e.g.,  attitude  toward  other  religions  294.337  2 


.34 


.35 


.36 


.361-.364 


.365 


.365  7 
.37 


294  34-294.38  Doctrines,  organization,  activities, 
sources  Hormerly  294.300  2  -  294.300  8,  294.31, 294.32] 

Doctrines  and  practices 

Divide  like  291.2-291.4,  e.g.,  liturgy  294.343  8 


Moral  theology 

Conscience,  sins,  vices,  virtues,  duties 

Leaders  and  organization 

Leaders 

Divide  like  291.61-291.64,  e.g.,  the  Buddha  294.363 

Organization  and  organizations 

Including  institutions,  associations,  parties,  congregations 

Monasticism  and  monasteries 

Activities  inspired  by  religious  motives 
Missions,  religious  training  and  instruction 

250 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


294.38  Sources 

.382  Sacred  books  and  scriptures  ( Tripitaka ) 

382  2  Vinayapitaka 

.382  3  Suttapitaka 

382  4  Abhidhammapitaka 

3g3  Oral  traditions 

384  Laws  and  decisions 

.39  Branches 

Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  branch  with  the  subject 

391  Hinayana  ( Southern,  Theravada )  Buddhism 

[/ormerit/ 294.31] 

Mahayana  (Northern)  Buddhism  [formerly  29 A. Z2\ 

Lamaism 
Zen 

Jainism 

Relationships,  doctrines,  organization,  activities,  sources 
Divide  like  291.1-291.8,  e.g.,  moral  theology  294.45 

Sects  and  reform  movements 

Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  sect  or  refomi  movement 
with  the  subject 

,492  Svetambara 

,493  Digambara 

.5  Hinduism 

.51  Relationships  and  attitudes 

Divide  hke  291.1,  e.g.,  attitude  toward  science  294.517  5 

.52  Doctrinal  theology  ( Dogma ) 

,521  Objects  of  worship  and  veneration 

Attributes  and  functions 
Divide  like  291.21,  e.g.,  avatara  294.521  1 


.392 
.392  3 
.392  7 
.4 
.41-.48 


.49 


.522-.523 


Man  and  his  soul,  eschatology 

Divide  like  291.22-291.23,  e.g.,  karma  294.523 
25^ 


I 


294.53 


.54 


.542-.  544 


.548 


.55 


[.552] 

.553 
[.554] 

.555 
.556 


Decimal  Classijication 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


Forms  of  worship  and  other  rites  and  ceremonies 
Divide  like  291.3,  e.g.,  symbolism  in  Hinduism  294.537 
For  personal  religion,  see  294.54 

Personal  religion  and  moral  theology 

Personal  religion 

Hinduism  as  an  inner  experience  and  guide  to  daily  living 
Divide  like  291.42-291.44,  e.g.,  Hindu  asceticism  294.542 

Moral  theology  [formerly  294.598] 
Conscience,  sins,  vices,  virtues,  duties 
Including  dharma 

Sects  and  reform  movements 

Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  sect  or  reform  movement 
with  the  subject 

For  heterodox  movements,  see  294.3-294.4 


.551 

Early 

.5512 

Vishnuism  [formerly  294.554] 

.5513 

Shivaism 

.5514 

Shaktaism 

.5515 

Ganapataism 

.5516 

Shanmukaism 

.5517 

Sauraism 

Brahma  Samaj,  Arya-Samaj 
Class  in  294.556 

Sikhism 

Vishnuism 

Class  in  294.551  2 

Ramakrishna  movement 

Reformed  Hinduism 

Brahma  Samaj,  Arya-Samaj  [both  formerly  294.552] 
252 


294.56-.57         Leaders,  organization,  activities 

Divide  like  291.6-291.7,  e.g.,  gurus  294.561 


.59 

Sources 

.592 

Sacred  books  and  scriptures 

For  the  Vedas,  see  294.1 

.5921 

Upanishads 

.592  2 

Ramayana 

.592  3 

Mahabharata 

For  Bhagavad  Gita,  see  294.592  4 

.592  4 

Bhagavad  Gita 

.592  5 

Puranas 

.592  6 

Dharmasastras 

.593 

Oral  traditions 

.594 

Laws  and  decisions 

[.598] 

Moral  theology 

Class  in  294.548 

295 


Zoroastrianism  ( Mazdaism,  Parseeism ) 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  virtues  295.5 


296  Judaism 


.1 


SUMMARY 

296.1  Sources 

.3  Doctrinal,  moral,  social  theology 

.4  Public  services,  rites,  traditions 

.6  Leaders,  organization,  activities 

,7  Personal  and  family  religion 

.8  Sects  and  movements 


Sources 

For  Old  Testament,  see  221 


253 


296.12 


296.120  4 
.120  5 


.120  6 


,120  7 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


Talmudic  literature 

Use  296.120  01  -  296.120  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


296.120  4  -  296.120  7  General  considerations 


296.120  4-296.120  5  Texts 

Scope:  textual  criticism 

For  commentaries,  see  296.120  7 

Hebrew  and  Aramaic 

Translations 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  English  translations  296.120  52 

Intei-pretation  and  higher  criticism 

Divide  like  220.6,  e.g.,  hermeneutics  296.120  63 
For  commentaries,  see  296.120  7 

Commentaries 

Criticism  and  interpretation  arranged  in  textual  order 


296.123-296.129  Specific  works 

Add  0  to  each   subdivision   identiBed  by   *    and   divide  like 
296.120  4-  296.120  7,  e.g.,  commentaries  on  Mishnah 
296.123  07 


123 

*Mishnah 

124 

♦Palestinian  Taliimd 

125 

♦Babylonian  Talmud 

126 

Tosefta  and  Baraita 

126  2 

•Tosefta 

.126  3 

*Baraita 

.129 

Other  Talmudic  texts 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  296.123-296.129 


296.14 


.140  4-.140  7 


.141 


.31 

.311 
.315 

.316 
.32 


Midrash 

Use  296.140  01  -  296.140  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

General  considerations 

Divide  like  296.120  4  -  296.120  7.  e.g.,  Hebrew  and 
Aramaic  texts  296.140  4 


v4 
n 


296.141-296.142  Specific  works 

Add  0  to  each  subdivision  identified  by  •  and  divide  like 
296.120  4-296.120  7,  e.g.,  criticism  and  interpretation  of  Hag- 
gadah  296.142  06 

•Halakah 


.142 

•Haggadah 

.16 

Cabala 

.17 

Early  rabbinical  writings  to  1400 

.172 

Maiinonides 

.179 

Responsa 

.18 

Laws  and  decisions 

Scope:  later  Halakah 

.182 

Joseph  Caro 

.19 

Later  Haggadah 

.3 

Doctrinal,  moral,  social  theology 

296.31-296.33  Doctrinal  theology  (Dogma) 

Spiritual  world 

Attributes  and  functions 

God 

Angels 

Devils  and  demons 

Man  and  his  soul 

Creation,  sin,  salvation,  repentance,  atonement 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  296.141-296.142 

255 


254 


Decirnal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


296.33 


.38 
.385 


.387 


.4 


.41 
.42 


.43 


.431 
.432 
.433 

.435 
.436 
.437 


.438 
.439 


Eschatology 

Death,  resurrection,  immortality,  messianism 

Moral  and  social  theology 

Moral  theology 

Conscience,  sins,  vices,  virtues,  duties 

Social  theology 

Attitude  toward  and  influence  on  secular  matters 
Divide  like  261,  e.g.,  attitude  toward  science  296.387  5 

Public  services,  rites,  traditions 

Scope:  liturgy,  hymns,  prayer,  responsive  reading,  symbolism, 
ceremonies,  comprehensive  works  on  public  and  private  worship 
and  prayer 

For  personal  and  family  religion,  see  296.7 

Sabbath 

Sermons  and  homiletics 

Class  sermons  on  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 

Festivals,  holy  days,  fasts 
For  Sabbath,  see  296.41 

RoshHashanah  (New  Year) 
Yom  Kippur  ( Day  of  Atonement ) 
Sukkoth  ( Feast  of  Tabernacles ) 
Hanukkah  (Feast  of  the  Dedication) 
Purim  ( Feast  of  Lots ) 
Pesach  (Passover) 
Including  Seder  service 

Shabuoth  ( Feast  of  Weeks,  Pentecost) 

Other 

Including  Tishah  b'Ab,  Lag  b'Omer 


296.44 
.442 
.442  2 
.442  3 
.442  4 
.443 
.444 
.445 

.6 

.61 
.65 
.67 


.673 
.675 
.68 


.7 


.71 


.72 


.73 

.74 


Rites  and  customs  for  specific  occasions 
Special  rites  for  male  Jew 

Berithmilah  (Circumcision) 

Pidyon  haben  (Redemption  of  first-born  male) 

Bar  mitzvah 
Bathmitzvah 

Marriage  and  divorce  rites  and  traditions 
Burial  and  mourning  rites  and  traditions 

Leaders,  organization,  activities 
Leaders 

Synagogues 

Organization  and  organizations 
Institutions,  associations,  polity 

Young  Men's  Hebrew  Associations 
Young  Women's  Hebrew  Associations 

Religious  education 

Sunday  schools,  afternoon  weekday  schools,  parochial  schools 

Personal  and  family  religion 

For  moral  theology,  see  296.385 


Religious  experience 

Mysticism,  conversion,  asceticism,  self-discipUne 

Daily  devotions  and  worship 

Morning,  afternoon,  evening  prayers,  blessings  at  meals, 
meditation,  contemplation 

Observance  of  dietary  laws 

Conduct  of  life 

Application  of  rehgious  virtues  to  everyday  life 
For  observance  of  dietary  laws,  see  296.73 


r 
1^  > 


256 


^S7 


»  I 
t\ 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


296.8 


.81 


Sects  and  movements 

Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  sect  or  movement  with  the 
subject 

Ancient 

Karaites,  Pharisees,  Sadducees,  Essenes,  Samaritans,  Hellenistic 
movement,  Qumran  community 


.82 

Medieval 

Including  Sabbatianism 

.83 

Modern 

.832 

Orthodox  Judaism 

.833 

Mystical  Judaism 

Including  modem  Hasidisui 

.834 

Reform  movements 

.834  2 

Conservative  Judaism 

.834  4 

Reconstructionist  Judaism 

.834  6 

Reform  Judaism 

297  Islam  and  religions  derived  from  it 

Use  297.001-297.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
.0I-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  Islam 


297.1 
.2 
.3 

.4 
,5 
.6 

.7 
.8 


SUMMARY 

SouTces,  relationships,  attitudes  of  Islam 

Islamic  doctrinal  theology  ( Aqaid  and  Kalam) 

Islamic  forms  of  worship  and  other  rites  and 

ceremonies 

Personal  religion  in  Islam 

Islamic  moral  theology 

Islamic  leaders  and  organization 

Islamic  activities 

Islamic  sects  and  other  religions 


.1 


Sources,  relationships,  attitudes  of  Islam 


297.12 
.122 


.122  1 


.122  4 
.122  5 


.122  6 


.122  7 

.122  8 
,122  9 


297.12-297.14  Sources 
Sacred  books  and  scriptures 
Koran 


297.122  1  -  297.122  8  General  principles 
Origins  and  authenticity 


297.122  4-297.122  5  Texts 

Scope:  textual  criticism 

For  commentaries,  see  297.122  7 

Arabic 

Translations 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  Urdu  translations 

297.122  591439 

Interpretation  and  higher  criticism 

Divide  Uke  220.6,  e.g.,  historical  criticism  297.122  67 
For  commentaries,  see  297.122  7 

Conmientaries 

Criticism  and  interpretation  arranged  in  textual  order 

Special  subjects  treated  in  Koran 
Individual  suras  and  groups  of  suras 

Origins,  authenticity,  texts,  criticism,  interpretation, 

commentaries,  special  subjects 


.124  Hadith 

.124  01-.124  08  General  principles 

Divide  hke  297.122  1  -  297.122  8,  e.g.,  origins 

297.124  01 


297.124  1  -  297.124  8  Specific  Hadith 

Add  0  to  each  subdivision  identified  by  »  and  divide  like 
297.122  1  -  297.122  8,  e.g.,  Arabic  text  of  Hadith  of  Al-Bukhari 
297.124  104 


2S8 


!^59 


pi 

hi 


.14 


.19 
.197 


21 

.211 
.215 
.216 
.22 


.23 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


297.124  1 

*A1-Bukhari 

.124  2 

*Abu  Daud 

.124  3 

•Muslim 

.124  4 

•Al-Tirmidhi 

.124  5 

*A1-Nasai 

.124  6 

•Ibn  Majah 

.124  7 

Other  Sunni  Hadith 

.124  8 

Hadiths  of  other  sects 

.13 

Oral  traditions 

For  Hadith,  see  297 A2A 

I- :■:■::. 


Laws  and  decisions  (Fiqh) 
Religious  and  ceremonial 
Class  Islamic  law  on  other  subjects  in  340 

Relationships  and  attitudes 

Social  theology 

Attitude  toward  and  influence  on  secular  matters  and  other 

religions 

Divide  like  261,  e.g.,  attitude  toward  Judaism  297.197  296 

Islamic  doctrinal  theology  ( Aqaid  and  Kalam ) 

For  Koran,  see  297.122;  Mohammad  the  Prophet,  297.63 

Spiritual  world 

Attributes  and  functions 

God 

,■-'■ '  i 

Angels 

Devils  and  demons 

Man 

Creation,  fall,  sin,  salvation,  grace,  faith,  repentance, 
intercession 

Eschatology 

Death,  intermediate  state,  resurrection,  day  of  judgment,  future 
life,  eternity,  heaven,  hell 


•  Divide  as  instructed  under  297.124  1  -  297.124  8 

^6o 


297.3 


Islamic  forms  of  worship  and  other  rites  and  ceremonies 

For  personal  religion,  see  297.4 


.301-.303  Specific  sects 

Divide  like  297.81-297.83,  e.g.,  Sunni  rites  297.301 


.32 

Divination 

Omens,  oracles,  prophecies 

.33 

Witchcraft 

.35 

Sacred  places 

Mecca,  Medina,  Jerusalem 

.36 

Sacred  times 

.38 

Rites  and  ceremonies 

A 


.51 

.52 
.53 
.54 
.55 


.61 


Public  prayer,  public  feasts  and  fasts,  pilgrimages 

Personal  religion  in  Islam 

Rehgion  as  an  inner  experience  and  guide  to  daUy  Hving 
Divide  like  291.4,  e.g.,  conduct  of  life  297.44 
For  moral  theology,  see  297. S 

Islamic  moral  theology 

Conscience,  sins,  vices,  virtues,  duties 
For  Jihad  (holy  tear),  see  297.72 

Profession  of  faith 
Prayer  five  times  daily 
Fasting 

Almsgiving  (Zakat) 
Pilgrimage  to  Mecca 

Islamic  leaders  and  organization 


297.61-297.64  Leaders  and  their  work 

Functionaries 

Muezzins  and  imams 

261 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  religions  and  comparative  religion 


297.63 
.64 
.65 


.7 

72 
Ji 


Mohammed  the  Prophet 
Mohammed's  family  and  companions 
Organization  and  organizations 

Institutions,  associations,  orders,  parties,  congregations 

Including  caliphate 

For  laws  and  decisions,  see  297.14 

Islamic  activities 

Including  missions,  religious  training  and  instruction 

Jihad  (Holy  war) 
Islamic  sects  and  other  religions 


297.81-297.85  Sects  and  reform  movements 
Class  a  specific  aspect  of  a  specific  sect  or  reform  movement 
with  the  subject 

For  Sikhism,  see  294.553 


.81 

Suimites 

.811 

Hanafites 

.812 

Shafiites 

.813 

Malikites 

.814 

Hanbalites 

Including  Wahhabis 

.82 

Shiites 

.821 

Twelvers  (Ithna  Ashirites) 

.822 

Seveners  (Ismailites) 

.824 

Zaydites 

.83 

Other 

.835 

Kadarites 

.837 

Miirjiites 

.85 

Druzes 

297.87 
.88 
.89 


298 


297.87-297.89  ReHgions  derived  from  Islam 
Religion  of  Black  Muslims 
Babism  [formerly  297.89] 

Bahai  faith 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  duties  297.895 
Class  Babism  [formerly  297.89]  in  297.88 

[Permanently  unassigned] 

If  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and  a  shorter  number  to  a 
specific  religion,  class  it  here 


299  Other  religions 

A-A  Of  Indo-European,  Semitic,  Hamitic,  Ural-Altaic  origin 

Divide  like  491-494,  e.g.,  Druidism  299.16 


.51 
.512 

,514 

.54 
.56 
.561 

.57-.59 


.6 

.7 
.8 
.9 


262 


Of  East  and  Southeast  Asian  origin 
Chinese 

Confucianism 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  virtues  299.512  5 

Taoism 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  forms  of  worship  299.514  3 

Tibeto-Burman 

Japanese 

Shintoism 

Divide  like  291,  e.g.,  shrines  299.561  35 

Other 

Divide  like  495.7-495.9,  e.g.,  religions  of  Burmese  origin  299.58 

Of  African  and  Negro  origin 

For  religion  of  Black  Muslims,  see  297.87 

Of  North  American  Indian  origin 
Of  South  American  Indian  origin 
Of  Austronesian  and  Oceanic  origin 

263 


The  social  sciences 


300 


300  The  social  sciences 


The  sciences  that  deal  with  social  activities  and  institutions 

Use  300.1-300.9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  social,  political,  economic,  diplomatic,  welfare  aspects  of  a  specific 

war  with  history  of  the  war 


^  301-309  General  considerations 

301  Sociology 

The  science  that  deals  comprehensively  with  social  activities  and 
institutions 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions 

SUMMARY 

301.1  Social  psychology 

.2  Cultural  processes 

.3  Human  ecology 

.4  Institutions  and  groups 

.5  Sociology  of  everyday  activities  and  preoccupations 


.1 


.15 
.152 


.152  2 
.152  3 

.153 


Social  psychology 

Interaction  between  personality,  attitudes,  motivation  of 
individuals  and  stiructure,  dynamics,  behavior  of  groups 

Group  behavior  i'  , 

For  stability 

Social  control  by  coercion,  persuasion,  custom,  taboo 

Group  morale  and  loyalty 
Control  of  opinion 

By  public  relations,  pubhcity,  indoctrination,  rumor 


For  change  (Social  movements) 

264 


V. 


301.154 

.155 
[.158] 

.16 


.18 
.181 
.182 
.183 

1 

.185 
.186 

2 


[.209] 


24 


.245 
.246 


H. 


In  opinion  formation 

Uses,  measurement,  effect  of  public  opinion 

For  leadership 

Behavior  groups 
Class  in  301.18 

Mass  communication  processes 

Including  comprehensive  works  on  mass  communication 
[formerly  384] 

For  control  of  opinion,  see  301.152  3;  effects  of  mass 
communication  on  cultural  processes,  301.24 

Behavior  groups  [former Jj/ 301.158] 
The  pubUc  at  large 
Crowds  and  mobs 
Associations  and  meetings 
Formation,  structme,  workings 

Cliques  and  gangs 

Pressure  groups  [formerly  301.43] 


Cultural  processes 

Conflict,  compromise,  assimilation,  acculturation,  cooperation, 
communication,  others 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  301.29 

Means  and  kinds 

Including  effects  of  invention,  discovery,  war,  technology, 
automation,  mass  communication 


301.245-301.246  Kinds 


Progress 
Regress 


265 


Decimal  Classification 


The  social  sciences 


301.29 


.32 


.320  212 


[.320  9] 


.329 


.34 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  301.29.  e.g.,  cultural  processes  of  the 
Occident  301.291  821;  then,  for  cultural  processes  and  general 
relations  between  two  countries,  regions,  areas,  places,  groups, 
add  0  and  again  add  area  notations  1-9,  e.g.,  cultural  processes 
and  general  relations  between  Occident  and  Orient 
301.291  821  05 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  country,  region,  area,  place, 
group  requiring  local  emphasis,  e.g.,  libraries  in  United  States 
class  culhiral  processes  and  general  relations  between  United 
States  and  Islamic  world  in  301.297  301  767.  If  the  ^o  require 
equal  emphasis,  give  priority  to  the  one  coming  first  m  the 
sequence  of  area  notations 
Class  cultural  situation  and  progress  in  901.9 

Human  ecology 

Adaptation  to  spatial  and  temporal  environment 

Population 

Density,  increase,  decrease,  movement,  characteristics 
Including  migration  within  a  country  [formerly  325.1] 

Tables,  formulas,  specifications 
Class  statistical  tables  in  312 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  301.329 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  301.329 

Community  organization  and  development 

Areal  distribution,  location,  expansion,  pattern  of  growth 

For  planning  social  conditions,  see  309.2;  kinds  of 
communities,  301.35-301.37 


301.35-301.37  Kinds  of  communities 

.35 

Rural 

.36 

Suburban  and  urban 

.362 

Suburban 

.364 

Urban 

Si66 

301.37 

State,  provincial,  national 

.372 

State  and  provincial 

.377 

National 

.4 


Institutions  and  groups 

Social  characteristics  and  problems,  impact  on  society  as  a  whole 
Use  301.400  1  -  301.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  behavior  groups,  see  301.18 


.402 

Small  groups 

.403 

Large  groups 

.404 

Informal  organizations 

.405 

Formal  organizations 

.406 

Institutionalisui 

SUMMARY 

301.41           The  sexes 

.42            Marriage  and  family 
.43            Groups  of  specific  ages 

.44            Systems    and    criteria    of    social    distinction    and 
stratification 

.45            Nondominant  groups 

.47            Groups    of    persons    with    physical    and    mental 
illnesses  and  handicaps 

.41 

The  sexes  [formerly  301.424; 

.411 

Man 

.412 

Woman  [formerly  also  396] 

Scope:  feminism,  superiority 

.412  1 

Emancipation 

,412  2 

Careers 

.412  6 

In  the  home 

.412  9 

In  history,  public  afiFairs,  war 

.413 

Celibacy 

.414 

Courtship  [/orm^rij/ 301.425] 

Including  preparation  for  marriage  [formerly  301.426] 

267 

A' 


301.415 


.42 

.421 

.422 


.423 


[.424] 


[.424  3] 


[.425] 


.426 


.427 


.428 


.428  4 
.428  5 


Decimal  Classification 


The  social  sciences 


Sex  life  outside  marriage  ; 

Concubinage,    premarital    relations,    adultery,    prostitution, 
homosexuality  and  other  perversions 

Marriage  and  family 

Structure  and  functions  of  family 

Nature  and  forms  of  marriage 

Monogamy,  polygamy,  polyandry;  interracial,  intercultural, 
interreligious  marriage;  marriage  between  kin 

Family  and  social  change 

Including   effects    upon   family    of    urbanization,    mobility, 
technology,  industrialization,  war 

The  sexes 

Class  in  301.41 

Regulation  and  control  of  prostitution 
Class  in  350.764 

Courtship 

Class  in  301.414 

Husband-wife  relationship 
Including  planned  parenthood 

Class  preparation  for  marriage  in  301.414,  marriage  and 
family  counseling  in  362.82  [both  formerly  301.426]    ^ 


Intrafamily  relationships 

Including  mutual  responsibilities 

For  husband-wife  relationship,  see  301.426 

Family  disorganization,  dissolution,  adjustment 
Including  death,  separation 


„  ■'.  r 


b  riv-. 


Divorce 
Remarriage 


V 


301.43 


.44 


.441 


.442 
.443 
.444 
.445 
.446 
.447 
,448 

.45 


.451 


Groups  of  specific  ages 

Class  pressure  groups  [formerly  301.43]  in  301.186 


.431 

Minors 

.4314 

Children 

Thru  age  eleven 

.4315 

Adolescents 

Ages  twelve  to  twenty 

.434 

Middle-aged 

.435 

Aged  (Social gerontology) 

Including  retirement 

z68 


Systems  and  criteria  of  social  distinction  and 
stratification 

By  economic  status 

Wealth,  property,  income 

Including  entrepreneur,  self-employed,  wage-earning  status 
For  systems  and  criteria  by  occupation,  see  301.444 

By  family  and  kinship 

By  location  and  duration  of  residence 

By  occupation 

By  amount  of  education 

By  rehgion 

By  race 

By  language 

Nondominant  groups 

Scope:    prejudice,    discrimination,    segregation,    desegregation, 
integration;  refugees  and  displaced  persons 

Ethnic 

Indigenous  and  nonindigenous 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  Negroes  301.451  96;  then  add  0 
and  add  area  notations  1-9,  e.g.,  Negroes  in  South  Africa 
301.451960  68 

269 


Decimal  Classification 


The  social  sciences 


'i 


v 


L-'t 


301.452 
.452  1 
.452  2 

.452  3 


Socioeconomic  and  religious 

Distinctive  because  of  cultural  practices 
Distinctive  because  of  condition  of  servitude 

Slavery  [formerly  326],  serfdom  [formerly  323.34] 
Distinctive  because  of  lovir  economic  status 

For  groups  distinctive  because  of  condUion  of  servitude, 
see  301.452  2 


301.452  8  -  301.452  9  Distinctive  because  of  religious  beliefs 
,452  8  Christians 

.452  81-.452  89  Specific  denominations  and  sects 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Mennonites  in  Ohio 
301.452  897  771 


.452  9 


.453 


.47 


.52 
.53 

.54 

.55 
.56 


Communicants  of  other  reUgions 

Divide  hke  292-299,  e.g.,  Moslems  301.452  97;  then  add 
0  and  add  area  notations  1-9,  e.g.,  Moslems  m  India 
301.452  970  54 

Of  specific  national  origin 

Add  area  notations  3-9  for  country  of  origin  to  301.453  e.g. 
groups  from  Switzerland  301.453  494;  then  add  0  and  add 
area  notations  1-9  for  place  where  located,  e.g.,  groups  from 
Switzerland  in  United  States  301.453  494  073 
For  et/inic  groups,  see  301.451 

Groups  of  persons  with  physical  and  mental  iUnesses  and 
handicaps 

Divide  like  616-617,  e.g.,  alcoholics  301.476  861 

Sociology  of  everyday  activities  and  preoccupations 

Social  characteristics  and  problems,  impact  on  society 

Securing  food 

Securing  clothing 

Securing  shelter  ( Housing  [formerly  33 1 .833  ] ) 

Working 


Securing  education 


301.57 

Enjoying  leisure  and  recreation 

.58 

Worshiping 

302 

303 

304 

305 

306 

307 

308 

309 

Social  situation  and  conditions 

[.09] 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  309.1 


.1  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

.101-.104  Historical  periods 

Divide  like  standard  subdivisions  090  1  -  090  4,  e.g.,  social 
situation  in  year  1000  309.102  1 

.11-.19  Geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  309.1 

4  Planning 

Development    of   programs    to    bring    about    desired    change    in 
conditions 

.22  International 

.223  Technical  assistance 

.223  5  Peace  corps 

.223  54-.223  59  By  country  of  origin 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  301.213  5 


.23 

.25 
.26 


270 


National 

State,  provincial,  county 

City 

271 


Decimal  Classification 


Statistical  method  and  statistics 


310-390  Specific  social  sciences 

The   sciences    that   deal   with   specific   social    activities    and 


institutions 


310     Statistical  method  and  statistics 

Use  310.01-310.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1-.9 


311 


.01 


.2 


[.206] 


Standard  subdivisions  of  statistics 

Class  general  statistics  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world  in  314-319 

Statistical  method 

Science  of  analysis  and  presentation  of  quantitative  or  quaUtative 
data  secured  thru  enumeration  or  experiment 

Class  mathematical  calculations  in  519.6-519.9,   statistical  method 
applied  to  a  specific  subject  in  standard  subdivision  018  2 

Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  311^ 

Preparation  of  statistics 

Scope:  principles  and  theories 

Organizations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  311.3-311.4 


21 


.212 
.214 


311.21-311.26  Specific  elements 

SampUng 

Scope:  reliabihty  and  vaUdity 

Random  sampling 
Quality  control 

Including  relative  sampling 


.22 


311.22-311.24  Treatment  of  data 
For  graphic  presentation  of  data,  see  311.26 

Collection 

Questionnaires,  field  work,  enumeration 

272 


311.23 


.24 


.25 


.26 


28 


3 

.31 

.39 


.4 


•1 


.22 


Analysis 

Including  determination  and  interpretation  of  statistical 
constants 

Tabulation 

Arrangement,  layout,  construction  of  tables  and  series 

Coefiicients  and  ratios 

Including  index  numbers,  skewness,  correlation 

Graphic  presentation  of  data 
Charts,  graphs,  nomograms 

Public  opinion  surveys  and  polls 

For  specific  elements  of  preparation,  see  311.21-311.26 


311.3-311.4  Organizations  preparing  statistics 

Official 

International 

In  specific  countries  and  localities 
Add  area  notations  3-9  to  311.39 

Nonofficial 


^  312-319  Statistics 

Class  statistics  of  a  specific  subject  other  than  populations  with 
the  subject 

312  Statistics  of  populations  (Demography) 


312.1-312.4  Vital  statistics 

On  births 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  312.1 

On  deaths  (Mortality) 

Maternal  deaths  in  childbirth 

^73 


-■ « 
M 


312.23 


.24 
.26 


27 


A 


J9 


Decimal  Classification 


Statistical  method  and  statistics 


Infant  deaths 

Statistics   of   deaths   of  persons   after  live   birth   and  before 

attaining  age  of  one  year 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  312.23 

Stillbirths 

Deaths  caused  by  disease 

Divide  like  616.1-616.9,  e.g.,  statistics  of  deaths  by  pulmonary 

tuberculosis  312.262  46 

For  infant  deaths,  see  31223 

Deaths  caused  by  accidents  and  crimes  of  violence 
For  infant  deaths,  see  312.23 


312.272-312.275  By  accidents 

.272 

Home 

.273 

Industrial 

.274 

Traffic 

.275 

Recreational 

.276 

By  crimes  of  violence 

Deaths  by  homicide  and  suicide 

On  illness  ( Morbidity ) 

Divide  like  616.1-616.9,  e.g.,  statistics  on  incidence  of  measles 
312.391  5 
On  accidents  and  crimes  of  violence 

Divide  like  312.27,  e.g.,  statistics  on  incidence  of  traffic  accidents 
312.44 

On  marriage  and  divorce 

On  physical  features  and  measurements  ( Somatology ) 
On  density,  increase,  decrease,  movement  of  populations 
On  other  specific  characteristics  of  populations 

Age,  sex,  nationaUty,  race,  language,  religion,  education, 
occupation 


313 


314 


315 


316 


317 


318 


319 


314-319  General  statistics  by  continent, 
country,  locality  in  modem  world 

Europe 

Add  area  notation  4  to  31.  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  England  314.2 

Asia 

Add  area  notation  5  to  31,  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  Japan  315.2 

Africa 

Add  area  notation  6  to  31,  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  Tanganyika 
316.782 

North  America 

Add  area  notation  7  to  31,  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  British  Columbia 
317.11 

South  America 

Add  area  notation  8  to  31,  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  Buenos  Aires 
318.21 

Other  parts  of  world 

Add  area  notation  9  to  31,  e.g.,  general  statistics  of  Australia  319.4 


274 


275 


Decimal  Classification 


Political  science 


320     Political  science 

The  science  that  deals  with  the  institutions  and  processes  of 
governmental  regulation  and  control  of  men  living  in  society 

For  public  administration,  see  350;  law,  340 

.01  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  political  theories  and  ideologies  in  320.5 

.02-.09  Other  standard  subdivisions 

.1  The  state  ( The  body  politic ) 

.11  Theory  of  origin 

Source  and  basis  of  political  authority 


.12 

Geopolitics 

Class  geopohtics  in  international  relations  m  327 

.13 

National  self-determination 

.15 

Nature,  entity,  concept  of  the  state 

.155 

Emerging  states  (New  states) 

.157 

Internal  sovereignty 

^158 

NationaUsm  and  unity 

.159 

'Tan"  movements 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  320.159 

.18 

Symbolism  and  emblems  of  state 

.3 

Comparative  government 

Comparison  of  general  structure  of  governments 

.5 

Political  theories  and  ideologies 

,51 

Liberalism 

.52 

Conservatism 

.53 

Collectivism 

.531 

Socialism 

.532 

Communism 

.533 

Fascism 

^ 

Political  situation  and  conditions 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  320.9 

Z76 


321 


Types  and  forms  of  states 

Use  321.001-321.009  for  standard  subdivisions 


.01 


321.01-321.08  Forms 

Based  on  location  of  sovereignty  in  government 

Unitary  state 

state  in  which  control  over  policy  is  centralized  in  national 
government 

Federal  state  ( Federalism ) 

state  in  which  local  units  have  stated  powers  of  which  they 
may  not  be  deprived  by  action  of  central  government  alone 

For  world  state,  see  321.04 


[.025-.028]         Semisovereign  and  dependent  states 

Class  in  321.08 


.02 


.03 

Empires 

.04 

World  state 

.07 

Ideal  state 

.08 


.09 


A 

.12 

.14 


Anarchy  [formerly  321.9],  Utopias 

States  with  special  limitations 

Including  semisovereign  and  dependent  states  [formerly 
321.025-321.028] 

Change  of  form  of  state 


321.1-321.9  Types 

Based  on  evolution  of  government 

Primitive  and  despotic  states 

Primitive 

Including  tribal  state  [formerly  321.2] 

Despotic 

Before  ISOOa.d. 

Including  Caesarism  [formerly  321.6] 

277 


Decimal  Classification 


Political  science 


[321.2] 

.3 
.4 
.5 


.6 


.7 

72 
74 
A 
J 


.92 
.94 


322 


.4 


Tribal  state 

Class  in  321.12 
Feudal  system 
Pure  democracy  (Greco-Roman  republicanism) 

States  controlled  by  select  few 

Aristocracy,  oligarchy,  theocracy,  plutocracy 


321.6-321.9  Modem  nation  states 

Monarchical  absolutism 

16th-18th  centuries 

Class  totalitarian  states  in  321.9,  Caesarism  in  321.14  [both 

formerly  321.6] 

Modem  constitutionalism 

For  representative  democracy,  see  321.8 

Constitutional  or  limited  monarchy 

Socialistic  state 
Representative  democracy 
Totalitarian  states  [formerly  32 1 .6] 

Class  anarchy  as  a  type  of  state  [formerly  321.9]  in  321.07 

Bolshevik 
Fascist 

Relation  of  state  to  organized  groups 

For  political  parties,  see  329.02;  relation  of  state  to  communities, 
323.35;  relation  of  government  to  education,  379 

Christian  church  and  other  reUgious  bodies   (State  and 
church) 

Labor  movements  and  groups 
Business  and  industry 
Protest  and  pressure  groups 
Including  reform  movements 

For  relation  of  state  to  revolutionary  and  subversive  groups,  see 
323.2 

278 


323 


.1 

.109 


Relation  of  state  to  individuals  and  groups 

For  relation  of  state  to  organized  groups,  see  322 

SUMMARY 

323.1  Nondominant  groups  ^ 

.2!  Revolutionary    and    subversive    groups    and    mdi- 

viduals 
3  Communities  and  social  classes 

,4  Individuals 

^  Political  rights 

jS  Citizenship 

Nondominant  groups 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

'  V  Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 

323.13-323.19 


.11 

.111 

.112^.119 


12 


.13-.19 


.2 


323.11-323.12  Specific  groups 
For  slaves,  serfs,  see  323.3 

Socioeconomic,  religious,  ethnic 
Socioeconomic  and  religious 

Ethnic 
'  Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  relation  of  state  to  Negroes 

323.119  6;  then  add  0  and  add  area  notations  1-9,  e.g., 
relation  of  state  to  Negroes  in  United  States  323.119  607  3 

Of  specific  national  origin 

Add  area  notations  3-9  for  country  of  origin  to  323.12,  e.g., 
relation  of  state  to  groups  from  Ireland  323.124  15;  then  add  0 
and  add  area  notations  1-9  for  place  where  located,  e.g., 
relation  of  state  to  groups  from  Ireland  in  United  States 
323.124  150  73 

For  ethnic  groups,  see  323.112-323.119 

Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 
Add  area  notations  3-9  to  323.1 

For  specific  groups,  see  323.11-323.12  i 

Revolutionary  and  subversive  groups  and  individuals 

OrganizetJ  and  unorganized  groups 

279 


Decimal  Classification 


323.3 


.35 


.4 

.42 
.43 
.44 


Communities  and  social  classes 

Including  slaves  [formerly  326],  serfs 

Class  sociology  of  serfdom  [formerly  323.34]  in  301.452  2 

Communities 

Divide  like  area  notation  173,  e.g.,  urban  communities  323.352 

Civil  rights 

Equality  before  the  law 
Rights  of  personal  security 
Personal  liberty  and  freedom  of  press 
Including  freedom  of  action  and  movement 

For  right  of  assembly  and  association,  see  323.47 


.442 

Freedom  of  conscience 

and  religion 

.443 

Freedom  of  speech 

.445 

Freedom  of  press 

.46 

Right  of  private  property 

A7 

Right  of  assembly  and  association 

.48 

Right  of  petition 

.49 

Limitation  and  suspension 
guarantees 

L  of  individual  rights  and 

^ 

Political  rights 

Including  representation 
For  suffrage,  see  324 

.6 

Citizenship 

[.61] 

Laws 

Class  in  340 

.62 

Naturalization 

.63 

Nationality 

.631 

Aliens 

' 

.632 


Including  rights  and  protection  [formerly  323.67] 

Statelessness  [formerly  323.64] 

280 


Political  science 


323.634  Dual  nationality 

^636  Marriage  and  nationaUty 

.64  Expatriation  and  repatriation 

Class  statelessness  [formerly  323.64]  in  323.632 

.65  Duties  and  obligations  of  citizens 

j^  Passports  and  visas 

Class  rights  and  protection  of  aliens    [formerly   323.67]    in 
323.631 

324  Suffrage 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem  world 
in  324.4-324.9 


.1 

Qualifications  for  voting 

.2 

Elections 

.2021 

Election  returns 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  324.202  1 

.21 

Electoral  systems 

.22 

Basis  of  representation 

.23 


.24 


.241 

.242 
.25 


For  representation  in  legishtive  bodies,  see  328.334 

Nomination  systems 

For  nominations  of  party  candidates,  see  329.022 

Voting 

Including  voting  machines  [formerly  32425] 

Voter  registration 

Voting  procedm-es 

Ballot  systems 

Class  voting  machines  [formerly  324.25]  in  32424 


281 


Decimal  Classification 


Political  science 


324.27 
.271 
.273 


.277 

.3 

.4-.9 


Corruption  and  irregularities  in  elections 

Electoral  frauds  ^ 

Irregular  contributions  and  expenditures  ' 

Class  political  contributions  [formerly  324.273]  in  329.025 

Contested  elections 


Woman  suffrage 


\:i. 


Treatment  by  continent,  coimtry,  locality  in  modem  world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  324  '■  }.. ' 


325  International  migration 


.09 


.109 


.209 


.21 
.22 
.23-.29 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem  world 
in  325.4-325.9 

Immigration 

Entrance  into  a  country  for  the  purpose  of  permanent  residence 
Class  migration  within  a  country  [formerly  325.1]  in  301.32 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world  in  325.4-325.9 

Emigration 

Departure  from  a  country  for  residence  elsewhere 

t 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
325.23-325.29 

Pohtical  refugees 
Transfer  of  population 

Emigration  from  specific  continents,  countries,  localities 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  325.2,  e.g.,  emigration  from  Japan 
325.252;  then  add  09  and  add  area  notations   1-9  for  place 
entered,  e.g.,  emigration  from  Japan  to  United  States 
325.252  097  3 

282 


325.3 

.309 


;■  .■), 


.31 


Colonization 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  colonization  in  specific  places  of  modern  world  in 
325.4-325.9,  colonization  by  specific  countries  in 
325.33-325.39 

Colonial  administration  and  policies 

Class  internal  administration  of  specific  colonies  in  354 


,33-.39  Colonization  by  specific  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  325.3,  e.g.,  colonizaHon  by  United 
Kingdom  325.342;  then  add  09  and  add  area  notations  1-9  for 
place  colonized,  e.g.,  colonization  by  United  Kingdom  in  West 
Africa  325.342  096  6 

.4-.9-        International  migration  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
modem  world 

Migration  to  and  colonization  in  specific  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  325 

For  emigration  from  specific  continents,  countries,  localities,  see 
325.23-325.29;  colonization  by  specific  countries,  325.33-325.39 


326  Slavery  and  emancipation 


[.1] 


[.92] 


327 


.09 


-»,  T:* 


Class  relation  of  state  to   slaves  in  323.3,  sociology   of  slavery   in 
301.452  2  [both  formerly  326] 

Slave  trade 

Class  in  380.144 

Biography  of  slaves 

Class  biographies  of  persons  associated  with  a  specific  subject 
in  standard  subdivision  092,  of  persons  not  so  associated  in  920 

International  relations 

AfiFairs  of  the  world  political  community 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  foreign  pohcies  of  specific  nations  in  327.3-327.9 


283 


Decimal  Classification 


327.1 


.11 


.112 
.114 
.116 


.12 
.14 
.2 


.3-.9 


328 


.1 

3 


.309 


International  politics 

Competition  among  states  for  power  and  influence 

Power  politics 

Processes  of  finding  and  using  the  power  necessary  to  reach 
selected  goals 

Balance  of  power  system 

Spheres  of  influence 

Collective  security 

Class  cooperation  to  promote  peace  and  order  in  341.1 

Espionage 

Conduct  of  propaganda  and  psychological  warfare 

Diplomacy 

Conduct  of  negotiations  between  governments 

Class  laws,  rules,  customs  governing  diplomatic  conduct  in  341.7 

Foreign  policies  of  specific  nations 

Attitudes,  courses  of  action,  objectives  adopted  by  the  government 
of  a  state  in  its  relations  with  other  states  and  regions 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  327,  e.g.,  foreign  poUcy  of  United 
Kingdom  327.42;  then,  for  foreign  relations  between  two  nations, 
add  0  and  again  add  area  notations  3-9,  e.g..  foreign  relations 
between  United  Kingdom  and  France  327.420  44 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  nation  requiring  local  emphasis, 
e.g.,  Ubraries  in  United  States  class  foreign  relations  between 
United  States  and  United  Kingdom  in  327.730  42.  If  the  two 
nations  require  equal  emphasis,  give  priority  to  the  one  coming 
first  in  the  sequence  of  area  notations 

Legislation 

Parliamentary  rules  and  procedures  Iformerly  also  328.37] 

Legislative  function 

Legislative  branch  of  government 

Parhaments,  congresses,  assemblies 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modern 
world  in  328.4-328.9 

284 


Political  science 

SUMMARY 

328.31 
.32 

Upper  house 
Lower  house 

.33 
.34 

Membership 

Prerogatives,  powers,  privileges 

.35 
.36 
.37 

Sessions 

Internal  organization  and  discipline 

Enactment  of  bills  and  resolutions 

.39 

Forms  and  types 

328.31 
.32 


.33 

.333 
.334 

.334  5 
.334  52 
.334  54 
.334  55 
.334  7 

.34 


.341 
.345 
.346 

.347 
.348 

.35 


328.31-328.32  Specific  houses 
For  specific  elements,  see  328.33-328.37 


Upper  house 
Lower  house 


328.33-328.37  Specific  elements 

Membership 

For  discipline  of  members,  see  328.366 

Compensation 

Representation 

Election  districts 

Apportionment  and  reapportiormient 

Redistricting 
Gerrymandering 
Proportional  representation 

Prerogatives,  powers,  privileges 
Including  impeachment 

Power  over  revenue  and  appropriations 
Legislative  investigation 
Treaty-making  powers 
Privileges  of  legislators 
Immunities  of  legislators 


Sessions 


285 


! 


Decimal  Classification 


Political  science 


328.36 
.362 


.365 


.366 
.368 

.37 


Internal  organization  and  discipline 

Officers  and  leaders 
Selection,  appointment 

Committees 

Organization  and  operations 

Class  committee  hearings  and  reports  on  a  specific  subject 

with  the  subject 

Discipline  of  members 
Congressional  lobbying 

Enactment  of  bills  and  resolutions 

Forms  and  procedures 

Class  parhamentary  rules  and  procedures  [formerly  328.37]  in 

328.1 


.373 

Bill  drafting 

.375 

Passage  of  bills 

.377 

Resolutions 

.378 

Private  bills 

.39 

Forms  and  types 

Unicameral,  bicameral 

.4_.9         Legislative  branch  of  government  by  continent,  comitry^ 
locality  in  modem  world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  328,  e.g.,  United  Kingdom  Parliament 
328.42;  then  add  further  as  follows,  e.g.,  journals  of  United 
Kingdom  Parhament  328.420  1  .  , 

001-008        Standard  subdivisions 
Journals 
Debates 
Abstracts 
Other  documents 
Rules  and  procedures 

Including  legislative  manuals  [formerly  08] 
The  legislative  body 

Divide  like  328.3,  e.g.,  compensation  of  members 

073  3 
Legislative  manuals 

Class  in  05 
History 

286 


01 
02 
03 

04 
05 

07 


[08] 


09 


329 


Practical  politics 

For  elections,  see  324.2 


.001-.005 

.006 

.007-.009 

.01 


.02 

■  ■  ij. 

.021 
.021 1 
.0212 

.0213 
.0214 


.022 
.022  1 
.022  2 
.022  3 
.022  4 
.023 

.024 
.025 

.03 

.04 
.05 


Philosophy,  miscellany,  dictionaries,  serial  pubhcations 

Political  organizations  and  institutions  [formerly  363] 

Other  standard  subdivisions 

PoUtical  propaganda 

Class    presidential    campaign    literature    of    specific    political 
parties  of  United  States  [formerly  329.01]  in  329.1-329.8 

.     it. 

Political  parties 

Class  specific  parties  in  329.1-329.9 

Party  organization 

Political  machines 

Party  leadership 

Platforms  and  slogans 

Party  caucus 

For   nominations   of   party    candidates    by   caucus,   see 
329.022  2 


<■■* 


Nominations  of  party  candidates 

By  convention  .  r^ 

By  caucus 

By  direct  primary 

Boss  dictation 
Election  campaigns 

Class  campaign  literature  in  329.01 

Political  patronage 

Political  contributions  [formerly  324273]  and  fund 
raising 
Pressure  and  other  interest  groups 
For  congressional  lobbying,  see  328.368 

Political  process 

Study  of  public  opinion 

Content,  origin,  political  influence 

287 


Decimal  Classification 


329.1-329-9  Political  parties  of  specific  countries 

Divide  as  below;  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and  a 
shorter  number  to  parties  of  a  speciBc  country,  place  them  first 
by  use  of  a  letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g.,  pohtical  parties  of  Pern 
329.P  (preceding  329.1);  arrange  specific  parties  and  divide 
each  as  instructed  under  329.9 


329.1-329.8  Specific  political  parties  of  United  States 

Scope:  presidential  campaign  literature  [formerly  329.01] 

If  preferred,  class  in  329.9 

Add  0  to  each  subdivision  identified  by  •  and  divide  like 
329.01-329.02,  e.g.,  election  campaigns  of  Democratic  Party 
329.302  3 


329.1 

♦Federalist  Party 

.2 

♦Anti-Federalist  Party 

.3 

♦Democratic  Party 

.4 

♦Whig  Party 

.5 

♦American  (Know-Nothing)  Party 

.6 

♦Republican  Party 

3 

Others 

.81 

•Socialist  Party 

82 

•Communist  Party 

Political  parties  of  other  countries 


(Optional:    specific    poUtical    parties    of   United    States;    prefer 

329.1-329.8) 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  329.9 

If  desired,  arrange  specific  parties  of  a  specific  country 
alphabetically,  e.g..  Labour  Party  of  Great  Britain  329.942  L2, 
then  add  0  and  divide  like  329.01-329.02,  e.g..  Labour  Party 
leadership  329.942  L20  212 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  329.1-329.8 


288 


Economics 


330     Economics 


The  science  that  deals  with  production,  distribution,  consumption  of 
wealth 

For  commerce^  see  380 


.01 

.02-.09 

.1 

.12 

.122 

.124 

.15 


.151 

.152 
.153 
.154 
.155 

.156 
.159 


.16 


Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  general  theories  in  330.1 

Other  standard  subdivisions 
General  systems,  principles,  theories 

Systems  of  control 

Decentralized  (Free-enterprise  economy) 
Centralized  ( Planned  economy ) 

Integrated  systems  and  schools 


330.151-330.156  Capitalist  and  free-enterprise 
Mercantilism 
Physiocracy 
Classicism  and  neoclassicism  ( Individuahsm ) 

Historical  school 

Universalism 

Romantic,  institutional,  ethical,  social  justice  schools 

Keynesianism  (The  New  Economics) 

CoUectivist 

(Optional;  prefer  335 ) 

Divide  like  335,  e.g.,  Marxian  systems  330.159  4 

Miscellaneous  general  theories 
For  theories  of  property,  see  330.17 


.161 

Of  wealth 

.162 

Of  value 

.162  2 

Marginal  utility  theory 

.163 

Of  income 

.17 

Theories  of  property 

289 

Decimal  Classification 


330.9 


.901-.904 


•91-.99 


331 


.01 

.011 

.012 

.013 


.1 


Economic  situation  and  conditions 

Historical  periods 

Divide  like  standard  subdivisions  090  1  -  090  4,  e.g., 
economic  situation  in  1960-1970  330.904  6 

Geographical  treatment  (Economic  geography) 
If  preferred,  class  in  910.1 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  330.9 


331-333  Specific  factors  of  production 

For  entrepreneur  ship,  see  338.7 

Labor 

Utilization  of  manpower  resources  for  production 

Philosophy  and  theory 
Right  to  work 
Satisfactions  of  labor 

Class  classification  of  labor  in  331.7 

Freedom,  dignity,  value  of  labor 


SUMMARY 

331.1 

Industrial  relations 

.2 

Wages 

.3-.6 

Special  classes  of  workers 

.3 

Specific  age  groups 

.4 

Women 

.5 

Substandard  wage  earners 

.6 

Other  groups 

.7 

Labor  by  occupation 

.8 

Other  topics 

[.109] 


Industrial  relations 

Relations  between  labor  and  management 

For   industrial   relations   of   special    classes   of   workers,   see 
331.3-331.6;  disputes  between  labor  and  management,  331.89 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  331.19 
290 


Economics 

SUMMARY 

331.11 

Labor  force 

.12 

Labor  stability  and  instability 

.13 

Unemployment  and  reemployment 

.15 

Conciliation  practices 

.18 

Industrial  relations  in  specific  industries 

,19 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  industrial 

relations 

331.11 
.112 


.113 


.114 


.115 
.116 


331.11-331.15  Specific  elements 
Labor  force 
Labor  market 

For  labor  stability  and  instability,  see  331.12 

Discrimination  in  employment 

Consideration  of  workers  on  basis  other  than  job 
qualifications 

Job  qualifications  of  workers 

Physical  and  mental  capacity,  education,  experience 

Obtaining  employment  [formerly  also  371.425] 

Employment  bargaining 

Collective  negotiation  and  settlement  of  terms  of 
employment  between  employers  and  workers 

For  conciliation  practices,  see  331.15 


.1168 

In  specific  industries 

.116  81 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  telephone  industry 
331.116  813  846 

.116  82-.116  89 

Other 

Extractive,  manufactunng,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  clothing  industry 
331.116  887 

.12 


197 


Labor  stability  and  instability 

For  unemployment  and  reemphyment,  see  331.13 

Employment  security  and  job  tenure 

291 


331.126 


.127 


.13 

.134 
.137 


[.137  09] 


.137  2 


.137  3 
.137  4 
.137  7 


.137  8 


.137  81 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Economics 


Turnover 

Causes,  costs,  incidence 

Mobility 

Transfer  from  one  region  to  another 

Unemployment  and  reemployment 
Cancelation  of  labor  contracts 
Unemployment 

Cyclical,  seasonal,  partial,  technological 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  331.137  9 


.137  82-.137  89 


.137  9 


.138 


331.137  2-331.137  7  Specific  elements 

Causes 

For  cancelation  of  labor  contracts,  see  331.134 

Effects 

Distribution  and  incidence 

Prevention  and  relief 

For  guaranteed-wage  plans,  see  331.23 

In  specific  occupations 

For  specific  elements,  see  331.137  2  -  331.137  7 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  commercial  artists 
331.137  817  416 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  automobile  workers 
331.137  829  2 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.137  9 
Reemployment 


331.15 


.152 


.154 


.155 


[.16] 


.18 


.181 


.182-.189 


19 


Conciliation  practices 

Settlement  of  labor-management  differences  thru  discussions, 
deliberations,  recommendations  of  third  party 

Use  of  labor-management  committees 
Industrial  democracy 

Mediation 

Non-compulsory  recommendations  by  third  party 

Arbitration 

Compulsory  decisions  by  third  party 

Labor  courts 
Class  in  347.9 

Industrial  relations  in  specific  industries 
For  specific  elements,  see  331.11-331.15 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  railroad  transportation  industry 
331.181  385 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  chemical  industries  331.186 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  industrial 
relations 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.19 

Wages 

Compensation  in  money,  goods,  services,  computed  on  hourly, 
weekly,  monthly,  annual,  piece  basis 

Including  compensation  of  Christian  clergymen  [forinerly  also 
254.8],  of  teachers  [formerly  371.16],  of  physicians  [formerly  also 
614.25],  fees  and  commissions  in  building  contracting  [formerly 
also  692.8] 

For  wages  of  special  classes  of  workers,  see  331.3-331.6 

^93 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


331.201 


[.209] 


.21 
.215 


.218 


.22 

.23 

.25 
.252 

.255 


[.26] 


2S 


281 


Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  331.21 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  331.29 


331.21-331.25  Specific  elements 
Principles 

Fixing  rates 

Minimums,  maximums,  incentives,  differentials;  relation  of 
rates  to  supply  and  demand,  to  bargaining  power,  to 
production,  to  consumption  and  cost  of  living  (adequacy) 

Plurality  of  v^^ages 

Thru  plurality  of  employment  of  one  person,  of  members  of 
one  family  unit 


331.22-331.23  Wage  contracts 
Wage  scales 

Guaranteed-wage  plans 

Fringe  benefits 

Pension  systems 

Including  teachers'  pensions  [formerly  371.17] 

Other 

Health  and  welfare  programs,  paid  vacations  and  sick  leave, 
life  insurance 


Laws 

Class  in  340 


-  * 


Wages  in  specific  occupations 

For  specific  elements,  see  331.21-331.25 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  wages  of  domestic  workers 
[formerly  331.284  7]  331.281  647 

294 


331.282-.289 


.29 


.31 


.34 


.38 


.381 


Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 
Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  wages  in  building  trades  331.289 
Class  wages  of  domestic  workers   [formerly  331.284  7]   in 
331.281  647 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  wages 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.29 


331.3-331.6  Special  classes  of  workers 

Industrial  relations,  wages,  work  periods,  training  and  rehabili- 
tation  programs,   organizations,   disputes,   specific  occupations 

Observe  the  following  table  of  precedence,  e.g.,  aged  Negro 

women  331.398 

Specific  age  groups 

Women 

Substandard   wage   earners 

Other  groups 

Specific  age  groups 


.382-.389 


331.31-331.34  Young  people 
For  young  people  in  specific  occupations,  see  331.38   ^ 

Children 

Thru  age  thirteen 

Youth 

Ages  fourteen  to  twenty 

Young  people  in  specific  occupations 
Children  and  youth 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  theatrical  people  331.381  792 

Other  ^ 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  textile  workers  331.387  7 

295 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


331.39 

Other  age  groups 

.394 

Middle  aged 

.398 

Aged 

.398  8 

In  specific  occupations 

.398  81 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  librarians  331.398  810  2 

.398  82- 

.398  89            Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  agricultural  workers 
331.398  83 


.4 


Women 


.42 
.43 

.48 


.481 


.482-.489 


.5 


.51 
.54 

.55 
.57 


331.42-331.43  Specific  elements 

Wages 
Married  women 

In  specific  occupations 

For  specific  elements,  see  331.42-331.43 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  research  workers  331.481  001  4 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  pulp  and  paper  workers  331.487  6 

Substandard  wage  earners 

Scope:  competition  between  substandard  wage  labor  and  other 
labor 

Convicts 

Contract  workers 
Apprentices  [formerly  331. S6] 

Drafted  workers 

Emergency  labor  in  war  and  peace 

296 


331.58 
.582 
.584 
.59 

S 

.62 


.63 


.66 
.67 

[.68] 

.69 


.7 


.702 
.71 


Slaves,  political  and  war  prisoners 

Slaves 

Political  and  war  prisoners 
Workers  suffering  physical  and  mental  handicaps 

Other  groups 

Immigrants 

Add  area  notations  1-9  for  place  of  origin  to  331.62,  e.g., 
immigrant  workers  from  China  331.625  1;  then  add  0  and  add 
area  notations  1-9  for  place  where  located,  e.g.,  immigrant 
workers  from  China  in  California  331.625  107  94 

For  seasonal  workers,  see  331.66-331.67 

Native-bom  nonindigenous  ethnic  groups 
Including  Jews  [formerly  331.68] 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  Negroes  331.639  6;  then  add  0  and 
add  area  notations   1-9  for  place  where  located,  e.g.,  Negro 
workers  in  United  States  331.639  607  3 
For  seasonal  workers,  see  331.66-331.67 


331.66-331.67  Seasonal  workers 
Sharecroppers 

Casual-migratory  workers 

Jews 

Class  in  331.63 

Indigenous  ethnic  groups 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  North  American  Indians  331.699  7 
For  seasonal  workers,  see  331.66-331.67 

Labor  by  occupation 

Use  331.700  1  -  331.700  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  a  specific  element  of  labor,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  wages 
3312 

Choice  of  vocation  [formerly  371.425] 

The  professions 

For  specific  professional  occupations,  see  331.761 


Decimal  Classijication 


331.76 


.761 


.762-.769 


.79 


.794 


.795 


.798 


A 


SI 


[.810  9] 

.818 
.8181 


Specific  occupations 

(Optional:    specific    subjects    as    professions    or    occupations; 
prefer  standard  subdivision  023 ) 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  photography  331.761  77 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  food  processing  331.766  4 

Specific  groups  of  occupations 
For  the  professions,  see  331.71 

Skilled  crafts 

Public  service 

Elected  and  appointed  civil  servants 

Unskilled  work 

Other  topics 

Class   these   topics  in   relation  to   special   classes   of  workers   in 


331.3-331.6 


SUMMARY 


331.81  Occurrence  and  duration  of  work  periods 

.86  Training  and  rehabilitation  programs 

,88  Labor  organizations  (Labor  unions) 

.89  Disputes  between  labor  and  management 

Occurrence  and  duration  of  work  periods 

Length  of  day  and  week,  rest  periods,  shift  systems,  night  work, 
overtime,  leaves  of  absence 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  331.819 

In  specific  occupations 
Sei-vice  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  nursing  331.818  161  073 
298 


Economics 


331.818  2-.818  9 


.819 


[.82] 


[.823] 


[.83] 


[.833] 


[.85] 


.86 


.861 
.863 
.868 
.88 


[.880  8] 


Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  coal  mining  331.818  223  3 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.819 

Industrial  hygiene 
Class  in  613.62 

Accidents  in  industry 
Class  in  614.85 

Welfare  services  to  laboring  classes 
Class  in  362.85 

Housing 

Class  in  301.54 

Workers'  supplementary  education 
Class  in  374 

Training  and  rehabiUtation  programs 
Class  apprentices  [formerly  331.86]  in  331.55 

Apprenticeship 

Other  on-the-job  and  in-service  training 

Rehabilitation 

Labor  organizations  ( Labor  unions ) 

Use  331.880  01  -  331.880  08  for  standard  subdivisions 

Union  racketeering  and  gangsterism 
Class  in  364.143 


.880  9 

.880  91 

.880  93-.880  99 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
International  unions 
Treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


331.881 
.8811 


.881  2-.881  9 


.883 
.886 
,889 
.89 


.892 
[.892  09] 


In  specific  occupations 
Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  teachers'  unions 
331.881  137  11 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  hke  620-690,  e.g.,  garmentworkers'  unions 
331.881  87 


331.883-331.886  Specific  kinds 
For  unions  in  specific  occupations,  see  331.881 

Company  unions 

Revolutionary  unions 

Open,  union,  closed  shop 

Disputes  between  labor  and  management 


331.892-331.893  Retaliatory  measures  by  labor 
Strikes  (Walkouts) 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  331.892  9 


331.892  2  -  331.892  4  Kinds 
For  strikes  in  specific  occupations,  see  331.892  8 


.892  2 

Organized 

.892  3 

Sympathetic 

.892  4 

Outlaw 

.892  7 

Picketing 

.892  8 

In  specific  occupations 

.892  81 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  musicians'  strikes 

331.892  817  8 

300 

331.892  82-.892  89 


.892  9 


.893 


.894 


.898 


332 


.024 


.06 


Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  strikes  of  rubber  workers 

331.892  878 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  331.892  9 


Other 

Sabotage,   boycotts,   sit-down   strikes,   injunctions,   political 
action 

Retaliatory  measures  by  management 

Lockouts,  strikebreaking,  blacklisting,  whitelisting, 
injunctions,  political  action 

Government  intervention 
Lucrative  capital 

Former  heading:  Financial  economics 

Theory,    formation,    manipulation,    utilization,    exchange    of   money. 

deposits,  credits,  evidences  of  ownership 

For  public  finance,  see  336;  cooperative  systems,  334 

Personal  finance 

Including  thrift 

Organizations 

Class  financial  institutions  in  332.1-332.3 

SUMMARY 

332.1  Banks  and  banking 

.2  Savings  banks  and  banking 

.3  Credit  and  loan  institutions  and  their  functions 

.4  Money 

.5  Noncommodity  money  and  other  mediums  of 

exchange 
,6  Investment  finance 

.7  Credit 

.8  Interest  and  discount 

.9  Counterfeiting,  forgery,  alteration 

301 


.1 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


332.1 


.IP 


.12 


.13 

[.14] 

.15 
.152 


.153 


.154 
.155 

.16 


.17 

.172 


332.1-332.3  Financial  institutions  and  their  functions 

For  clearing  houses,  see  332.78 

Banks  and  banking 


V  ••  % 


332.11-332.15  Specific  kinds  of  banks  and  their 
functions 

Central 

Including  banks  of  issue,  implementation  of  national  monetary 
policies 

Commercial  (Deposit) 

For  savings  banks  and  banking,  see  332.2 

Private  (Unincorporated) 

Trust  services 
Class  in  332.178 

International 

For  monetary  stabilization  and  balance  of  payments 
Including  International  Monetary  Fund  [formerly  332.43] 

For  development  of  resources  and  production 

Including  International  Bank  for  Reconstniction  and  De- 
velopment (World  Bank),  International  Finance  Corpora- 
tion, International  Development  Association 

For  promotion  of  trade 

For  international  settlements 

Including  Bank  for  International  Settlements 

Multiple  banking 

Branch  and  chain  banking,  syndicates,  mergers 

Bank  units 

Departmentalization 

302 


332.175 


.178 


.2 

.22 
.24 

[.27] 

.3 

.31 


.32 

.34 
.35 


.401 


i ' -^ 


332.175-332.178  Functions  and  services 

Class  functions  and  services  characteristic  of  specific  kinds  of 
banks  in  332.11-332.15,  332.2 

General 

Deposits,  reserves,  loans,  investments 

Special 

Including  trust  services  [formerly  332.14],  safe-deposit 
services  [formerly  332.27] 

Savings  banks  and  banking 

Mutual  and  stock 

Postal  savings  banks 

Savings  departments  of  commercial  banks 
Safe-deposit  services 
Class  in  332.178 


Credit  and  loan  institutions  and  their  functions 

\    Agricultural  institutions 
Including  land  banks 


Building  and  loan  associations 

Pawnshops 

Personal  loan  and  sales  finance  institutions 


332.4-332.8  Forms  of  lucrative  capital 

Instruments  and  functions 

Money 

For  noncommodity  money,  see  332.5 

Theories 

Including  quantity  theory,  circulation  and  velocity  theory, 
equation  of  exchange  theory 


303 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


[332.409] 

.41 
.413 


.414 


.42 


.422 


.423 


.424 


.425 


.427 


.428 


[.43] 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  332.49 

As  a  medium  of  exchange  (Legal  tender) 

Value  fluctuations 

Relationship  of  monetary  values  and  prices 

Volume  fluctuations 

Including  deflation,  inflation 

As  a  standard  of  value 

Scope:  international  standards  {formerly  332.43],  nonmetallic 
standards  [formerly  332.56] 


332.422-332.425  Commodity  standards 
Monometallism  (Single  standard) 
Gold  coin  and  bullion 

Bimetallism  ( Double  standard ) 
Gold  and  silver  coins  and  bullion 
Class  symmetallism  [formerly  332.423]  in  332.424 

Symmetallism  [formerly  332.423] 
Combination  of  metals 

Composite  commodity  money 

Staple  commodities  in  predetermined  proportions 


332.427-332.428  Noncommodity  standards 

Free  ( Inconvertible ) 

Foreign  exchange  relatively  unrestricted 

Controlled 

Foreign  exchange  strictly  regidated 

International  agreements 

Class  International  Monetary  Fund  in  332.152,  international 
standards  in  332.42 


332.45 


.46 


.49 


.5 

.52 
.53 
.55 

.56 


.6 


.61 


Foreign  exchange 

International  monetary  systems 
Minting  policies  and  practices 

Including  token  money  [formerly  332.54] 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  332.49 

Noncommodity  money  and  other  mediums  of  exchange 

Scope:  credit  (fiduciary)  currency 

Fiat  money 
Paper  money 
Barter  instruments 

Nonregulated  commodities 
Managed  currency  and  social  credit  money 

Class  nonmetallic  standards  [formerly  332.56]  in  332.42 

Investment  finance 


SUMMAIIY 

332.61 

Securities  exchanges 

.62 

Brokerage  firms 

.63 

Securities  ( Evidences  of  ownership ) 

.64 

Exchange  of  securities  (Trading  procedures) 

.65 

International  exchange  of  securities 

.66 

Investment  banking 

.67 

Investment  and  investments 

.68 

Lotteries 

Securities  exchanges 

Stock  and  commodity 


.62 

Brokerage  firms 

.63 

Securities  ( Evidences  of  ownership  ) 

Description,  evaluation  (price  yield,  prospects  for  growth) 

.632 

Specific  forms 

.632  2 

Stocks 

.632  23 

Common 

.632  25 

Preferred 

305 

Economics 


Decimal  Classification 


332.632  3 

.632  4 

.632  7 

.632  8 

.633 

.633  2 

.633  3 

.64 

.642 

.643 

.644 

.645 

.65 

.66 


.67 

.670  28 

.672 
.673 
.673  09 


.673  3-.673  9 


.678 


Bonds 

Mortgages 

Mutual  funds 

Commodities 
Specific  classes 

Public 

Private  ^ 

Exchange  of  securities  (Trading  procedures) 
Class  regulation  [formerly  332.64]  in  350.825 

For  international  exchange  of  securities,  see  332,65 

On  organized  exchanges 

Over  the  counter 

Commodity  exchange  transactions 

Speculation 
International  exchange  of  securities 

Investment  banking 

Long-term  financing  by  banks  and  syndicates  thru  public  issue, 
underwriting,  purchase  and  resale 

Investment  and  investments 

Apparatus  and  equipment 
Class  techniques  in  332.678 

Domestic 
Foreign 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class    foreign   investments   by    specific    countries    in 
332.673  3-332.673  9 

By  specific  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  332.673,  e.g.,  British  foreign 
investments  332.673  42;  then  add  0  and  add  area 
notations  1-9  for  place  of  investment,  e.g.,  British  foreign 
investments  in  Brazil  332.673  420  81 

Investment  practices  and  techniques 
Including  forecasting,  formula  plans 
306 


332.68 


.7 


.71 

.72 

.74 
.742 

.743 


.75 
.754 


.78 
.8 


.82 
.83 
.84 

.9 


Lotteries 

Including  lists  of  drawings 


Credit 


.76 


77     ' 


332.71-332.74  Specific  kinds 

Agricultural 

Loans  for  promoting  agricidtmral  operations 

Real-estate 

Including  mortgage  loans 

Other 

Commercial,  mercantile,  industrial 

Personal  loans 

Including  chattel  mortgages,  consumer  credit 

Credit  collapse  and  restrictions 
Insolvency  and  bankruptcy 


332.76-332.77  Credit  instruments 

Deposit  transfer  instruments 

Checks  and  money  orders 

Other 

Commercial  paper,  promissory  notes,  drafts,  letters  of  credit 

Clearinghouses 

Interest  and  discount 

Class  interest  and  discount  tables  in  511.802  12 

Legal  interest 

Usury 

Discount  and  rediscount 

Counterfeiting,  forgery,  alteration 

Of  currency,  securities,  credit  instruments 

307 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


333  Land  ( Natural  resources ) 


.001 

.002-.009 

.01 

.012 


.13 
14 
.16 
2 


.3 


.32 


.322 


Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  333.01 
Other  standard  subdivisions 

Theories 

Economic  rent  [former?!/ 333.5] 

Ricardo's  theory  of  payment  for  use  of  land  in  terms  of  its 
relative  productivity 


SUMMARY 

333.1 

Public  land  (Public  domain) 

.2 

Common  land 

.3 

Private  land 

.4 

Absentee  ownership 

.5 

Rental 

.6 
.7 

Urban  rent 

Surface  resources  and  general  conservation 

.8 

policies 

Subsurface  (Mineral)  resources 

.9 

Other  natural  resources 

333.1-333.6  Specific  forms  of  control 

For  control  of  specific  types  of  natural  resources,  see  333.7-333.9 

Public  land  (Public  domain) 

Land  over  which  government  exercises  sole  right  of  control 

Expropriation 

Nationalization 

Free  disposal  ( Land  grants ) 

Common  land 

Land  over  which  each  member  of  an  association  exercises  equal 
rights  of  control 

Private  land 

Land  over  which  single  owner  exercises  right  of  control 

Types  (Land  tenure) 

For  absentee  ownership,  see  333.4 


Feudal  tenure 


.332 


.333 
.334 


^3 


Individual  ownership  (Alodium) 

Corporation  ownership 

Real  estate 

Class  management  of  real-estate  business  [formerly  333.33]  in 


658 


For  subdivision  and  development,  see  333.38 


333.^o<i-333.334  Specific  kinds  of  transactions 
For  specific  types  of  real  estate,  see  333.335-333.339 

Valuation 

Appraisal,  effect  of  specific  factors,  price  determination 

Sale  and  transfer 
Rental 


333.335-333.339  Specific  types  of  real  estate 
Appraisal,  sale,  transfer,  rental 


.335 

Agricultural 

.336 

Industrial 

.337 

Urban 

.339 

Other 

[.34] 

Titles  and  deeds 

Class  lavjr  in  340,  public  administration  in  350.825 

[.351 

Inheritance 

Class  in  340 

J8 

Subdivision  and  development 

.4 

Absentee  ownership 

.5 

Rent 

308 


Class  economic  rent  [formerly  333.5]  in  333.012 
For  urban  rent,  see  333.6 

Tenancy 

For  relations  between  landlord  and  tenant,  see  333.54 

309 


,  -1 
t 


333.54 


.55 

.6 
.62 


.63 


.7 

.72 


J3 


J4 
75 


.76 


.77 
.78 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


Landlordism 

Including  relations  between  landlord  and  tenant 

Agricultural  rent 

Urban  rent 

Ground  rent 

Rent  of  land  for  building  and  industrial  development 

Building  rent 


333.7-333.9  Specific  types  of  natural  resources 

Ownership,  control,  economic  importance,  settlement,  utiliza- 
tion, conservation  policies 

Surface  resources  and  general  conservation  policies 

General  conservation  policies 

Class    conservation    poUcies    of    specific    types    of    terrestrial 
resources  in  333.73-333.92 


333.73-333.78  Surface  land  resources 

Wastelands 

Including  arid  and  semiarid  lands 

Pasture  lands 

Forest  lands 

Including  forest  policy   [jormerly  634.925],  forest  resources 
[/ofmeWy  634.927] 

Agricultural  lands 

For  pasture  lands,  see  333.74;  forest  lands,  333,75  r 


4-- 


Urban  lands 
Recreational  lands 

Parks,  playgrounds,  wildlife  refuges 

Subsurface  (Mineral)  resources 

310 


333.9 
.91 


.910  2 
.910  4 


.912 


.913 
.914 
.915 


334 


.1 
.2 


Other  natural  resources 

Water  and  land  adjoining  it 

Use  333.910  01  -  333.910  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Surface  water 

Ground  (Subsurface)  water 


333.912-333.915  Water  for  specific  uses 
For  industrial  and  domestic  use 
Including  potable  water 

For  irrigation 
For  power 
For  navigation 


333.916-333.918  Specific  kinds  of  water  and  land 
adjoining  it 

For  water  for  specific  uses,  see  333.912-333.915 


.916 

Sea  water 

.917 

Shorelands 

Including  littoral  and  riparian  rights 

.918 

Submerged  lands  and  tidelands 

.92 

Air 

.94 

Space 

334-335  Special  methods  of  organization  for 
production,  distribution,  consumption 

Cooperative  systems 

Joint  ownership  and  operation  of  economic  enterprises  and  activities 
by  voluntary  groups  for  their  own  benefit 

Building  and  housing 

Banking  and  credit 

Including  credit  unions 


I 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


334.5  Distribution  (Consumers' cooperatives) 

For  housing,  see  334.1 

JS  Production 

.68  In  specific  industries 

.681  Service  and  professional 

Dmde  like  001-999,  e.g.,  cooperative  medical  services 
334.681  61 

For  banking  and  credit,  see  334.2;  building  and  housing, 
334.1 

.682-.689  Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  cooperative  cattle  production 

334.683  62 


.7 


335 


.02 


Benefit  societies 

Friendly,  mutual-aid,  benevolent,  provident 

CoUectivist  systems  and  schools 

Integrated  assertions,  theories,  aims  of  economic  and 
politicoeconomic  ideologies 

If  preferred,  class  in  330.159 

Use  335.001-335.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  political  theories  and  ideologies  of  collectivism,  see  320.53 

Utopian  systems  and  schools 
Voluntary  association 
Class  specific  Utopian  systems  in  335.1-335.3 


335.1-335.3  Utopian  and  humanitarian  systems 

For  Utopian  and  humanitarian  socialist  and  anarchist  com- 
munities,  see  335.9 


.1 

Of  English  origin 

.12 

Utopian  socialism 

Including  Owenism 

.14 

Fabian  sociaHsiii 

.15 

Guild  socialism 

312 

335.2  Of  French  origin 

Including  Fourierism  { Phalansterianism )  [formerly  3Z5. 3] y 
Babouvism,  Icarianism,  Saint-Simonism 

Ji  Of  American  origin 

Class  Fourierism  (Phalansterianism)  [formerly  335.3]  in  335.2 

.4  Marxian  systems 

.401  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  basic  concepts  in  335.41 

.41  Basic  concepts 

,411  Philosophic  foundations 

Dialectical  materialism,  historical  materialism,  Marx's  ma- 
terialism and  theory  of  knowledge,  theory  of  class  struggle, 
labor  theory  of  value 

.413  Aims 

Dictatorship  of  the  proletariat,  world  revolution,  interna- 
tionalism, classless  society 

,42  Scientific  sociahsm 

Including   First   International,    Second    International,   Vienna 
International 

,43  Revolutionary  sociahsm  ( Communism) 

For  communist  international  organizations,  see  335.44 

.432  Methods  of  propagation 

.437  Comparative  studies 

Comparison  with  capitalism,  cooperation,  other  forms  of 
collectivism 

.438  Attitude  toward  and  influence  on  odier  subjects 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  attitude  toward  and  influence  on 
religion  335.438  2 

.44  Communist  international  organizations 

Including  Third  International  (Comintern),  Cominfoim 

3^3 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


i: 


335.5 


.6 


.7 


.8 

.82 

.83 


336 


.02 


State  socialism  and  social  democracy 

Nationalization  of  key  industries 
For  Fabian  socialism,  see  335.14 

Nationalist  socialism 

Including  fascism,  nazism,  Falangism 

Christian  socialism 

Including  Catholic  socialism 

For  Christian  socialist  and  anarchist  communities,  see  335.9 

Other  systems 

Syndicalism 

Anarchism 

For  anarchist  communities,  see  335.9 

Utopian,  humanitarian.  Christian  socialist  and  anarchist 
commimities 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  335.9 

Public  finance 

Financial  transactions  of  governments  and  their  units 

Scope:  local  government  finance  [formerly  352.1] 

Use  336.001-336.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  financial  administration  of  governments  in  350.71-350.72 

Revenue 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  336.02 

Class  specific  forms  of  revenue  in  336.1-336.2 

.09  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

.091  Regions,  areas,  places,  groups  in  general 

.091  6  Associations  of  sovereign  states  [formerly 

341.11-341.18] 

.091  62  League  of  Nations 

.091  63  United  Nations 

.091  68  Regional  associations 

3^4  . 


336.093 
[.094-.099] 


.1 


.11 

.12 

.15 

.16 

.17 

.18 

.182 

.185 


,188 
.19 


.202 

.202  2 
.202  4 

.203 


The  ancient  world 

Continents,  countries,  localities  in  modem  world 
Do  not  use;  class  in  336.4-336.9 


336.1-336.3  Specific  elements 


336.1-336.2  Revenues 
Class  comprehensive  works  in  336.02 

Nontax  (Commercial  and  voluntary) 

For  fees,  see  336.273;  licenses,  336.274 

From  rents  and  franchises 

From  sale  of  government  property 

From  deposits,  investments,  loans 

From  gifts  and  fines 

From  lotteries 

Inter-  and  intragovemmental  revenues 

From  reparations  and  interest  on  war  loans 
From  one  government  unit  to  another 

Grants  from  higher  units,  technical  assistance  funds 

From  international  grants 
From  government  services,  industries,  monopolies 

Taxation  ( Compulsory  revenues ) 

Scope:  taxation  of  motor  land  vehicles  [formerly  629.213] 
Use  336.200  1  -  336.200  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  tax  administration  [formerly  336.2]  in  350.724 


336.202-336.204  Types  of  taxes  by  base 
On  wealth 

Property  taxes 
Death  taxes 


On  income 


3^5 


n 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


■  ^ 


IP':- 


336.204 

On  activities 

.204  2 

Production 

.204  3 

Distribution 

.204  4 

Consumption 

.204  8 

Civic  J 

activities 

SUMMARY 

336.21 

Direct  taxes 

.22 

Real  property  taxes 

.23 

Personal  property  taxes 

.24 

Income  taxes 

.25 

Poll  taxes 

.26 

Customs  taxes    (Customs   duties) 

.27 

Other  taxes 

.29 

General  principles 

.21 


.22 


.23 


.24 


.242 
.243 

.25 

.26 
.263 


336.21-336.27  Specific  taxes  and  kinds  of  taxes 

Direct  taxes 

Class  a  specific  direct  tax  with  the  subject 

Real  property  taxes 

On  real  estate,  land,  buildings,  permanent  improvements 

Personal  property  taxes 
Tangible  and  intangible 
Including  capital  levies  [formerly  336.25] 

Income  taxes 

From  wages,  salaries,  rents,  investments 

For  estate,  inheritance,  gift  taxes,  see  336.276 

Personal 
Corporation 

Including  surplus  and  excess  profits  taxes 

Poll  taxes 

Class  capital  levies  {formerly  336.25]  in  336.23 

Customs  taxes  (Customs  duties) 

Export  and  transit  taxes 

3^6 


336.264 

.265 

.266 

27 
.271 


.274 


.276 

.278 


.29 


.293 


Import  taxes 

For  import  tax  schedules,  see  336.265 

Import  tax  schedules 

For  import  taxes  on  specific  commodities,  see  336.266 

Import  taxes  on  specific  commodities 

Divide  hke  001-999,  e.g.,  taxes  on  paintings  336.266  75 

Other  taxes 

Indirect 

For  customs  duties,  see  336.26;  taxes  on  specific 
commodities  and  services,  336.278 


.2711 

Excise,  sumptuary,  luxury 

.2713 

Transaction  (Turnover) 

.271  32 

Sales 

.271  35 

Use 

.272 

Stamp  taxes  and  revenue  si 

.273 

Fees 

For  government  services  conferring  special  benefits 

Licenses 

To  engage  in  specific  acts,  businesses,  professions 

Estate,  inheritance,  gift  taxes 

Taxes  on  specific  commodities  and  services 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  taxes  on  theater  tickets 

336.278  792 

Class  a  specific  kind  of  taxes  on  a  specific  commodity  with 

the  subject,  e.g.,  import  taxes  336.266 

General  principles 

Qass  types  of  taxes  by  base  in  336^02-336.204,  specific  taxes 
and  kinds  of  taxes  in  336.21-336.27 


Rates 


3V 


h\ 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


K'? 


W 


336.294 


.294  2 
.294  3 
.294  4 
.295 
.3 


.31 


.32 


M 


.346 

.36 

.363 


Incidence 

Scope:  distribution,  exemptions,  double  taxation 

On  persons 

On  corporations  and  business  firms 
On  other  organizations 
Economic  eflFects 
Credit,  borrowing,  expenditure 


336.31-336.36  Credit  and  borrowing 


336.31-336.32  Public  securities 
Class  public  securities  as  investments  in  332.633  2 

Funded  debts 

Interest-bearing  long-term  government  securities  and  bonds 
Including  credit  bonds 

Unfunded  debts  (Floating  debts) 

Short-term  securities  usually  held  in  treasury  bills 

Public  borrowing  and  public  debt 

Theory,  character,  bases,  burden,  economic  effect 


.343 

By  sources  and  borrowing  units 

.343  1 

Local 

.343  2 

State  and  provincial 

.343  3 

National 

Borrowing  from  own  citizens 

.343  5 

International 

.344 

Flotation  of  loans 

Compulsory  and  voluntary  loans,  subscriptions,  allotments, 
marketability 

limitation  of  public  indebtedness 

Liquidation  of  public  debts 

Repayment  and  redemption 

3^8 


336.368  Repudiation  and  abrogation 

Including  public  insolvency 

.39  Expenditure 

Character,  principles,  classification,  justification 

.4-.9         Public  finance  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  336 

[337]       TariflE 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  382,  government  regulation  and  control 
of  international  trade  in  350.827 

338  Production 

Creation  of  wealth  as  form  utility  thru  extraction  and  manufacture,  as 

place   utility   thru   transportation,    as   time    utility   thru   storage,    as 

ownership    (possession)    utihty   thru   exchange,   as   personal   service 

utility 

Scope:  specific  firms  and  enterprises 

Class  marketing  in  380.1,  public  administration  aspects  of  government 

control  and  regulation  of  production  in  350.82  [both  formerly  338] 

.001  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  general  principles  and  theories  in  338.01 


.002 
.002  5 
.003-.008 

.01 
[.010  9] 

.012 


.013 


Miscellany 

Directories  of  producers 
Other  standard  subdivisions 
General  principles  and  theories 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  338.019 

Factors  of  production 

Relative  importance,  interrelations  of  land,  labor,  capital, 
entrepreneurship 

For  specific  factors,  see  331-333 

Costs  of  production 

Class  a  specific  cost  with  the  subject  • 

3^9 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Economics 


338.016 


*■' 


.018 
.018  2 
.018  3 


.018  5 
.018  6 
.019 


.02 
.06 
.064 
.09 


Laws  of  production 

Including  supply  and  demand,  diminishing  returns,  marginal 
utility,  comparative  advantage 


Methods 

Diversification  and  specialization 

Change 

Conversion  from  one  kind  of  economy  to  another,  e.g., 
agricultural  to  manufacturing,  from  production  of  one 
commodity  or  group  of  commodities  to  another 

Cooperation  and  competition 

Control 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  general 
principles  and  theories 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  338.019 

Lists  of  commodities  and  services 
Machines  in  production  [formerly  338.45] 

Automation 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Industrial  situation,  existing  and  potential  resources  for 

production 

Scope:  industrial  surveys,  location  of  industries,  productivity 

Class  a  specific  resource  with  the  subject,  e.g.,  water  for  power 
333.914 


SUMMARY 

338.1-,3  Primary  (Extractive)  industries 

,1  Agricultural 

^  Mineral 

J  Other 

.4  Secondary  industries 

J  Prices  and  business  cycles  in  relation  to 

production 

JS  Systems 

,7  Organization  and  structure 

•8  Combinations 

,9  Production  programs  and  policies 

320 


338.1 


.12 


.13 


.15 


.16 


.17 


.19 


338.1-338.4  Specific  kinds  of  industries 

Production  of  specific  kinds  of  goods  and  services 

For  systems  and  oTganization  of  production,  see  338.6-338.8 

338.1-338.3  Primary  (Extractive)  industries 

Scope:  machines  in  production  [formerly  338.45] 
Agricultural 

338.12-338.16  Specific  elements 

Control 

Class  collectivist  farms  [formerly  338.12]  in  338.762-338.769 

Financial  considerations 
Costs,  valuation,  prices 
Including  prices  of  specific  products  [formerly  338.17] 

Maladjustments  in  production 
Surpluses  and  shortages 

For  food  supply,  see  338.19 

Machines  in  production 
Scope:  automation 

Divide  like  633-638,  e.g.,  machines  in  production  of  wheat 
338.163  11 

Specific  products 

Divide  like  633-638,  e.g.,  rice  338.173  18 
Class  prices  of  specific  products  [formerly  338.17]  in  338.13 
For  specific  elements,  see  338.12-338.16 

Food  supply  [formerly  also  641.3] 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  338.19 

Mineral 


.22-.25 


338.22-338.26  Specific  elements 
Control,  finance,  maladjustments 

Including  cost  of  irrigation  water  [formerly  also  631.75] 
Divide  like  338.12-338.15,  e.g.,  shortages  338.25 

321 


lit 


338.26 


27 


.3 


.32-.35 


.36 


.37 


.372 


.4 


.42-.43 


.45 


.454 


Decimal  Classification 


'Economics 


Machines  in  production 

Scope:  automation 

Divide  like  553,  e.g.,  machines  in  extraction  of  bitmninous  coal 


338.262  4 


Specific  products 

Divide  like  553,  e.g.,  water  338.277 

For  specific  elements,  see  338.22-338.26 


Other 


338.32-338.36  Specific  elements 
Control,  finance,  maladjustments 

Divide  like  338.12-338.15,  e.g.,  shortages  338.35 

Machines  in  production 
Including  automation 

Specific  products 

For  specific  elements,  see  338.32-338,36 

Hunting  and  fishing  products 

Divide  like  592-599,  e.g.,  sponges  338.372  34 

Secondary  industries 


338.42-338.45  Specific  elements 

For  maladjustments  in  production,  see  338.49 

Control  and  finance 

Divide  like  338.12-338.13,  e.g.,  control  338.42 

Machines  in  production 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  338.06,  machines  in  production 
in  primary  industries  in  338.1-338.3  [both  formerly  338.45] 

Automation 

For  automation  in  specific  industries,  see  338.456 
322 


338.456 


.4561 


.456  2-.456  9 


.46 


.47 


.49 


.52 


522 


.523 


In  specific  industries 
Scope:  automation 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  machines  in  hairdressing 
338.456  164  672  4 

Other 

Manufacturing  and  construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g.,  machines  in  textile  manufac- 
ture 338.456  77 


338.46-338.47  Goods  and  services 
For  specific  elements,  see  338.42-338.45 

Professional  services 

For  specific  services,  see  338.47 

Specific  goods  and  services 

Including  medical  economics  [formerly  61425],  economics  of 

pharmacy  [formerly  615.406  5] 

Divide  Uke  001-999,  e.g.,  textile  manufacture  338.476  77 

Maladjustments  in  production  [formerly  338.542] 
Surpluses  and  shortages 

Prices  and  business  cycles  in  relation  to  production 

For  specific  kinds  of  goods  and  services,  see  338.1-338.4 

Prices 

Wholesale  and  retail 


338.522-338.526  Determination 
In  competitive  free  markets 

Prices  based  on  costs,  on  supply  and  demand 

In  monopolistic  markets 

Prices  based  on  intra-industry  agreements 
Including  price  leadership 
3^3 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


I 


I  : 


338.526 


.528 


.54 
.542 


.544 


.6 

.63 


.64 


.65 


.7 


.72 


By  outside  control 

Class  price  control  legislation  [formerly  338.526]  in  340 

Levels 

Statistics,  index  numbers,  Fisher's  ideal  index,  price 
movements 

Business  cycles 

Causes 

Including  maladjustments  in  production 

Class  maladjustments  in  production  of  secondary  industries 
[formerly  338.542]  in  338.49 

Business  forecasting 


338.6-338.8  Systems  and  organization  of  production 

Systems 

Cottage  industries 

Household,  family,  domestic  system:  assigning  major  steps  of 
manufacture  for  performance  at  home  by  family  unit 

Including  specific  cottage  industries 

Small  industries 

Handicrafts,  skilled  trades,  modem  guilds 
Including  specific  small  industries  [formerly  338.76] 

Large  industries 

Factory  systems  utilizing  assembly-line  and  continuous  methods 
Including  specific  large  industries  [formerly  338.76] 

Organization  and  structure 

Scope:  entrepreneurship 

For  organization  and  structure  of  combinations,  see  338.8 


338.72-338.74  Specific  kinds  of  organization  and 
structure 

For  specific  industries,  see  338.76 

Individual  proprietorships 

3^4 


338.73 
.74 
.76 


.761 


.762-.769 


.8 


Partnerships  and  unincorporated  companies 
Corporations 

In  specific  industries 

Scope:     individual    proprietorships,    partnerships,    companies. 

corporations 

Class  specific  small  industries  in  338.64,  specific  large  industries 

in  338.65  [both  formerly  338.76] 

Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  law  338.761  34 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing,  construction 
Including  collectivist  farms  [formerly  also  338.12] 
Divide  hke  620-690,  e.g.,  agriculture  338.763 

Combinations 

Organization  and  stmcture  for  massive  production  and  control  of 
production 


,82 

.826 

.8261 


338.82-338.86  Within  one  country 

Monopoly  and  monopolies 
In  specific  industries 
Service  and  professional 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  in  telephone  communication 
338.826  138  46 


826  2- 

-.826  9 

Other 

Extractive,  manufacturing, 

construction 

Divide  like  620-690,  e.g., 

in  gem  diamond 

mining 

338.826  223  82 

.85 

Trusts 

.86 

Holding  companies 

.88 


International 

Divide  like  338.82-338.86,  e.g.,  international  trusts  338.885 

3^5 


Decimal  Classification 


Economics 


338.9  Production  programs  and  policies 

Scope:  control,  subsidies,  grants  by  government;  nationalization 
Use  338.900  1  -  338.900  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  specific  kinds  of  industries,  see  338.1-338.4 

.902  Autarky  (Self-suflSciency) 

,903  Interdependence 

.91  International 

Foreign  economic  policies,  relations,  assistance 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  338.91,  e.g.,  British  foreign  economic 
policy  338.914  2;  then,  for  foreign  economic  relations  between 
two  countries,  add  0  and  again  add  area  notations  3-9,  e.g., 
economic    relations    between    Great    Britain    and    France 
338.914  204  4 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  country  requiring  local  empha- 
sis, e.g.,  libraries  in  United  States  class  foreign  economic  rela- 
tions between  Great  Britain  and  United  States  in  338.917  304  2. 
If  the  two  countries  require  equal  emphasis,  give  priority  to  the 
country  coming  first  in  the  sequence  of  area  notations 

.93-.99  National,  state,  provincial,  local 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  338.9 

339  Distribution  of  capital  goods  and  consumption  of 

consumer  goods 

Former  heading:  Income  and  wealth 

For  special  methods  of  organization  for  distribution  and 
consumption,  see  334-335 

.2  Distribution  and  accounting  of  income  and  wealth 

Social  and  national  accounting,  economic  budget 

For  personal  income,  see  339.41;  national  income  accounts, 
339.3 

21  Functional  distribution  of  income 

Rent,  wages,  interest,  profits 

J23  Input-output  accounts  ( Interindustry  accounts ) 

Accounts  and  analysis  of  goods  and  services  provided  by  each 
industry  for  all  other  industries  and  consuming  units 

.26  Flow-of -funds  accounts 

326 


339.3 


.4 

.41 

.42 
[.420  7] 

.43 

.46 


.47 


.48 


.49 


National  income  accounts 

Gross  and  net  national  product  by  expenditure  or  cost;  valuation  of 
income,  wealth,  capital 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  339.3 

Consumption  and  conservation  of  income  and  wealth 

Personal  income 
Cost  and  standard  of  living 
Consumer  education 
Class  in  640.73 

Deferred  consumption  (Savings) 
Underconsumption 

Economic  aspects  of  poverty,  hoarding 
For  deferred  consumption,  see  339.43 

Control  of  consumption 

Personal,  social,  government  restrictions 
Including  rationing 

Consumption  of  specific  commodities 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  constunption  of  agricultural  products 
339.486  3 

Conservation  of  national  resources 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  339.49 

For  conservation  policies  for  natural  resources,  see 
333.7-333.9 


3^7 


Decimal  Classification 


Law 


340     Law 


.1 


PriHciples  and  regulations  emanating  from  government  and  applicable  to 

the  people,  in  the  form  of  legislation,  custom,  policies  recognized  and 

kept  in  force  by  judicial  decision 

The  editors  anticipate  the  preparation  at  a  future  date  of  a  completely 

revised  schedule  340,  which  will  provide  for  all  law,  including  law  o 

specific  subjects.  Such  a  schedule  wiU  virtually  eliminate  the  use  of 

standard  subdivision  026  except  as  an  option.  For  the  present,  class  m 

340  without  subdivision  aU  branches  of  law  not  specifically  provided  for 

in  subordinate  numbers 

Class  here  the  foUowing  topics  formerly  provided  for  as  indicated: 


Library  laws 

Press  law 

Prohibition 

Laws  on  Sunday  observance 

Laws  on  citizenship 

Laws  on  wages 

Law  of  real  estate  titles  and  deeds 

Inheritance  of  real  estate 

Price  control  legislation 

Administrative  law 

Correctional  courts 

Insurance  law 

School  laws  and  regulations 

Legal  status  of  women 

Laws,  regulations,  legal  aspects  of  public  health 

Laws  and  regulations  on  engineering 

Laws  on  electrical  installations 

Laws  and  regulations  on  mining  engineering 

Rules  of  the  road  in  seamanship 

Law  on  motor  land  vehicles 

Copyright 

Building  laws 

Plumbing  laws 

Laws  and  regulations  on  area  planning 

Zoning  laws  and  regulations 


[021.89] 

[070.13] 

[178.5] 

[263.8] 

[323.61] 

[331.26] 

[333.34] 

[333.35] 

[338.526] 

[351.94-351.95] 

[364.5] 

[368] 

[379.14] 

[396.2] 

[614] 

[620.07] 

[621.300  7] 

[622.007] 

[623.88] 

[629.213] 

[655.6] 

[692.9] 

[696.9] 

[711.17] 

[711.51] 


340.3 


A 
.5 
.6 

[.9] 


341 


Antiquities 

Torture,  trial  by  ordeal,  trial  by  duel,  benefit  of  clergy,  right  of 
asylum 

Trial  by  jury 

Comparative  legislation 

Medical  jurisprudence  ( Forensic  medicine ) 

Anecdotes 

Class  in  800 

International  law  ( Law  of  nations ) 

Laws,  procedures,  institutions  that  govern  public  relations  between 
sovereign  states,  private  relations  between  their  citizens,  in  peace  and 
war;  international  cooperation  and  international  responsibility  of 
states 

Including  jurisdiction  on  land  and  sea,  in  air  and  space 


.1 


[.106] 


If  preferred,  class  law  of  a  specific  subject  in  standard  subdivision  026 


.01-.09 


Standard  subdivisions 
Class  theories  in  340.1 

Theories 

Including  law  of  nature  (natural  law) 


.11 


SUMMARY 

341.1 

Cooperation  to  promote  peace  and  order 
Treaties 

J 

Law  of  war 

.4 

Criminal  law 

Special  topics 

Pacific  settlement  of  disputes 

Diplomacy 

Consular  systems 

Cooperation  to  promote  peace  and  order 

¥of  pacific  settlement  of  disputes,  see  341.6 

Organizations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  341.11-341.18 


3^^ 


341.11-341.18  Associations  of  sovereign  states 
Class  comprehensive  works  in  341.11 

Class  public  finance  of  associations  of  sovereign  states  [formerly 
341.11-341.18]  in  336.0916 

Comprehensive  works 

Class  general  international  organizations  [formerly  341.11]  in 
060 

For  specific  associations,  see  341.12-341.18 
3^9 


Decimal  Classification 


341.12 


.13 

.132 

.133 

.135 

.137 


.139 


.18 


341.12-341.18  Specific  associations 
Class  divisions  dealing  with  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 

League  of  Nations 

Divide  like  341.13,  e.g..  League  of  Nations  charter  341.122 

United  Nations 
Charter 

General  Assembly  and  general  committees 
Security  Council  and  its  committees 

Secretariat 

Executive  ofiBce,  departments,  personnel 

Relationship  to  specific  countries  and  regions 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  341.139 

Regional  associations 

Associations  of  states  of  specific  regions,  associations  to  promote 
peace  and  order  in  specific  regions 

Add  area  notations   1-9   for  specific  regions  to  341.18,  e.g., 
Organization  of  American  States  341.181  812 

Treaties 

Scope:  process  of  treaty  making,  texts  of  treaties 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  341.2,  e.g.,  treaties  of  Great  Britain 
341.242;  then,  for  treaties  between  two  nations,  add  0  and  again 
add  area  notations  3-9,  e.g.,  treaties  between  Great  Britain  and 
France  341.242  044 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  country  requiring  local  emphasis, 
e.g.,  libraries  in  United  States  class  treaties  between  Great  Britain 
and  United  States  in  341.273  042.  If  the  two  countries  require 
equal  emphasis,  give  priority  to  the  country  coming  first  in  the 
sequence  of  area  notations 


330 


341.3 


Law 


Law  of  war 


341.31_341.37  War  between  nations 


.31 


.32 
.33 


.35 


.36 


.37 


.39 


.4 


.41 

.49 


341.31-341.35  General  principles 

Scope:  law  of  land  warfare 

For  law  of  sea  warfare,  see  341.36;  of  air  warfare,  341.37; 
of  use  of  space  for  belligerent  purposes,  341.52 

Belligerency  and  belligerents 

Commencement,  conduct,  termination  of  war;  reprisals,  spies, 
atrocities,  amnesty,  blockade,  invasion;  rights  of  civiUans, 
noncombatants,  combatants 

For  prisoners  of  war,  see  341.33 

Occupation  by  military  forces 

Prisoners 

Capture,  internment,  treatment,  repatriation,  exchange  of  pris- 
oners of  war;  internment  of  belligerents  by  neutral  nations 

Neutrality  and  neutrals 

Including   commerce  of  neutral  nations,   contraband   of  war, 
right  of  visit  and  search,  armed  neutrality,  nonintervention 

Law  of  sea  warfare 

Including  privateering,  prizes  of  war,  prize  courts,  letters  of 
marque 

Law  of  air  warfare 

Including  aerial  attack  on  cultural  objects,  open  cities 

Civil  war 

Relation  of  other  nations  to  nation  undergoing  civil  war 

Criminal  law 

Including  law  of  extraterritorial  crime 

Trials  of  war  criminals 

Jurisdiction,  procedure,  extradition,  immunity 
For  extraterritoriality,  see  341.7 

33^ 


Decimal  Classijication 


341.5 

.52 


.57 


.59 


.6 


.63 


.65 


.67 

.672 
.674 
.675 
.7 


.8 


Special  topics 

Law  of  outer  space 

Including  sovereignty,  economic  rights,  liability,  use  for 
commerce,  for  belligerent  purposes 

Commercial  law  [formerly  also  380] 
Commerce  by  land,  sea  (maritime  law),  air 
Including  freedom   of  the   seas,  open  seas,   coUisions   at  sea, 
shipwreck 

For  law  of  war.  see  341.3;  law  of  use  of  outer  space  for 

commerce,  341.52 

Private  international  law 

Conflicts  of  laws  of  different  countries  affecting  private  interests 

applicable  to  persons 

Including  regulation  of  jurisdictions 

Pacific  settlement  of  disputes 

Negotiation,  good  offices,  conciliation  and  commissions  of  inquiry, 
outlawry  of  war 

Arbitration  and  mediation 

Including  judicial  settlement,  courts  of  international  arbitration 

Compulsive  measures  short  of  w^ar 

Sanctions,  pacific  blockade,  embargo,  economic  boycott, 
intervention,  international  police 

Reduction,  limitation,  control  of  armaments 
Scope:  disarmament,  demilitarization 

Nuclear  weapons 
Gas  weapons 
Biological  weapons 

Diplomacy 

Laws,  rules,  customs  governing  conduct  of  official  relations  be- 
tween  governments 

Including    capitulations,    extraterritoriaUty,    diplomatic    privileges 
and  immunities,  protocol 


Consular  systems 


33^ 


Law 


342 


.01 
.02 
.03 
.08 

.09 

.1-.9 


343 


.09 


342-349  Municipal  (Internal)  law 
Constitutional  law 

Fundamental  law  of  states 

Use  342.001-342.007  for  standard  subdivisions 


342.01-342.09  Comparative 

Texts 

Conventions 

Systems,  commentaries,  cases,  digests 
Collections  and  anthologies 
Historical  treatment  ( Constitutional  history) 
Class  geographical  treatment  in  342.1-342.9 

Geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  342,  e.g.,  constitutional  law  of  France 
342.44;  then  add  0  and  divide  like  342.01-342.09.  e.g.,  constitu- 
tional history  of  France  342.440  9 

Criminal  law 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  343.09,  e.g.,  criminal  law  of  France 
343.094  4;  then  add  further  as  follows,  e.g.,  penal  codes  in 
France  343.094  401 

01  Penal  codes 

02  Reports 

03  Procedure,  trials,  evidence 

04  Handbooks  and  outlines 


.1 


[.109] 


343.1-343.2  General  principles 
For  specific  kinds  of  offenses,  see  343.3-343.7 

Procedure,  trials,  evidence 

Including  cross-examination,  trial  practice,  instructions  to  juries, 
bail 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  343.09 

333 


Decimal  Classification 


Law 


343.2  Punishments 

.3-.7         Specific  kinds  of  ofiFenses 

Procedure,  trials,  evidence,  punishments 
Divide  like  364.13-364.17,  e.g.,  homicide  343.52 

344  Martial  law 

MiUtary  authority  to  carry  on  government  functions  in  times  of  war  or 
emergency 

^  345-346  United  States  and  British  statutes  and 

cases 

If  preferred,  class  in  349.4-349.9 

345  United  States 

.1  Session  lav^^s  and  statutes  at  large 

.11  Federal  government 

.12  States 

Arrange  alphabetically  by  name  of  state 

.2  Codes  and  revised  statutes 

Divide  like  345.1,  e.g..  Federal  codes  and  revised  statutes  345.21 

^  Law  digests 

Divide  like  345.1,  e.g.,  law  digests  of  states  345.32 

.4  Reports 

Including  Supreme  Court  reports.  Attorney  General's  opinions 

.41  Federal  circuit  and  district  courts 

.415  Regions  and  groups  of  states 

.42  Specific  states 

Arrange  alphabetically  by  name  of  state 

J  Digests  of  cases 

Divide  like  345.1,  e.g.,  digests  of  cases  of  states  345.52 


346  British 

United  Kingdom  and  all  parts  of  Commonwealth 
Divide  like  345,  e.g.,  revised  statutes  346.2 

347  Private  law  and  judicial  system 

Including  common  law 

Use  347.001-347.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  private  law 


•1 
.2 
.3 

.4 

.42 

.5 

.6 

.65 

.7 

.75 
.8 

.9 


.91 


347.1-347.8  Private  law 

Persons 
Real  property 
Personal  property 
Contract  and  quasi  contract 

Sale 
Tort,  negligence,  damage 
Domestic  relations  and  succession 

Succession  (Probate law) 
Commercial  law  Iformerly  also  380] 

Including  agency  law 

Maritime  law 
Equity  (Chancery) 

Including  courts  of  equity  and  chancery 

Judicial  system 

Scope:  courts  of  limited  jurisdiction,  e.g.,  labor  courts  [formerly 

331.16] 

Class  criminal  system  in  343,  administrative  system  in  340 


334 


347.91_347.96  Procedure,  trials,  rules 

For  procedure,  triak,  rules  of  specific  courts  and  couH  systems, 
see  347.99 

Trials 

Including  cross-examination,  trial  practice,  instructions  to 
juries,  bail 

335 


Decimal  Classification 


347  92 

.93 

.94 


.95 


.96 


.97 

.972 
.973 

.974 
.98 


.99 


[348] 


Pleading 

Including  briefs,  arguments,  declarations 

Forms 
Evidence 

Physical  (circumstantial)  evidence;  evidence  of  witnesses  thru 
testimony,  afiBdavits,  depositions 

Remedies 

Civil  and  judicial  remedies,  appellate  procedure 

Local  and  auxiliary  legal  oflBcers 

Including  justices  of  the  peace,  sheriffs,  notaries  pubUc 

347.97_347.99  Courts 
For  courts  of  equity  and  chancery,  see  347.8 

Organization 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  347.99 

Courts  and  court  systems  of  national  governments 

Courts  and  court  systems  of  state  and  provincial 

governments 

Courts  and  court  systems  of  local  governments 

Jurisdiction 

Including  domestic  conflicts  of  laws 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locaUty  in  347.99 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Organization,  jurisdiction,  history,  procedure,  trials,  rules 
Scope:  specific  courts  and  court  systems 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  347.99 

Religious  lav*^ 

Class  Christian  church  law  in  262.9,  ecclesiastic  laws  in  other 
religions  and  in  comparative  reUgion  in  290 


336 


Law 


349 


.1 


Statutes  and  cases  other  than  United  States  and 

British 

By  regions,  areas,  places,  groups  in  general 

Add  area  notation  1  to  349,  e.g..  Islamic  statutes  and  cases 
349.176  7 


.37 
.371 


.372 


349,3-349.9  By  continent,  country,  locality 

.3  Ancient 

.31-.36  China,  Egypt,  Palestine,  India,  Mesopotamia,  Europe 

Add  area  notations  31-36  to  349 


.374 
.374  2 
.374  4 
.375 
.376 
.38-,39 


Rome  ( Roman  law ) 
Pre-Justinian 

Including  the  Twelve  Tables 

Justinian  Code  (Corpus  juris  civilis) 

For  Institutes  and  Code,  see  349.374;  Digest,  349.375; 
Novels,  349.376 

Institutes  and  Code 
Code  (Codex) 
Institutes  (Institutiones) 
Digest  (Digesta,  Pandectae) 
Novels  (Novellaeconstitutiones) 
Greece  and  other  parts  of  ancient  world 
Add  area  notations  38-39  to  349 


,4-.9         Modem 


(Optional:  United  States  and  British  statutes  and  cases;  prefer 

345-346) 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  349,  e.g.,  statutes  and  cases  of  France 

349.44;  then  add  0  and  divide  like  345,  e.g.,  code  of  France 

349.440  2 


337 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


350     Public  administration 

Structure  and  operation  of  agencies  charged  with  conduct  of 

governmental  affairs 

Use  350.000  1  -  350.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  legislative  branch  of  government,  see  328;  judicial  system,  347.9 


.001 
.002 
.003 


.003  2 
,003  4 
.003  5 
.003  6 


.003  7 
.003  72 
.003  73 
.003  9 

.004 


.005 
.007 
.009 

.009  1 
.00912 


350.001-350.009  The  executive 

Bureaucracy 

Separation  of  powers 

Executive  branch 

Class  component  agencies  in  350.004-350.005,  350.009 


350.003  2  -  350.003  6  The  chief  executive 

Powers,  functions,  privileges 

Term  of  office 

Executive  messages,  speeches,  writings 

Impeachment,  abdication,  resignation 


350.003  7  -  350.003  9  Other  aspects  of  executive  branch 
Relationship  to  other  branches  of  government 
To  legislature 
To  judiciary 
Relationship  to  fundamental  instrument 
Constitution,  charter,  basic  law 

Departments  and  ministries 

Class  specific  executive  departments  and  ministries  in 
350.01-350.08 

For  cabinet,  see  350.005 

Cabinet,  cabinet  systems,  coimcils  of  state 
Conflict  of  interest 

Special  commissions,  corporations,  agencies, 
quasi-administrative  bodies 

Regulatory  agencies 

Independent  commissions  and  boards 
33S 


350.009  13 
.00914 
.009  2 


.01 
.02 
.03 
.05 
.06 
.08 


.09 
.091 
.092 
.093 


.1 


.102 


Agencies  headed  by  plural  board 
Agencies  headed  by  single  administrator 
Government  corporations 


350.01-350.08  Specific  executive  departments  and 
ministries 

Foreign  afiFairs 

Finance 

Home  affairs  (Interior) 

Justice 

Defense 

Other 

Divide  like  350.82-350.87,  e.g.,  administration  of  departments 
of  labor  350.083 

Intergovernmental  administration 

Between  central  governments  of  same  level 
Between  central  governments  of  different  levels 
Between  central  governments  and  local  governments 
Class  central  government  control  of  local  units  in  352.002  2 


350.1 

a 

A 

.7 


SUMMARY 

Personnel  management 
Registers  of  personnel 
Civil  service  examinations 
Government  career  service 
Pensions 

Civil  service  system 
Finance  and  public  welfare 
Other  regulations  and  controls 
Governmental  accountability 


350.1-350.4  Civfl  service 

For  civil  service  system,  see  350.6 

Personnel  management 

Procedures  by  which  employees  are  hired,  managed,  replaced 
Use  350.100  1  -  350.100  9  for  standard  subdivisions 


Supervision 


339 


Decimal  Classification 


350.12 


.122 
.123 

.123  2 
.123  22 
.123  23 
.123  3 
.125 

.13 
.131 
.132 
.132  2 
.132  3 
.132  4 
.132  42 
.132  43 

.14 

.142 

.143 

.144 

.145 

.15 

.152 

.153 


350.12 

.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 
.18 


SUMMARY 

Position  and  wage  classificarion  and  payroll 
administration 

Recruitment  and  selection  of  personnel 
Evaluation  and  placement  of  personnel 
Training  of  personnel 
Conditions  of  employment 
Employer-employee  relationships 
Separation  from  service 


Position  and  wage  classification  and  payroll 
administration 

Position  classification 
Classified  pay  plans 
Salaries 

Adjustments 
Deductions 
Wage  incentives 
Payroll  administration 

Recruitment  and  selection  of  personnel 
Recruitment 

Qualification  requirements 
Personal 

Professional  and  occupational 
Special 

Loyalty  oaths 
Veterans'  preference 

Placement  and  evaluation  of  personnel 
Performance  rating 
Promotion 
Demotion 
Transfer 

Training  of  personnel 
Orientation 
In-service  training 


Public  administration 


350.16 
.162 

Conditions  of  employuient 

Promotion  of  personnel  welfare,  satisfaction,  efficiency 

.162  2 

Health  and  safety  progiams 

.162  3 

Welfare  services 

Housing,  transportation,  food  services,  discounts 

.162  5 

Counseling  services 

.162  6 

Educational  programs 

Including  occupational  rehabilitation,  adjusUiient  to 
automation 

.163 

Days  and  hours  of  work 

.164 

Leaves  of  absence 

.167 

Discipline 

.17 

Employer-employee  relationships 

.172 

Employee  representation  in  management 

.173 

Employee  organizations 

.174 

Collective  bargaining 

.175 

Employee  morale 

.176 

Grievances  and  appeals 

.18 

Separation  from  service 

.182 

Retirement 

.183 

Dismissal 

.184 

Retrenchment 

a 

Registers  of  personnel 

ji 

Civil  service  examinations 

Class  examinations  on  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 

A 

Government  career  service 

Ji 

Pensions 

•6 

Civil  service  systeni 

Origin  and  development 

34^ 

Decimal  Classification 


350.7 


.71 
.711 

.712 


350.7-350.9  Specific  administrative  activities  and 
responsibilities 

Finance  and  public  welfare 

SUMMARY 

350.71  Supply  administration 

,72  Fiscal  responsibility 

,74  Police  organization  and  management 

.75  Maintenance  of  public  order  and  seciuity 

,76  Regulation  and  control  of  public  morals 

.77  Regulation  and  control  of  public  health 

.78  Fire  and  accident  protection 

350.71-350.72  Financial  administration 
Supply  administration 
Execution  of  contracts 

Procurement 

Acquisition   of   property,    equipment,    supplies    needed   in 
administration 


.713 

Utilization  and  disposal 

.714 

Records  management 

.72 

Fiscal  responsibility 

.721 

Fiscal  policy 

.722 

The  budget 

OfBcial  estimates  submitted  by  chief  executive 

.722  2 

Formulation  and  preparation 

.722  3 

Adoption 

.722  4 

Revision 

Supplementary  and  deficiency  budget ' 

.723 

Accounting  and  auditing 

.723  1 

Accounting 

.723  2 

Auditing 

34^ 


Public  administration 


350.724 


Tax  administration  [formerly  336.2] 

Use  350.724  001  -  350.724  009  for  standard  subdivisions 


350.724  01  -  350.724  03  General  principles 

.724  01 

Assessment 

.724  011 

Equalization 

.724013 

Valuation  and  appraisal 

.724  02 

Collection 

.724  022 

Liens 

.724  023 

Avoidance 

.724  03 

Appeals 

350.724  2  -  350.724  7  Specific  kinds  of  taxes 

Divide  each  subdivision  identified  by  *  like  350.724  01 
350.724  03,  e.g.,  income  tax  avoidance  350.724  423 


.724  2 

•Real  property 

.724  3 

•Personal  property 

.724  4 

•Income 

.724  5 

•Poll 

.724  6 

•Customs 

.724  7 

Other 

.724  71 

Indirect 

.724  711 

•Excise,  sumptuary,  luxury 

.724  713 

Transaction  (Turnover) 

.724  713  2 

•Sales 

.724  713  5 

•Use 

.724  76 

•Estate,  inheritance,  gift 

.725 

Fiscal  relations  between  jurisdic 

.74 


350.74-350.78  Public  welfare  administration 
Police  organization  and  management 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  350.724  2  -  350.724  7 

343 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


35075 


.751 
.752 
.753 
.754 
.755 
.756 

.76 

.761 

.762 

.764 

.765 

77 


.78 

.782 
.783 

J6 


Maintenance  of  public  order  and  security 

For  regulation  and  control  of  public  morah,  see  350.76 

Protection  of  freedom  of  information 
Protection  of  freedom  of  association 
Control  of  explosives  and  firearms 
Disaster  and  emergency  planning 
Civil  defense  [formerly  355.232] 
Prevention  of  public  violence 

Regulation  and  control  of  public  morals 

Of  liquor  traffic 

Of  gambling 

Of  prostitution  [formerly  301.424  3] 

Of  drug  traffic 

Regulation  and  control  of  public  health  [formerly  also 
614] 

For  regulation  and  control  of  water  supply,  see  350.871 

Fire  and  accident  protection 
Fire  protection  and  prevention 
Accident  prevention  (Safety  measures) 

Other  regulations  and  controls 


SUMMARY 

350.82 

Of  production,  commerce,  consumption 

.83 

Of  labor 

.84 

Of  social  welfare 

.85 

Of  education,  culture,  religion 

.86 

Of  public  works 

.87 

Of  public  utilities 

.88 

Of  justice 

.89 

Of  foreign  affairs  and  defense 

.82 

Of  production  [formerly  338] ,  commerce,  consumption 

.821 

Weights 

and  measures 

.822 

Money 

344 

350.823 

.824 
.825 


.85 

.86 

.862 
.863 
.864 
.865 

.87 


Primary  industries 

Agriculture,  mining,  hunting,  fishing 

Secondary  industries 

Financial  institutions  and  transactions 

Insurance   companies    Hormerly   368],   banks,   savings   and 
loan  associations,  loan  companies 

Including  land  titles  and  deeds  [formerly  333.34],  exchange 
of  securities  [formerly  332.64] 


.826 

Domestic  trade 

.827 

International  trade  [formerly  337] 

.829 

Consumption  (Rationing) 

.83 

Of  labor 

.84 

Of  social  welfare 

Including  reformatories    [formerly  364.76],  prisons    [formerly 
365.6] 

Of  education  [formerly  379.15],  culture,  religion 

Of  public  works 
Public  buildings 
Park  and  recreational  structures 
Roads,  bridges,  tuimels 
Housing 

Of  public  utilities  [formerly  380] 

Use  350.870  01  -  350.870  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


350.870  2  -  350.870  6  General  principles 

.870  2 

Control 

.870  3 

Finances 

.870  4 

Public  ownership 

.870  5 

Privileges 

.870  6 

Obligations 

345 

Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


^ 


Si 


^  350.871-350.878  Specific  public  utilities 

Divide    each    subdivision    identified    by    *    Uke    350.870  2- 
350.870  6,  e.g.,  public  ownership  of  water  supply  350.871  04 

350.871  Water  supply 

.871  02-.871  06  •General  principles 

For  concentration  of  service,  see  350.871  07  - 
350.871  08 


.871  07 
.871  08 
.8715 
.8716 

.872 
.872  2 


350.87107-350.87108  Concentration  of  service 

Urban 

Rural 
Pollution 
Purification 

Power  and  gas 
Electric  power 


.872  202-.872  206 


^General  principles 

For  concentration  of  service,  see  350.872  207 
350.872  208 


350.872  207  -  350.872  208  Concentration  of  service 

.872  207  Urban 

.872  208  Rural 

.872  3  Gas 

.872  302-.872  306  •General  principles 


350.873-350.874  Communication 


.873 


MaU 


.874  Telecommunication 

Divide  like  384.1-384.7,  e.g.,  radiobroadcasting  350.874  54; 
then  add  0  and  divide  further  like  350.870  2  -  350.870  6,  e.g., 
public  ownership  of  radiobroadcasting  350.874  540  4 

.875-.878  Transportation 

Including  registration,  licensing,  inspection  of  motor  land 
vehicles  [all  formerly  629.213] 

Divide  like  385-388,  e.g.,  rapid  transit  350.878  4;  then  add 
0  and  divide  further  hke  350.870  2  -  350.870  6,  e.g.,  pubhc 
ownership  of  rapid  transit  350.878  404 
Divide  as  instructed  under  350.871-350.878 

34^ 


350.88 

Of  justice 

.89 

Of  foreign  affairs  and  defense 

.892 

Foreign  affairs 

.895 

Defense 

Including  civil-military  relations 

.9 

Governmental  accountability 

.91 

Liability 

Of  state  for  mal-,  mis-,  nonfeasance  of  oflScials 

.92 

Control  of  internal  administration 

.99 

Administrative  responsibility 

.991 
.992 
.993 


351 


Personal  liability  of  government  officials  to  the  state  and  to 
individuals  for  torts  committed  in  office 

Abuse  of  administrative  responsibility 
Investigation  of  public  officials 
Impeachment 

Central  governments 

National,  state,  provincial 

Use  351.000  1  -  351.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  administration  of  specific  national,  state,  provincial 
governments,  see  353-354;  military  administration,  355-359 


.001-.009 


.01-.08 


The  executive 

Divide  Uke   350.001-350.009,  e.g.,  bureaucracy   [formerly 
351.1J  351.001 

Specific  executive  departments  and  ministries 

Divide  like  350.01-350.08,  e.g.,  administration  of  defense 
department  351.06 


351.1-351.4  Civil  service 

For  civil  service  system,  see  351.6 

Personnel  management 

Procedures  by  which  employees  are  hired,  managed,  replaced 
Divide  like  350.1,  e.g.,  discipline  [formerly  351.4]  351.167 
Class  bureaucracy  [formerly  351.1]  in  351.001 

347 


m 


1. 


1*4 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


35L2 


.4 


.6 


Registers  of  personnel 
Civil  service  examinations 

Class  examinations  of  local  governments  in  352.005,  on  a  specific 
subject  in  standard  subdivision  076  [both  formerly  351.3] 

Government  career  service 

Class  employee  discipline  [formerly  351.4]  in  351.167 

Pensions 

Civil  service  system 

Origin  and  development 


.7 
.71-.72 


.74 


[.79] 


[.792] 


.8 


.9 
.91 


35L7-351.9  Specific  administrative  activities  and 
responsibilities 

Finance  and  public  welfare 

Financial  administration 

Divide  like  350.71-350.72,  e.g.,  tax  administration  351.724 

Police  organization  and  management  [formerly  also 

351.79] 

Class  management  of  private  police  services  [formerly  351.744] 
in  658 


.75-.78  Other  aspects  of  public  welfare  administration 

Divide  like  350.75-350.78,  e.g.,  fire  and  accident  protection 
351.78 


Police  organization  and  management 
Class  in  351.74 

United  States  Coast  Guard 
Class  in  359.97 

Other  regulations  and  controls 

Divide  like  350.8,  e.g.,  of  labor  351.83 

Governmental  accountability 

Liability 

Of  state  for  mal-,  mis-,  nonfeasance  of  ofiScials 


351.92 
[.94-.95] 

[.98] 

.99 


.991 

.992 
.993 


Control  of  internal  administration 
Administrative  law 
Class  in  340 

Investigation  of  public  oflBcials 
Class  in  351.992 

Administrative  responsibility 

Personal  liability  of  government  officials  to  the  state  and  to 
individuals  for  torts  committed  in  office 

Abuse  of  administrative  responsibility 
Investigation  of  public  oflBcials  [formerly  351.98] 
Impeachment 


352  Local  units  of  government 

Counties,  urban  and  rural  municipalities,  special  districts 
Use  352.000  1  -  352.000  8  for  standard  subdivisions 


.000  9 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment  [formerly 
352.03-352.09] 

Class  specific  local  units  in  352.03-352.09 


.002 
.002  2 
.002  9 


.003 
.004 
.005 


352.002-352.006  General  principles 
For  forms  of  administration,  see  352.007-352.009 

Control  and  accountability 

Central  government  control  of  local  units 

Governmental  accountability 

Divide  like  350.9,  e.g.,  abuse  of  administrative 
responsibdity  352.002  991 

Municipal  incorporation 

Elections 

Civil  service 

Including  civil  service  examinations  [formerly  351.3] 
Class  examinations  on  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 


.006 


Annexation 


349 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


r 


352.007 
.007  2 
.007  3 

.008 


.008  2 
.008  3 
.008  4 
.008  5 

.009 


352.007-352.009  Forms  of  administration 
Class  specific  local  units  in  352.03-352.09 

Rural  units  [formerly  352.008] 
Rural  municipalities  (Townships) 
Counties 

Urban  municipalities 

Cities,  boroughs,  villages,  incorporated  towns 

Class  administration  of  rural  units  in  352.007,  of  special 

districts  in  352.009  [both  formerly  352.008] 

Mayor-council  with  weak  mayor 

Mayor-council  with  strong  mayor 

Council-manager  '  r 

Commission 

•  -■,.-■* 

Special  districts  [formerly  352.008] 
Special-purpose  authorities 


1*  /; 


.009  2 

Economic 

.009  3 

Urban-service 

.009  4 

Metropolitan 

.03-.09  General  administration  of  specific  local  units 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  352.0,  e.g.,  administration  of  New 
York  City  352.074  71 

Class  historical  and  geographical  treatment  [formerly 
352.03-352.09]  in  352.000  9 


352.1 


.12 


.17 
.4 


352.1-352.9  Specific  administrative  activities 

SUMMARY 

352.1  Financial  administration 

^  Police  organization  and  management 

J  Fire  and  accident  protection 

.4  Regulation  and  control  of  public  health 

J  Of  public  buildings 

.6  Of  sanitary  engineering 

.7  Of  other  public  works 

S  Licensing 

.9  Other  activities 

Financial  administration 

Class  local  government  finance  [formerly  352.1]  in  336 

The  budget 

Official  estimates  submitted  by  chief  executive 


.13 

Tax  administration 

.131 

Assessment 

For  special  assessments,  se 

.1312 

Equalization 

.1313 

Valuation  and  appraisal 

.133 

Collection 

.134 

Special  assessments 

.16 

Procurement 

Acquisition  of  property,  equipment,  supplies  needed  in 
administration 

Accounting  and  auditing 

Police  organization  and  management 

Fire  and  accident  protection 

Regulation  and  control  of  public  health 

Including  coroners  [formerly  352.9] 
For  sanitary  engineering,  see  352.6 


350 


352.5-352,7  Regulation  and  control  of  public  works 

Of  public  buildings 

Including  community  centers  [formerly  352.7] 

35^ 


|1 

■I 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


352.6 


.7 


.91 


.92 


.922 
.923 
.926 
.93 


.94 


Of  sanitary  engineering 

Water-supply,  sewage-  and  refuse-disposal  structures 

Of  other  public  works 

Class  community  centers  [formerly  352.7]  in  352.5 


.72 

Cemeteries 

.73 

Park  and  recreational  structures 

.74 

Roads,  bridges,  tunnels 

.75 

Housing 

.8 

Licensing 

.9 

Other  activities 

Class  coroners  [formerly  352.9]  in  352.4 

Regulation  and  control  of  public  utilities 
Divide  like  350.87,  e.g.,  electric  power  352.912  2 

Regulation  of  construction 

Scope:  permits,  codes,  inspections,  standards 

Building  construction  [formerly  692.9] 

Electrical  installations  [formerly  621.300  7] 

Plumbing  [formerly  696.9] 
Maintenance  and  regulation  of  public  order,  security, 
morals 

Divide  like  350.75-350.76,  e.g.,  civil  defense  352.935  5 

Regulation  and  control  of  economic,  welfare,  cultural 
activities 

Divide  Uke  350.82-350.85,  e.g.,  labor  352.943 


.95 

Waste  and  refuse  collection 

.96 

Planning 

.961 

Zoning 

.962 

Land  subdivision 

.98 

Regulation  and  control  of  justice 

352 

p.  353-354  Administration  of  specific  national, 

state,  provincial  governments 

353  United  States  federal  and  state  governments 

If  preferred,  class  in  354 

Use  353.000  01  -  353.000  08  for  standard  subdivisions 

.000  l-.OOO  9  Standard  subdivisions  of  federal  government 

.001-.009  Civil  service,  specific  administrative  activities, 

governmental  accountability  in  federal  government 

Divide  like  350.1-350.9,  e.g.,  fiscal  policy  353.007  21 

.01-.09         The  executive  in  federal  government 

Divide  like  350.001-350.009,  e.g.,  executive  branch  353.03 


.1 

a 

•3 

.4 

.6 


.62 

.63 

.7 

.8 

.81 

.82 

.83 

.84 

.85 


353.1-353.8  Specific  executive  departments  in  federal 

government 

Department  of  State 

Department  of  the  Treasury 

Department  of  the  Interior 

Post  Office  Department 

Department  of  Justice 

Department  of  Defense 

Class  Department  of  the  Navy  in  353.7 

Department  of  the  Army 

Department  of  the  Air  Force  [formerly  358.4] 

Department  of  the  Navy 
Other  departments 

Department  of  Agriculture 
Department  of  Commerce 
Department  of  Labor 

Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare 
Department  of  Urban  Affairs  and  Housing  (Proposed) 

353 


i 


ihi': 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


353.9 


State  governments 


.91 


.92 

.921-.928 

.929 

.9291 

.929  2 

.929  3 

.93 


.94-.99 


353.91-353.93  General  principles 
For  specific  states,  see  353.94-353.99 

The  executive 

Divide  like  350.001-350.009,  e.g.,  powers  of  governors 
353.913  2 

Specific  kinds  of  executive  departments  and 
intergovernmental  administration 

Specific  kinds  of  executive  departments 

Divide  like  350.01-350.08,  e.g.,  labor  departments  353.928  3 

Intergovernmental  administration 

Between  states 

Interstate  agreements,  cooperation,  disputes 

Between  states  and  federal  government 
Between  states  and  local  governments 

Civil  service,  specific  administrative  activities, 
governmental  accountability 

Divide  like  350.1-350.9,  e.g.,  state  civil  service  systems  353.936 

Specific  states 

Add    area    notations    4-9    to    353.9,    e.g.,    administration    of 
government  of  Hawaii  353.996  9;  then  add  further  as  follows: 

000  1-000  9       Standard  subdivisions 

001-009        Civil  service,  specific  administrative  activities, 
governmental  accountability 

Divide  like   350.1-350.9,   e.g.,  civil  service 

system  006 

01-09       The  executive 

Divide    hke    350.001-350.009,    e.g.,    executive 

branch  03 
1-8      Specific  executive  departments 

Divide  hke  350.01-350.08,  e.g.,  labor  department 

83 

9  Intergovernmental  administration 

Divide  like  350.09,  e.g.,  relation  between  state  and 
local  government  93 

354 


354  Other  central  governments 

Scope:  administration  of  air  force  departments  [formerly  358.4] 
(Optional:  United  States  federal  and  state  governments;  prefer  353) 

.1  International 

.3-.9         National,  state,  provincial 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  354,  e.g.,  government  of  Canada  354.71; 
except  for  Germany  add  further  as  follows: 

000  1-000  9       Standard  subdivisions 
001-009        Civil  service,  specific  administrative  activities, 
governmental  accountability 

Divide    like    350.1-350.9,    e.g.,    civil    service 

system  006 

01-09  The  executive  and  its  specific  departments 

01-05       Specific  aspects  of  the  executive 

Divide  like  350.001-350.005,  e.g.,  cabinet  05 
06  Specific  executive  departments  and  ministries 

Divide  like  350.01-350.08,  e.g.,  ministry  of  foreign 

afl^airs  061 
07-09       Otiier  specific  aspects  of  the  executive 

Divide    like    350.007-350.009,    e.g.,    government 

corporations  092 


.43 


Germany 

Use  354.430  001  -  354.430  009  for  standard  subdivisions 


.430  01-.430  09 


Civil  service,  specific  administrative  activities, 
governmental  accountabihty 

Divide  like  350.1-350.9,  e.g.,  civil  service  system 
354.430  06 


.4301 

Bureaucracy 

.430  2 

Separation  of  powers 

.430  3 

Executive  branch 

.430  5 

Cabinet  and  cabinet  system 

.430  6 

Specific  ministries 

Divide  like  350.01-350.08,  e.g.,  ministry  of  foreign  affairs 

354.430  61 

355 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


355 


355-359  Military  administration 

Military  art  and  science  and  their  application  to  conduct  of 
defense  and  warfare 

Class    general    principles    in    355,    administration    of    defense 
departments  in  350.06,  civil-military  relations  in  350.895 

General  principles 

Scope:  application  to  land  warfare,  to  combined  warfare 

Use  355.000  1  -  355.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  application  of  general  principles  to  air  warfare  in  358.4    to 

space  warfare  in  358.8,  to  sea  warfare  in  359,  to  specific  kinds  of  land 

forces  in  356—357 


.001-.009 


Standard  subdivisions  of  general  principles  of  land 
warfare 


355.02-355.07  Basic  considerations  underlying  military 
administration 

.02  War  and  warfare 

.02 1  Overall  concepts 

,021  3  Militarism  and  antimilitarism 

.021  5  Limited  and  total  war 

,021  7  Nuclear  and  conventional  warfare 

.021 8  Scope 

021  82  Warfare  between  and  among  states 

021  84  Insurgent,  revolutionary,  resistance  warfare 

.022  Sociology 

For  sociological  causes  of  war,  see  355.027  4 

,023  Economics 

Costs  and  benefits 

For  economic  causes  of  war,  see  355.027  3 


.027 

Causes 

.027  2 

Political  and  diplomatic 

.027  3 

Economic 

.027  4 

Sociological 

.027  5 

Psychological 

356 

355.028 

.03 

.031 


.032 


.033 
.033  2 

.033  5 


.07 


.1 


Results 

Occupation,  dislocation,  reconstruction 

Defense 

Mutual  security  pacts 

Central  Treaty  Organization,  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Organization,  Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization,  Warsaw 
Pact 

Military  missions  and  assistance 

Add  area  notations  3-9  for  country  visited  or  assisted  to 
355.032,  e.g.,  military  assistance  to  Vietnam  355.032  597 

Military  situation  and  policy 

Situation 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  355.033  2 

Policy 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  355.033  5 
Class  combat  strategy  in  355.43 

Military  research  and  development 


355.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.8 


SUMMARY 

Military  life  and  postmilitary  benefits 

Military  resources 

Organization  and  personnel  of  military  forces 

Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 

Training  maneuvers,  exercises,  drills 

Central  administration 

Military  installations  and  land  reservations 

Military  equipment  and  supplies  (Materiel) 


Military  life  and  postmilitary  benefits 

Use  355.100  1  -  355.100  9  for  standard  subdivisions 


.101-.109  Standard  subdivisions  of  military  life 


357 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


355.11 
.111 
.112 
.113 


.114 


.115 
.115  1 
.1152 
.115  4 


.115  6 

.12 

.123 
.129 


.129  2 
.129  3 


.129  4 
.129  5 


355.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.16 
.17 


SUMMARY 

Service  periods  and  their  termination 

Living  conditions  and  customs  in  peace  and  war 

Discipline,  honor,  remuneration 

Uniforms  as  costume 

Colors  and  standards 

Celebrations 

Ceremonials 


Service  periods  and  their  termination 

Length  of  service 

Promotion 

Inactive  periods 

Leaves,  furloughs,  reserve  status,  status  during  captivity  or 
internment 

Termination  of  service 

Retirement,  resignation,  discharge,  reinstatement 

Veterans'  rights  and  benefits 
Pensions 

Education  and  training 
Employment  and  reemployment 

For  veterans'  preference  in  civil  service  personnel 
selection,  see  350.132  43 

Rehabilitation 

Living  conditions  and  customs  in  peace  and  war 

Servicemen's  morale 
In  specific  situations 

For  servicemens  morale,  see  355.123 

In  garrison 

In  the  field  and  on  the  march 

For  living  conditions  in  battle,  see  355.129  4 

In  batde 

In  prison  and  prison  camp 
358 


355.13 


.133 


.133  2 


.133  4 
.134 


.135 
.14 


.219 


.22 


.223 


Discipline,  honor,  remuneration 
Including  etiquette 

Class  military  ethics  [formerly  355.13]  in  174.9 
For  etiquette  of  uniforms,  see  355.14 

Discipline  and  law 

Including  judge  advocate  general's  corps,  military  police 

Courts-martial  and  courts  of  inquiry 

Organization,  jurisdiction,  procedure  of  general,  special, 
summary  courts-martial  and  of  military  tribunals 

Offenses 
Rewards  and  privileges 

Salutes,    honorary    insignia,    decorations,    medals,    badges, 
orders,  gifts,  special  privileges  and  bonuses 

Remuneration  and  allowances 

Uniforms  as  costume 

Including  identifying  insignia,  etiquette 
Class  issue  and  use  of  uniforms  in  355.81 


.15 

Colors  and  standards 

.16 

Celebrations 

Commemorations,  anniversaries,  jubilees 

.17 

Cerempnials 

2 

Military  resources 

2\ 

Value  and  availability 

Readiness  for  mobilization 


Sabotage  and  its  prevention 


355.22-355.27  Mobilization  of  specific  resources 
Military  manpower  and  womanpower 


355.223-355.225  Specific  elements 
Enlistment,  conscription,  commissioning 

359 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Public  administration 


SH' 


u 


355.224 

Conscientious  objectors 

.225 

Compulsory  service 

For  conscription,  see  355.223 

.225  5 

Universal  training  and  service 

.229 

Womanpower 

For  specific  elements,  see  355.223-355.225 

.23 


[.232] 


.24 
.26 
27 
.28 


.29 

.3 

.31 


Civilian  manpower  and  womanpower 

Including  allocation,  duties,  morale,  internment 

Civil  defense 

Class  administration  in  350.755;  services  in  363.35 

Raw  materials 

Industrial  resources 

Transportation  and  communication  facilities 

Requisitions 

Effective  mobilization  of  resources  thru  application  of  emer- 
gency powers,  calls  to  arms,  commandeering  of  property, 
establishment  of  military  zones 

For  mobilization  of  specific  resources,  see  355.22-355.27 
Demobilization 

Organization  and  personnel  of  military  forces 

Units  organized  for  administrative  purposes 

Army  groups,  armies,  corps,  divisions,  regiments,  smaller  units 

Including  foreign  legions,  parade  and  inspection  units,  other 
special  units  and  formations 


.33 

Hierarchy 

Including  line-and-staff  functions 

.331 

Leadership  and  command 

.332 

OflBcers 

.338 

Enlisted  personnel 

360 

355.34 


.341 
.342 
.343 
.343  2 

.343  3 

.343  4 
.343  7 

.345 
.346 


.347 
.348 

.35 

.351 

.352 

.356 

.357 


^7 


Special  services 

Units  and  services  responsible  for  noncombatant  functions  and 
activities 

Administrative  and  supply  services 

Public  information  services 

Unconventional  warfare  services 

Intelligence 

Including  mapping,  cryptanalysis  services 

Counterintelligence 

Including  security  classification  services 

Psychological  warfare  (Propaganda) 
Subversion  and  sabotage 

Health  services 

Medical,  dental,  nursing,  veterinary 

Recreational  services 

Athletic  games  and  sports,  arts  and  crafts,  music,  dances, 
library  services 

Religious  and  counseling  services 
Women  s  services 

Class  a  specific  service  with  the  subject 

Combat  units  according  to  field  of  service 
Home  guards  and  frontier  troops 
Colonial  and  expeditionary  forces 
Allied  and  coalition  forces 

International  forces 

Troops    under   unified    command    acting   by    supemational 
authorization 

Reserves 


361 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


355.4 


.409 


.423 

.424 
.425 
.426 


.43 


.430  5 
.430  7 


Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 

Scope:  deception  and  camouflage 

Historical  treatment 

Class  geographical  treatment  in  355.47 


Debarkation  and  landing,  skirmishing,  attacks, 
counter  attacks,  retreats 

Including  commando  (hit-and-run)  tactics 


355.423-355.426  Under  specific  conditions 
For  siege  warfare,  see  355.44;  defense  of  home  territory,  355.45 
In  specific  kinds  of  terrain,  climate,  weather 
Using  animals 
In  guerrilla  warfare 

In  cities 

Tactics  in  street  fighting,  house-to-house  fighting,  quelling 
riots 

Strategy 

General  plan  of  combat,  evaluation  and  deployment  of 
resources 

Use  355.430  01  -  355.430  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  siege  warfare,  see  355.44;  defense  of  home  territory, 
355.45 

Limited  and  total  war 
Nuclear  and  conventional  warfare 
362 


355.44 


.45 


.41 
.411 

Logistics  and  field  service                                                            ■ 
Tactics  of  troop  movements                                                    9 

.47 

.412 
.413 

Encampment  tactics                                                                I 
Reconnaissance  tactics                                                             ■ 

.48 

.415 

Troop-support  tactics                                                              1 

Tactics  of  communication,  supply,  medical  service,  prisoner          ■ 
handling                                                                                                  1 

.5 

.52 

.42 

Battle  tactics                                                                                 I 

.54 

.422 

General                                                                                    ■ 

.544 


.547 
.548 

.55 
.58 


.6 


.61 

.611 


Siege  warfare 

Tactics  and  strategy 

Defense  of  home  territory 

Tactics  and  strategy  of  defense  of  frontiers,  coasts,  industrial 
areas,  strategically  valuable  positions 

Tactical  and  strategic  geography 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  355.47 

Technical  analyses  of  military  events 
Real  and  imaginary  wars,  campaigns,  battles 

Training  maneuvers,  exercises,  drills 

Grand  maneuvers 
Basic  training  of  units 
Including  tactical  exercises 

Camp  and  fortification  operations 

Setting  up,  repairing,  dismantling  camps,  temporary 
fortifications,  batteries,  obstacles,  field  kitchens 

Small  arms  and  bayonet  practice 

Self-defense 

Unarmed  combat  and  combat  with  knife 

OflBcers'  maneuvers  and  exercises 
Maneuvers  involving  civil  population 

Warning   and   intelligence   service,   rescue   maneuvers,   safety 

activities,  demonstrations 

Central  administration 

Military  administration  at  top  level 

For  organization  of  military  forces,  see  355.3 


355.61-355.63  Overall  control 
For  specific  elements,  see  355.64-355.69 

General 

Adjutant  general's  department 

3^3 


.6213 
.622 
.622  3 
.63 


.64 


.65 
.66 
.67 
.69 


.7 


.71 


.n 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


355.613 

Personnel  management 

.613  3 

Military 

.613  6 

Civilian 

.614 

Issuance  of  orders 

.62 

Financial 

.621 

Supply  adniinistration 

.621  1 

Execution  of  contracts 

.6212 

Procurement 

Acquisition  of  property,  equipment,  supplies  needed  in 
administration 


Utilization  and  disposal 
Fiscal  responsibility 

Accounting  and  auditing 
Inspectional 


355.64-355.69  Specific  elements 
Paymaster's  department 

Administration  of  pay,  allowances,  pensions 

Subsistence  department 
Clothing  and  equipment  department 
Lodging  administration 
Other  central  administrative  services 
Including  graves  registration  service 

Military  installations  and  land  reservations 

Description,  operation,  use 


355.71-355.75  Permanent  and  quasi-permanent 
installations 

Quarters  for  personnel 

Barracks,  camps,  post  exchanges,  canteens,  prisons 

Medical  installations 

3^4 


355.73 


.74 

.75 

.79 


.81 
.82 


.83 


356 


.1 


•11 


.15 


Artillery  installations 

Arsenals,  ordnance  factories  and  depots,  target  ranges,  artillery 
schools 

Engineering  installations 
Depots  and  testing  grounds 

Supply  depots  and  installations 
Land  (Natural  resources) 

Military  equipment  and  supplies  (Materiel) 

Description,  issue,  operation,  use,  packing,  shipping 

Food,  clothing,  camp  equipment 

Ordnance 

For  combat  vehicles,  see  355.83 

Transportation  equipment 

Trucks,  trains,  ships,  planes,  combat  vehicles,  fuel 


356-359  Specific  kinds  of  technical  and  combat 
forces 

Units  and  services 


356-357  Land  forces 

Class  conduct  of  air  warfare  in  358.4,  of  sea  warfare  in  359, 
comprehensive  works  on  land  warfare  in  355 

For  armored  and  technical  land  forces,  see  358.1-358.3 

Foot  forces 

Infantry 


356.11-356.16  Units 

Regular 

Including  motorized  infantry 

Irregular 

Self-organized  infantry,  guerrillas,  brigand  troops 


357 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


356.16  Special  formations 

Including  light  infantry,  sharpshooters,  machine  gunners, 
grenadiers 

.  1 64  Ski  and  mountain  troops 

,166  Paratroops 

.18  Training,  plans,  operations,  equipment,  supplies, 

installations 

For  units,  see  356.11-356.16 

[.182]  Training  drills 

Class  in  356.184 

.183  Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 

.184  Training  drills  [formerly  356.182] ,  maneuvers, 

exercises 

.186  Equipment  and  supplies  ( Materiel ) 

.187  Installations 

J2  Specialized  foot  forces 

Mounted  forces 
,1  Horse  cavalry 

For  remount  and  training  services,  see  357.2 

.18  Plans,  operations,  training,  installations,  equipment, 

supplies 

.184  Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 

.185  Training  maneuvers,  exercises,  drills 

.187  Installations 

.188  Equipment  and  supplies  (Materiel) 

JZ  Remoimt  and  training  services 

Training  cavalry  mounts,  remount  depots,  breeding  and  care  of 
cavalry  mounts,  horsemanship 


357.5 


Mechanized  cavalry 


.52 
.53 
.54 
.58 


357.52-357.54  Specific  kinds 

Bicycle 

Motorcycle 

Automobile 

Plans,  operations,  training,  installations,  equipment, 

supplies 

Divide  hke  357.18,  e.g.,  equipment  and  sapphes  357.588 

For  specific  kinds  of  mechanized  cavalry,  see  357.52-357.54 


358  Armored  and  technical  land  forces,  air  and  space 

forces 

Use  358.001-358.009  for  standard  subdivisions 


.01-.09 


Standard  subdivisions  of  armored  and  technical  land 
forces 


358.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.8 

SUMMARY 

Artillery  and  armored  forces 
Engineer  forces 
Other  technical  forces 
Air  forces 
Space  forces 

358.1-358.3  Armored  and  technical  land  forces 
Artillery  and  armored  forces 


.12 


.13 
.16 
.17 


366 


358.12-358.17  Artillery 
Field 

Including  antitank  artillery  [formerly  358.18] 

Antiaircraft 

Coast 

Guided  (Strategic)  missile 

Divide  like  623.451  94  -  623.451  96,  e.g.,  long-range 
surface-to-surface  missile-launching  forces  358.175  4 

3^7 


Decimal  Classification 


Public  administration 


h 


** 


358.18 


.22 
.23 

.24 

.25 
3 


.34 
.38 
.39 
.4 


.403 
.407 
.41 


Armored  forces 

Tanks  and  tank  warfare 

Class  antitank  artillery  [formerly  358.18]  in  358.12 

Engineer  forces 

Scope:  pioneers 

Construction 

Roads,  railroads,  bridges,  tunnels,  docks,  airports 

Demolition 

Including  sappers,  torpedo  troops 

Communications  (Signals  and  signaling) 
Including  military  cryptography 

Transportation 

Other  technical  forces 

Including  services  connected  with  construction  of  military  build- 
ings, camouflage,  manufacture  of  war  materiel,  munitions,  powder 

Gas  warfare 
Biological  warfare 
Nuclear  warfare 

Air  forces 

Scope:  conduct  of  air  warfare 

Use  358.400  1  -  358.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  administration  of  United  States  Department  of  the  Air  Force 

in   353.63,  of  other  air  force  departments  in  354    [all  formerly 

358.4] 

Class  conduct  of  land  warfare  in  355,  of  sea  warfare  in  359 

Situation  and  policy 
Research  and  development 
Functions  and  organization 

For  specific  forces,  see  358.42-358.46 


,41 1-.413  Military  life,  resources,  forces 


Divide  like  355.1-355.3,  e.g.,  air  force  uniforms  as  costume 
358.4114 

368 


358.414 


.4141 

.414  12 
.414  15 


.414  2 


.414  3 


.414  5 


.414  7 

.414  8 

.415 
.415  4 
.415  5 
.415  8 


Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 
Scope:  deception  and  camouflage 

For  bombing,  see  358.42;  fighting,  358.43 

Logistics 

For  transportation,  see  358.44;  reconnaissance,  358.45 

Encampment  tactics 
Troop  support  tactics 

Tactics  of  supply,  medical  service,  prisoner  handUng 
For  communications,  see  358.46 

Battle  tactics 

For  defense  of  home  terntory,  see  358.414  5 

Strategy 

General  plan  of  combat,  evaluation  and  deployment  of 
resources 

For  defense  of  home  terntory,  see  358.414  5 

Defense  of  home  territory 

Tactics    and    strategy    of    defense    of    frontiers,    coasts, 
industrial  areas,  strategically  valuable  positions 

Tactical  and  strategic  geography 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  358.414  7 

Technical  analyses  of  military  events 

Real  and  imaginary  wars,  campaigns,  battles 

Training  maneuvers,  exercises,  drills 
Basic  training  of  units 
OfiBcers'  maneuvers  and  exercises 
Maneuvers  involving  civil  population 


.416-.418  Central  administration,  installations,  materiel 

Divide  Uke  355.6-355.8,  e.g.,  air  proving  grounds  358.417  4 


369 


358.42 


.43 


Decimal  Classification 


358.42-358.46  Specific  forces 
Administration,  military  art  and  science,  services,  units 

Bombing 

Including  air-to-surface,  air-to-underwater  guided  (strategic) 
missile-launching  forces 

Pursuit  and  fighting 

Including  air-to-air  guided  (strategic)  missile-launching  forces 


.44 

Transportation 

.45 

Reconnaissance 

Including  weather  reconnaissance 

.46 

Coniiiiunications 

.8 

Space  forces 

Conduct  of  space  warfare 

359 


.03 
.07 
.1-.2 


3 

.31 


.32 


Sea  ( Naval )  forces 

Scope:  conduct  of  sea  warfare 

Use  359.001-359.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  conduct  of  land  warfare  in  355,  of  air  warfare  in  358.4 

Situation  and  policy 
Research  and  development 
Naval  life  and  resources 

Divide  like  355.1-355.2,  e.g.,  judge  advocate  general's  corps 
359.133 

Organization  and  personnel  of  naval  forces 

Units  organized  for  administrative  purposes 

Fleets,  squadrons,  flotillas,  crews,  divisions,  smaller  units 

Types  of  ships 

Divide  like  623.825-623.826,  e.g.,  cruisers  359.325  3 


.33-.37         Other 

Divide  like  355.33-355.37,  e.g.,  supply  services  359.341 

370 


Public  administration 


359.4 


.41 


.42 


.43 


.45 


.47 


.48 


.5-.8 


.9 

.96 

.97 

.98 


.981 


Attack  and  defense  plans  and  operations 

Scope:  deception  and  camouflage 

Logistics 

Divide  like  355.41,  e.g.,  reconnaissance  tactics  359.413 

Battle  tactics 

For  defense  of  home  territory,  see  359.45 

Strategy 

General  plan  of  combat,  evaluation  and  deployment  of 
resources 

For  defense  of  home  territory,  see  359.45 

Defense  of  home  territory  • 
Tactics  and  strategy 

Tactical  and  strategic  geography 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  359.47 

Technical  analyses  of  naval  events 

Real  and  imaginary  wars,  campaigns,  batdes 

Training,  central  administration,  installations,  materiel 

Divide  like  355.5-355.8,  e.g.,  naval  procurement  359.621  2 

Specialist  forces 

Marine 

Coast  guard 

Including  United  States  Coast  Guard  [formerly  also  351.792] 

Technical 

Including  underwater  demolition  teams,  communication 
services 

Artillery 

Including  surface,  underwater  guided  (strategic) 
missile-launching  forces 


.982 


Engineering 


37^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Welfare  and  association 


360     Welfare  and  association 

Use  360.01-360.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1-.9 


Standard  subdivisions  of  welfare 


361 


[.009] 


.02 


.04 


.4 


.5 

.51 

.52 


361-365  General  welfare 

Public   and  private   services,   activities,   methods   intended  to 
promote  social  well-being 

Class  a  specific  activity  of  general  welfare  not  provided  for 
here  with  the  subject,  e.g.,  education  370 

361-362  Social  welfare 

Assistance  to  the  disadvantaged 

Organization  and  practice  of  social  welfare  work 

Use  361.001-361,008  for  standard  subdivisions 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  361.9 

Free  assistance 

Charities,  philanthropy 

Paid  assistance 

Assistance  for  which  the  recipient  pays  all  or  part  of  the  cost 

Planning 
Casework 

Croup  work 

Social   adjustment  of   individuals   promoted  by  participation  in 
voluntary  groups  and  with  assistance  of  group  leader 

Disaster  relief 

From  earthquakes  and  volcanic  eruptions 

From  floods 


36L53 

•54 
.55 
.56 
.57 


.58 


.7 


73 


•8 


.9 


[.09] 


From  effects  of  war 

Relief  of  displaced  persons,  refugees,  prisoners  of  war 

From  epidemics  and  pandemics 

From  famines 

From  fires,  explosions,  mine  and  nuclear  accidents 

From  storms 
Snow,  rain,  wind 

From  transportation  accidents 
Land,  sea,  air,  space 

Public  welfare  work 

Class  a  specific  subject  or  kind  of  public  welfare  work  with  the 
subject 

Private  welfare  work 

Class  a  specific  subject  or  kind  of  private  welfare  work  with  the 
subject 

For  parochial  welfare  work,  see  258 

Fund  raising 

Charitable  bazaars,  drives,  donations,  subscriptions 

Community  organization 

Coordination   thru   social    service   exchanges,    community    chests, 
united  charities 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  social  welfare 
work 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  361.9 


362  Welfare  services  to  special  groups 


37^ 


Scope:  rehabilitation 

Class  welfare  services  to  criminals  and  deUnquents  in  364.6-364.8 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  362.9 

373 


Decimal  Classification 


11 

.12 
.13 
.14 


362.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 

.5 
.6 

.7 
.8 
.9 


SUMMARY 

To  the  physically  ill 

To  the  mentally  ill 

To  the  mentally  retarded 

To  those  suffering  physical  handicaps  and 

disablements 

To  the  poor 

To  the  aged  and  infirm,  to  survivors  and 

dependents 

To  the  young  ( Child  welfare ) 

To  other  groups 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  welfare 

services  to  special  groups 


362.1-362.4  To  those  suffering  illnesses  and  handicaps 

For  services  to  the  aged  and  infirm,  see  362.61;  to  the  young, 
362.7 


362.1  To  the  physically  ill 


Scope:    medical    social    work,    preparation    and    maintenance   of 
medical  records 


362.11-362.14  Nonspecialized  services 

For  services  of  general  convalescent,  nursing,  rest  homes,  see 
362.16;  ambulance  service,  362.18 

Services  of  general  hospitals,  infirmaries,  contagious 
wards 

Services  of  dispensaries,  clinics,  medical  centers 
Services  of  general  sanitariums  for  incurables 
Services  provided  at  home 


.15 

.16 
.18 


Services  of  maternity  hospitals 

Class  homes  for  unmarried  mothers  [formerly  362.15]  in  362.83 

Services  of  general  convalescent,  nursing,  rest  homes 
Ambulance  service 


374 


362.19 


Welfare  and  association 


Services  to  specific  kinds  of  illness 

Scope:  services  of  hospitals,  clinics,  sanitariums,  nursing  homes 
for  specific  diseases 

Divide  like  616-618,  e.g.,  services  to  cancer  patients 
362.196  994 

Class  services  of  hospitals  and  alUed  institutions  for  specific 
physical  diseases  of  the  young  [formerly  362.19]  in  362.781  9 

For  services  of  maternity  hospitals,  see  362.15 


.21 

.22 
.23 

.24 
.29 


.292 


.293 


A 

.41 
.42 
.43 


.58 


To  the  mentally  ill 

Scope :  psychiatric  social  work 


362.21-362.24  Nonspecialized  services 
Seivices  of  psychiatric  hospitals 
Services  of  psychiatric  clinics 
Services  of  sanitariums  and  nursing  homes 
Services  provided  at  home 
Services  to  the  addicted 

Services  of  hospitals,  cUnics,  sanitariums,  nursing  homes 

Alcoholics 

Including  services  of  AlcohoUcs  Anonymous 

Narcotics  addicts 

To  the  mentally  retarded 

Including  services  of  hospitals,  custodial  homes,  aUied  institutions 

To  those  suflFering  physical  handicaps  and  disablements 

Blind  and  partially  sighted  persons 
Deaf,  deaf-mute,  hard-of -hearing  persons 

Crippled  persons 

Paralytics,  spastics,  paraplegics,  amputees 

To  the  poor 

Class  a  specialized  service  with  the  subject 


Legal  aid 


375 


Decimal  Classification 


Welfare  and  association 


362.6  To  the  aged  and  infirm,  to  survivors  and  dependents 

.61  To  the  aged  and  infirm 

Class  services  of  homes  and  asylums  to  survivors  and 
dependents  [both  formerly  362.61]  in  362.62 

.61 1-614  To  those  suffering  illnesses  and  handicaps 

Divide  like  362.1-362.4,  e.g.,  services  provided  at  home  to 
the  physically  ill  362.611  4 

.615  Services  of  homes  and  asylums 

For  services  to  those  suffering  illnesses  and  handicaps,  see 
362.611-362.614 

jSZ  To  survivors  and  dependents 

Including    services    of    homes    and    asylums    [both    formerly 
362.61],  pensions  for  widows  and  orphans 

For  services  to  those  suffering  illnesses  and  handicaps,  see 
362.1-362.4 

.7  To  the  young  ( Child  welfare ) 

Infants,  children,  adolescents 

71  Thru  aid  to  mothers 

Including  day  nurseries,  foster  day  care 
Class  services  to  unmarried  mothers  in  362.83 

[.72]  To  illegitimate  children 

Class  in  362.73 

.73  To  illegitimate  [formerly  362.72]  and  abandoned 

children  and  orphans 

For  pensions  for  orphans,  see  362.62 


.731 

Placement 

,732 

Institutional  care 

Services  of  homes  and  asylums 

Including  houseparents 

.733 

Foster  home  care 

.734 

Adoption 

376 

362.74 
.742 
.743 
.745 
.78 


.8 

.82 


.83 

.84 

.85 

.88 
.9 


363 


07 


To  maladjusted  children 

Services  of  child  guidance  clinics 

Services  of  schools 

Services  of  junior  repubUcs 
To  those  suffering  illnesses  and  handicaps 

Divide  like  362.1-362.4,  e.g.,  services  of  hospitals  and  allied 
institutions  for  specific  physical  diseases  [formerly  362.19] 
362.781  9 

To  other  groups 

To  families 

Including  marriage  and  family  counseling  [formerly  301.426], 
visiting  housekeepers 

To  unmarried  mothers 

Including  homes  [formerly  362.15] 

To  minority  groups 

To  laboring  classes  [formerly  also  331.83] 
Including  migratory  workers 

To  victims  of  crimes  of  violence 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  welfare  services 
to  special  groups 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  362.9 

Other  services 

Class  political  organizations  and  institutions  [formerly  363]  in 
329.006 


SUMMARY 


363.2 
.4 
.6 


Police  services 

Services  in  support  of  order  and  security 

Services  for  control  of  public  morals 

Public  works  services 

Public  utility  services 

Police  services 

For  services  in  support  of  order  and  security,  see  363.3 

Personnel 

Responsibilities,  qualifications,  grades 

377 


Decimal  Classification 


363.23 


.232 


.233 

.234 
.236 


24 

.242 
.243 
.244 
.245 


.245  4 


.248 

:3 


.31 

.32 

.33 

.34 

.35 

.351 

.352 

.353 

.356 

.36 

.4 


Operational  services 

For  prevention  of  crime  and  delinquency,  see  364.4 

Patrol 

Traffic  control 

Pursuit  and  apprehension 

Self-defense 

Unarmed  and  armed  combat 

Auxiliary  services 

Records  and  communications 

Jails 

Laboratories 

Buildings  and  equipment 

For  jails,  see  363.243;  laboratories,  363.244 

Weapons 

For  armed  combat,  see  363.236 

Dogs 
Services  in  support  of  order  and  security 

For  services  for  control  of  public  morals,  see  363.4 

Protection  of  freedom  of  information 
Protection  of  freedom  of  association 
Control  of  explosives  and  firearms 
Disaster  and  emergency  planning 
Civil  defense  [formerly  355.232] 
Training 

Protection  of  population 
Protection  of  property 
Detection  and  warning  systems 
Prevention  of  violence 
Services  for  control  of  public  morals 

Divide  like  350.76,  e.g.,  services  for  control  of  gambling  363.42 

378 


Welfare  and  association 


363.5 


.6 


364 


[.09] 


Public  works  services 

Class  a  specific  service  with  the  subject 

Public  utility  services  {formerly  380] 

Class  communication  and  transportation  services  in  380 


.61 

Water  supply 

.612 

Activities 

.613 

Facilities 

.62 

Electric  power 

Divide  like  363.61,  e.g.,  facilities  363.623 

.63 

Gas 

Divide  like  363.61,  e.g.,  facilities  363.633 

Criminology 

Scope:  comprehensive  works  on  criminology  and  criminal  law 
For  criminal  law,  see  343;  penology,  365 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  364.9 


364.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 


.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 


SUMMARY 

Offenses 

Causes  of  crime  and  delinquency 

Offenders 

Prevention  of  crime  and  delinquency 

.6-.8  Correction  of  crime  and  delinquency 

Punishment  and  other  methods 

Institutions 

Discharged  offenders 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  criminology 


Offenses 


364.12 


.13 
.14 
.IS 
.16 
.17 


SUMMARY 

Detection 

.13-.  17  Specific  kinds  of  offenses 

Against  constituted  authority 
Against  public  health,  safety,  order 
Against  the  person 
Against  property 
Against  public  morals 

379 


Decimal  Classification 


364.12 


.121 


.122 


[.123] 


.125 


.127 
.127  4 
.127  6 
.127  9 

.128 


.13 


.131 


Detection 

Investigation  of  crime,  collection  and  interpretation  of 
evidence,  identification  of  criminals 

Physical  (Circumstantial)  evidence 

For  documents,  see  364.122;  physical  human  characteristics, 
364.125 

Documents 

Including  analysis  of  handwriting  and  typing 

Lie  detection 
Class  in  364.127  9 

Physical  human  characteristics 
Criminal  anthropometry 
Including  fingerprints 

Evidence  of  witnesses 
Secret  agents 
Informers 
Interrogation 

Including  lie  detection  [formerly  364.123] 

Interception  of  communication 

Including  wiretapping 


364.13-364.17  Specific  kinds  of  offenses 

Scope:  case  studies 

Class  offenders  by  kind  of  offense   [formerly  364.13-364.17] 
in  364.3 

For  military  offenses,  see  355.133  4 

Against  constituted  authority 

Class  offenses  against  public  health  and  safety  [both  formerly 
364.13]  in  364.14 

For  offenses  against  public  order,  see  364.14 

Against  the  state 

Treason,  espionage,  conspiracy,  seditious  libel,  subversion, 
incitement,  rebellion,  sabotage 

380 


Welfare  and  association 


364.132 


.133 

.134 

.135 
.138 

.14 


.140  6 

.142 
.143 


Against  public  administration 

Graft,  bribery,  illegal  voting,  offenses  against  postal  laws 
For  offenses  against  administration  of  justice,  see  364.134 

Against  public  revenue 

Counterfeiting,  smuggling,  bootlegging,  tax  evasion 

Against  administration  of  justice 

Perjury,  collusion,  contempt  of  court,  lynching 

Piracy 

War  crimes 

For  genocide,  see  364.151 

Against  public  health,  safety  [both  formerly  364.13] , 

order 

Use  364.140  01  -364.140  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  lynching,  see  364.134;  offenses  against  public  morals, 
364,17 

Illegal  organizations 
Including  Mafia 

Against  public  health 

Against  public  order 

Rioting,    unlawful   assembly,   disorderly   conduct,    carrying 

weapons 

Including    union   racketeering    and    gangsterism    [formerly 

331.880  8] 


.147 

Against  traffic  and  communications  safety 

.148 

Vagrancy 

.15 

Against  the  person 

.151 

Genocide 

.152 

Homicide  and  suicide 

For  genocide,  see  364.151 

.152  2 

Suicide 

.152  3 

Murder 

381 


Decimal  Classification 


364.152  4 
.152  5 
.153 

.154 
.155 


.156 


.163 


.164 


.17 

.172 

.173 

.174 

.178 

J2 


.24 


Assassination 
Manslaughter 
Sex  offenses 

Rape,  adultery,  prostitution,  seduction 

Abduction 

Other  offenses  tending  to  harm  physically 
Robbery,  assault  and  battery,  criminal  abortion 
For  traffic  in  drugs,  see  364.157 

Offenses  tending  to  harm  psychologically 
Criminal  libel,  invasion  of  home  and  privacy 
For  burglary,  see  364.162 


.157 

Traffic  in  drugs 

.16 

Against  property 

.162 

Larceny 

Including  burglary 

For  robbery,  see  364.155 

Frauds 

Forgery,  embezzlement,  extortion,  blaclonafl,  swindles 
Including  fraudulent  degrees 

Wilful  damage  and  destruction  (Vandalism) 
Arson,  explosion,  depredation 

Against  public  morals 
Gambling 
Public  drunkenness 
Obscenity  and  pornography 
Cruelty  to  animals 
Causes  of  crime  and  delinquency 
Environmental  and  hereditary 

Characteristics  of  the  individual 

Factors  of  age,  sex,  health,  mental  superiority  and  inferiority, 
emotional  instability,  physical  abnormalities 

382 


Welfare  and  association 


.255 


.256 


.26 


.3 


.32 


.35 


.36 


.363 

.364 

.37 

•4 

.42 


.43 


Social  factors 
Cultural  factors 

Influence  of  theater,  motion  pictures,  art,  literature,  comic 
books,  radio,  television 

Leisiu'e  and  recreation 

Influence   of   amusement   and   public   parks,   pubUc   dance 
halls,  poolrooms,  bars,  cabarets,  automobiles 

Social  conflicts 

Individual  social  maladjustments,  immigration,  class  hatreds, 
racial  conflicts,  feuds,  vendettas 

Economic  factors 

Industry,  labor,  capital,   employment,  unemployment,   strikes, 
standards  and  cost  of  living,  poverty 

Offenders 

Scope:  offenders  by  kind  of  offense  [formerly  364.13-364.17] 
Class  causes  of  crime  and  delinquency  in  364.2,  prevention  in 
364.4,  correction  in  364.6-364.8 

Criminal  types 

Recidivists,    habitual    and    professional    offenders,    occasional 
offenders,  single  offenders 

Predelinquents 

Potential,  near,  quasi-delinquents 

Juvenile  delinquents 

Including  incorrigibihty 

Boys 

Girls 

Adults 

Prevention  of  crime  and  delinquency 

Control  of  population 

Thru  eugenic  practices,  immigration,  emigration,  segregation 

Control  of  economic  conditions 

383 


Decimal  Classification 


Welfare  and  association 


364.44 


.46 
[.5] 


.6 


.61 


.62 

.63 
.64 
.65 

.66 

.67 

.68 

.682 

.683 

.684 

.7 


.72 


.75 


Law  enforcement 

Use  of  government,  legislation,  community,  home,  church, 
school 

Preventive  police  work 
Correctional  courts 

Class  in  340 


364.6-364.8  Correction  of  crime  and  delinquency 
Punishment  and  other  methods 

Scope:  welfare  services  to  offenders 
For  correctional  courts,  see  340 

Deprivation  of  liberty 

Imprisonment,  detention,  deportation 


364.62-364.65  Conditional  release 
Parole  and  indeterminate  sentence 
Probation,  suspended  sentence,  reprieve 
Pardon  and  amnesty 
Commutation  of  sentence 

Capital  punishment 

Corporal  punishment 

Deprivation  of  economic,  civil,  political  rights 

Fines 

Loss  of  citizenship 

Loss  of  franchise 

Institutions 

Reformatories,  houses  of  correction 
Including  institutions  for  adults 

For  juveniles 

Industrial  and  training  schools,  colonies,  truant  schools 

Plant 

Grounds,  buildings,  equipment 

384 


364.76  Treatment  of  inmates 

Including  labor  and  welfare  services 

Class    administration    of    reformatories    [formerly    364.76]    in 

350.84 

.8  Discharged  offenders 

Rehabilitation,  other  welfare  services 

,9  Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  criminology 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  364.9 

365  Penology 

[.09]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  365.9 

.2  Prison  systems 

Congregate,  soUtary  confinement,  silent,  progressive 

,3  Kinds  of  penal  institutions 

Prisons,  penitentiaries,  jails,  detention  homes,  workhouses,  penal 
farms  and  colonies,  road  camps,  concentration  camps 

Class  specific  institutions  in  365.9 

For  reformatorieSy  houses  of  correction,  see  364.7 

.4  Prisons  for  special  classes  of  offenders 

Including    juveniles,    women,    mentally    ill    (criminally    insane), 
political  prisoners,  debtors 

Class  specific  institutions  in  365.9 

.45  Prisoners  of  war 

Combatants,  noncombatants,  civihans 

^  Prison  plant 

Grounds,  buildings,  equipment 

•6  Inmates 

Class  administration  of  prisons  [formerly  365.6]  in  350.84 


3S5 


Decimal  Classification 


365.64 

Treatment 

Including  escapes 

.642 

Reception  and  classification 

.643 

Discipline 

.644 
.647 

.65 


.66 


.7 


.9 


Rules  and  regulations,  routine,  rights  of  inmates,  restrictions, 
privileges 

Punishments  of  refractory  inmates 
Release  and  discharge 

Convict  labor 

Employment  of  inmates,  lease  system,  chain  gangs,  contract 
system 

Welfare  services 

Educational   work,   religious   and   character   training,   health, 
recreation 

Reform  of  penal  system 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  penology 

Scope;  specific  institutions 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  365.9 


366-369  Association 

Organization  for  common  purposes  of  a  fraternal  nature  or  for 
mutual  assistance 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  366 

For  cooperative  systems  for  production  and  distribution, 
see  334 


366  Comprehensive  works 

.OOl-.OOS  Standard  subdivisions 

[.009]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  366.9 

.01-.09         Standard  subdivisions  of  esoteric  associations  and 
societies 

3S6 


Welfare  and  association 


366.1 
.17 
.18 


J2 
.3 
.38 
.4 

.9 


366.1-366.5  Esoteric  (Secret  and  semisecret) 
associations  and  societies 

Class  standard  subdivisions  in  366.01-366.09 
For  orders  of  knighthood,  see  929.71 

Freemasonry 

Order  of  DeMolay 
Women  in  Freemasonry 

Including  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star 

Knights  of  Pythias 

Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows 

Daughters  of  the  Rebekah 
Rosicrucians 
Benevolent  and  Protective  Order  of  Elks 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  association 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  366.9 


367  Social  clubs 

[.09]  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Do  not  use;  class  in  367.9 

Ji  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  367.9 


368  Insurance 

Association  to  spread  risk 

Including  insurance  of  libraries  [formerly  also  022.2] 

Class  marketing  of  insurance  in  658.8,  government  regulation  and 

control  of  insurance  companies  in  350.825,  insurance  law  in  340  [all 

formerly  368] 

.001-.009  Standard  subdivisions 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world  in  368.9 


Decimal  Classification 


368.01 


.011 
.012 


.014 


.014  5 

.015 

.016 


.06 


.062 
.063 

.07 


.08 


.09 
.092 
.093 
.096 


General  principles 

Scope:  actuarial  science 

Rates  and  rate  making 

Underwriting 

Including  reinsurance 

Claims 

Adjustment  of  claims,  settlement  of  losses 

Fraudulent  claims 
Finance 
Lapsation,  persistence,  termination 

For  adjustment  of  claims,  see  368.014 


368.06-368.08  Specific  forms  of  risk 

Property  risks 

Risk  of  loss  from  impairment  or  destruction  of  property 

Tangible 
Intangible 

Personal  risks 

Risk  of  loss  of  income  or  augmented  expenditure  due  to  hazards 
to  the  person 

Other 

Including  risk  of  consequential  loss 

Conventional  comprehensive  sales  groupings 
Automobile  insurance  [formerly  368.572] 
Aviation  insurance  [formerly  368.576] 
Real  property  insurance 


388 


Welfare  and  association 


SUMMARY 

368.1 

Against  damage  to  and  loss  of  property 

.2 

Against  damage  to  and  loss  of  property  in  transit 

( Transportation  insurance ) 

J 

Against  death,  old  age,  illness,  injury 

.4 

Against  poverty 

.5-.8  Against  casualties  (Casualty  insurance) 

J 

Liability 

.6 

Class  breakage 

.7 

Industrial  casualty 

.8 

Other 

.9 

Insurance  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modern 

world 

p.  368.1-368.8  Specific  kinds  of  insurance 

Use  001-009  for  standard  subdivisions  under  each  subdivision 
identified  by  * 

Add  01   to  each  subdivision  identified  by   *   and  divide  like 
368.01,  e.g.,  underwriting  life  insurance  368.320  12 

368.1  *Against  damage  to  and  loss  of  property 

For  transportation  insurance,  see  368.2;  casualty  insurance, 
368.5-368.8 


.11 

.12 

.122 

.125 
.129 
.14 


.22 


*Fire  insurance 

♦Allied  fire  insurance  lines 

•Disaster  insurance 

Against  damage  and  loss  from  storms,  earthquakes,  floods 

*Riot  and  civil  commotion  insurance 
•Extended  coverage  insurance 
*War  risk  insurance 

*Against  damage  to  and  loss  of  property  in  transit 
(Transportation  insurance) 

Scope:  insurance  against  damage  to  and  loss  of  instrumentalities  of 
transportation 

Including  postal  insurance 
•Ocean  marine  insurance 


*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  368.1-368.8 

389 


Decimal  Classification 


Welfare  and  association 


368.23 


.232 


.233 
.24 


.32 

.36 

.362 
.363 
.364 


*  Inland  marine  insurance 

Class  airport  insurance  [formerly  368.23]  in  368.24 
For  air  transportation  insurance,  see  368.24 

•Automboile  insurance 

Including  truck  and  bus  insurance 

*Raikoad  insurance 
*Air  transportation  insurance 

Including  aircraft  insurance  [formerly  368.576],  airport 
insurance  [formerly  368.23] 

*Against  death,  old  age,  illness,  injury 

For  social  insurance,  see  368.4 

♦Life  instirance 

For  special  fields  of  life  insurance,  see  368.36 

Special  fields  of  life  insurance 
•Industrial  life  insurance 
•Fraternal  insurance 
*War  risk  life  insurance 

Including  National  Service  Life  Insurance 

Class  war  risk  accident  insurance  [formerly  368.364]  in 
368.384 


.37 

•Annuities 

.375 

•Variable  annuities 

.38 

•Accident  and  health  insurance 

.382 

•Prepaid  health  care 

.382  2 

•Medical  and  surgical 

.382  3 

•Dental 

.382  7 

•Hospital 

•  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  368.1-368.8 


368.384 


.386 
.4 

.41 


.42 

.424 
.426 
.43 


.44 


•Accident  insurance 

Including  war  risk  accident  insurance  [formerly  368.364], 
air  travel  accident  insurance  [formerly  368.576],  other 
travel  accident  insurance 

•Disability  income  insurance 

*Against  poverty 

Government-sponsored  social  insurance:  social  security 

•Workmen's  compensation  insurance 

Protection  against  losses  inciurred  thru  disablements  caused  by 
the  job 

•Accident  and  health  insvirance 

For  workmen's  compensation  insurance,  see  368.41 

•Maternity  insurance 

•Accident  and  health  insurance  for  the  aged 
•Old-age  and  survivors'  insurance 

For  accident  and  health  insurance  for  the  aged,  see  368.426 

•Unemployment  insurance 


390 


►  368.5-368.8  Against  casualties  (Casualty  insurance) 

^  *Liability 

.56  Miscellaneous  lines 

Livestock,   owners',  landlords',  tenants',  contractual,   elevator, 
personal 

.57  •Instrumentalities  of  transportation 

.572  •Automobile 

Class  comprehensive  automobile  insurance  [formerly 
368.572]  in  368.092 

.576  •Aviation 

Class  comprehensive  aviation  insurance  in  368.093,  aircraft 
insurance  in  368.24,  air  travel  accident  insurance  in  368.384 
[all  formerly  368.576] 

*  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  368.1-368.8 


Decimal  Classification 


368.6 


.7 


.81 
.815 


.82 
.83 


.84 


.85 


.852 
.853 
,854 

.87 


.88 


*Glass  breakage 

Plate  glass,  windows,  neon  and  fluorescent  signs  and  lamps 

♦Industrial  casualty 

Boiler,  machinery,  power-plant,  nuclear-accident,  power- 
interruption  insurance 

Other 

♦Business  insurance 

♦Business  interruption  insurance 
Including  strike  insurance 

•Burglary,  robbery,  theft  insurance 

♦FideUty  bonds 

Guarantee  against  loss  to  employers  because  of  dishonesty  of 
employees 

♦Surety  bonds 

Guarantee  against  loss  due  to  failure  to  perform  an  obhgation 
or  fulfil  a  contract 

Other  guarantees 

For  credit  insurance,  see  368.87;  title  insurance,  368.88 

♦Mortgage  insurance 

♦Investment  guarantees 

♦Bank  deposit  insurance 

♦Credit  insurance 

Insurance  of  creditor  against  loss  due  to  debtor's  insolvency 

♦Title  insurance 

Insurance  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem  world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  368.9 


♦  Make  standard  subdivisions  and  divide  as  instructed  under  368.1-368.8 


39^ 


Welfare  and  association 


369  Other  kinds  of  associations  and  societies 

.1  Hefeditary,  military,  patriotic  societies  of  United  States 

If  preferred,  class  in  369.23-369.29 

.11  General 

Military  and  naval  orders.  Medal  of  Honor  Legion,  Military 
Order  of  Foreign  Wars  of  the  United  States,  Veterans  of 
Foreign  Wars 

.12  Colonial 

Society  of  Colonial  Wars,  Colonial  Dames,  Mayflower 
Descendants 


.13 


.135 

.14 

.15 


.16 
.17 


.18 

.181 
.186 
.1861 
.186  2 
.186  3 


Revolutionary 

Including   Society   of   the   Cincinnati,   Sons   of   the   American 
Revolution 

Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution 
Commemorating  events  of  1789-1861 

Union  Civil  War 

Grand  Army  of  the   Republic,   Society  of  the  Army   of  the 
Cumberland 

Auxiliary  Union  societies  of  Civil  War 

Confederate  Civil  War 

United  Confederate  Veterans,  United  Daughters  of  the 
Confederacy 

Wars  of  1898  and  later 

Spanish- American  War 

World  Wars  I  and  II  and  Korean  War 

American  Legion 

Amvets 

Disabled  American  Veterans 


393 


Decimal  Classification 


369.2  Hereditary,  military,  patriotic  societies  other  than  United 

States 
21  International 

23-29         Specific  countries 

(Optional:  United  States;  prefer  369.1) 
Add  area  notations  3-9  to  369.2 


•4 

Young  people's  societies 

.42 

Boys' 

For  Boy  Scouts,  see  369.43 

.43 

Boy  Scouts 

.46 

Girls' 

For  Camp  Fire  Girls,  see  369.47 

.463 

Girl  Scouts  and  Girl  Guides 

.47 

Camp  Fire  Girls 

Service  clubs 

Including  Rotary,  Kiwanis,  Lions 


394 


Education 


370     Education 

Class  study  and  teaching  of  a  speciHc  subject  at  elementary  level  in 
372.3-372.8,  at  higher  levels  with  the  subject 

.1  Philosophy,  theories,  principles 

.11  Aims,  objectives,  value 

J 12  Humanistic  education 

.114  Moral,  ethical,  character  education  [all  formerly 

3772] 
.12  Classification  and  other  philosophical  foundations 

Including  ideaUsm,  realism,  pragmatism 

.13  Scientific  aspects 

Divide  like  510-590,  e.g.,  somatological  aspects  370.137  3 
Class  psychological  aspects  in  370.15,  value  in  370.11 

.15  Educational  psychology 

Investigation  of  psychological  problems  involved  in  education, 
together  with  practical  application  of  psychological  principles 
to  education 

.18  Research  methodology 

,183  Siuveys  and  appraisals  of  educational  systems 

Class    surveys    and   evaluation   by   central    government    in 
379.152  2 

,19  Sociological  aspects 

Class  psychological  aspects  in  370.15 

.193  Educational  sociology 

Educational  objectives  and  organization  within  the  frame- 
work of  group  life  as  a  whole 

.193  1  Community  and  school  relations 

Including  parent-teacher  associations  [formerly  371.103] 
Class  relation  of  teachers  to  community  in  371.104 

.193  3  Role  of  school  in  fostering  society 

.193  32  Education  for  individual  fulfihnent 

.193  34  Education  for  social  responsibility 

395 


Decimal  Classification 


370.193  4  Social  problems  affecting  school  organization 

Racial,  cultural,  environmental  factors 

.193  42  Integration  of  specific  groups 

Including  racial  groups  [formerly  371.97] 

.193  44  Segregation  of  specific  groups 

Including  racial  groups  [formerly  371.97] 

.193  46  Rural  education 

,193  48  Urban  education 

.194  Fundamental  education 

Preparation  of  educationally  underprivileged  children  and 
adults  for  effective  participation  in  community  life 

.195  Comparative  education 

.196  Intercultural  education 

Programs  to  promote  mutual  understanding  among  nations 
and  cultures  thru  exchange  of  instructional  materials, 
techniques,  students,  teachers,  technicians 

.7  Study  and  teaching  of  education 

.71  Professional  education  of  teachers 

Including  training  classes  [formerly  370.75],  teachers'  meetings 
Class  schools  and  courses  in  370.73 

.712  For  specific  grades  or  levels 

.712  2  Kindergarten  and  elementary 

.712  3  Secondary 

.712  4  College  and  university 

.72  Teachers'  conferences,  institutes,  v^^orkshops 

Class  research  in  370.78 

.73  Institutions  of  higher  education 

.730  1-.730  9  Standard  subdivisions 

.732  Covu-ses  and  programs 

.732  6  For  specific  grades  or  levels 

,732  62  Kindergarten  and  elementary 

39^ 


Education 

370.732  63 

Secondary 

.732  64 

College  and  university 

.733 

Practice  teaching 

Facilities  and  programs 

[.75] 

Training  classes 

Class  in  370.71 

Class  collecting  and  collections  of  objects  in  370.775 

.76  Professional  education  of  administrators 

Class  review  and  exercise  in  370.776 

.77  Miscellany 

.775  Collecting  and  collections  of  objects 

,776  Review  and  exercise 

,777  Programed  teaching  and  learning 

.778  Use  of  apparatus  and  equipment 

.78  Educational  research 

Divide  like  standard  subdivision  072,  e.g.,  historical  research 
370.782 

Class  use  of  apparatus  and  equipment  in  370.778 

371  The  school 

Organization  and  administration 

Use  371.001-371.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  organization  and  administration  of  the  school  at  a  specific 
level,  see  the  level,  e.g.,  the  elementary  school  372.11-372.18 

.01  The  public  school 

The  tax-supported  school  providing  free  education 
Class  public  education  in  379.2 

.02  The  private  school 

Known  also  as  the  public  school  (in  Great  Britain) 
Class  nonpublic  education  in  379.3 


397 


Decimal  Classification 


371.1 


102 


.103 


.104 
.104  2 

.104  4 

.104  6 

.11 

.12 

.13 

.132 

.133 

.14 

.141 

.1412 

.1414 

.142 


SUMMARY 

371.1  Teaching  and  teaching  personnel 

.2  Educational  administration 

.3  Methods  of  instruction  and  study 

.4  Guidance  and  counseling 

.5  School  discipline 

.6  Physical  plant 

.7  School  hygiene 

.8  The  student 

,9  Special  education 

Teaching  and  teaching  personnel 

Use  371.100  1  -  371.100  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  personnel  management  in  658,3 

Class  nonteaching  personnel  [formerly  371.1]  in  371.201-371.202 
For  methods  of  instruction,  see  3713 

Teacher-student  relation 

Effectiveness  and  influence  of  teacher 
Including  classroom  control  [formerly  371.5] 

Teacher-parent  relation 

Class    parent-teacher    associations    [formerly    371.103]    in 
370.193  1 

Relation  of  teaching  and  teachers  to  community 
Rights  and  obhgations  of  teachers 
For  academic  freedom,  see  371.104  4 

Academic  freedom 
Public  status  of  teaching  and  teachers 
Personal  qualifications 
Professional  qualifications 
Examination  and  certification 
Examination 

Certification  and  registration 
Organization  of  teaching  force 
Duties  and  responsibilities 
Teaching  load 
Nonteaching  activities 
Exchange  of  teachers 

398 


Education 


[371.16] 


[.17] 


.2 


.204 


Compensation  of  teachers 
Class  in  3312 

Teachers*  pensions 
Class  in  331.252 

Educational  administration 

Use  371.200  1  -  371.200  9  for  standard  subdivisions 


371.201-371.202  Nonteaching  personnel  [formerly  also 
371.1] 

Duties  and  responsibilities 


.201 

Administrative 

.2011 

Superintendents 

.2012 

Principals 

.2013 

Supervisors 

.202 

Nonadministrative 

Standards  and  accreditation 

For  central  government  supervision  of  school  standards  and 
accreditation,  see  379.152  1 


SUMMARY 

371.21 

Matriculation 

.22 

Tuition 

.23 
.24 
.25 
.26 

School  year 

School  day 

Grouping  of  pupils  for  instruction 

Educational  tests  and  measurements 

.27 
.28 

Evaluation  of  pupils'  progress 
Promotion  and  retardation 

.29 

Other  topics 

Matriculation 

21 

[.211-.212]         Elementary  schools 

Class  in  372.11-372.18 


[.213] 


[.214] 


Secondary  schools 
Class  in  373.12-373.18 

Colleges  and  universities 
Class  in  378.105 

399 


Decimal  Classification 


371.216 

Admission 

Methods  and  standards 

.217 

Entrance  requirements 

.218 

Articulation 

.219 

School  enrollment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  371.219 

.22 


Tuition 


.23 

School  year 

.232 

Summer  school 

.235 

School  calendar 

.236 

All-year  school 

.24 

School  day 

.242 

Schedules  and  scheduling 

Individual,  class,  all-school 

.2421 

Class  schedules  and  periods 

.242  2 

Homeroom  periods 

.242  4 

Activity  periods 

.244 

Length  of  school  day 

,25 

Grouping  of  pupils  for  instructi 

.251 

Class  size 

.252 

Heterogeneous  grouping 

Without  consideration  for  interests,  abilities,  achievements 


.254 


^55 


Homogeneous  grouping 

On  basis  of  similar  interests,  abihties,  achievements 

Grouping  plans  using  a  combination  of  factors 


400 


Education 


371.26 


^60  13 

.262 

.264 

.264  2 

.264  4 

.264  41 

.264  42 

.264  6 

Educational  tests  and  measurements 

Measurement  of  students'  growth  in  subject  areas  by  use  of 
standardized  achievement  tests 

Administration,  interpretation,  use 

Class  credit  systems  [formerly  371.26]  in  371.281 

Validity  and  reliability  of  tests 

Tests  to  determine  general  education  and  scholarship 

Tests  for  special  purposes 
Educational  quotient 

Assessment  of  achievement 

Academic  prognosis 

Placement  testing 

Educational  guidance 
Vocational  interests 


.27 


.271 


.272 


Evaluation  of  pupils'  progress 

Measurement  of  growth  in  subject  areas  by  examination  based 
on  specific  courses  of  study  or  curriculums 

Tests  and  examinations 

Types,  value,  methods  of  construction 

Marking  systems 

Methods  used  for  recording  and  reporting  the  achievement 
of  pupils  in  school  studies 


.2721 

Grades  and  grading 

.272  2 

Reporting  progress  to  parents 

Thru  school  marks  and  conferences 

.28 

Promotion  and  retardation 

.281 

Credit 

.282 


Including  credit  systems  [formerly  371.26] 

Student  failures  [formerly  also  371.291  3] 

401 


Decimal  Classification 


371.29 
.291 
.2912 
.2913 


.2914 
.3 

.302  8 
.302  81 
.302  82 
.307  8 


.307  81 
.307  82 


.32 


.33 


.331 
.332 
.333 
.333  1 


Other  topics 

Student  mobility 

Graduation  and  commencement 
Dropouts 

Retention  versus  withdrawal 

Class  student  failures  [foTmerly  371.291  3]  in  371.282 

Transfers 
Methods  of  instruction  and  study 

Techniques 

Study  techniques  [formerly  also  029.1] 

Classroom  techniques 
Teaching  aids  and  devices 

Class    textbooks    in    371.32,    audio-visual    materials    in 
371.33 

Curriculum  laboratories 
Courses  of  study 


SUMMARY 

371.32 

Textbooks 

.33 

Audio-visual  materials  for  teaching 

.36 

Project  or  unit  method 

.37 

Discussion  methods 

.38 

Laboratory  method 

.39 

Other  methods 

Textbooks 

Value  and 

use 

Class  textbooks  on  a  specific  subject  at  elementary  level  in 
372.3-372.8,  at  higher  levels  with  the  subject 

Audio-visual  materials  for  teaching 

Methods  and  use 

Class  lecture  method  [formerly  371.33]  in  371.396 

Coordination  of  use 

Dramatic  method  of  teaching 

Auditory  materials  and  devices 

Radio 

402 


Education 

371.333  2 

Phonograph  and  phonograph  records 

.333  3 

Tape  recorder  and  recordings 

.335 

Visual  materials  and  devices 

.335  2 

Pictures 

.335  22 

Slides  and  filmstrips 

.335  23 

Motion  pictin:es 

.335  6 

Bulletin  boards 

.335  8 

Television 

.36 

[.365] 

.37 
.371 
.372 
.373 

.38 
.381 


.382 
.383 
.39 
.391 
[.393] 

.394 
.394  2 
.394  3 
.394  4 


371.36-371.39  Methods  of  organizing  learning 
experiences 

Project  or  unit  method 

Special  day  programs  in  schools 

Class  in  371.895 

Discussion  methods 

Seminars 

Buzz  groups 

Conferences 

Laboratory  method 

Field  trips 

Including  educational  trips,  excursions,  visits   [all  formerly 
371.393] 

Work-study  programs 
Field  w^ork 
Other  methods 

Student  exchange  programs 
Educational  trips,  excursions,  visits 
Class  in  371.381 

Individualized  instruction 
Honors  v^ork 
Independent  study  plans 
Programed  learning 

Auto-instructional  methods 
403 


Decimal  Classification 


371.396 
.4 


.42 

.422 
.425 


Lecture  method  [formerly  371.33] 

Guidance  and  counseling 

Formal  and  informal 

Educational  and  vocational  guidance 
Intellectual  and  educational 

Vocational 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  choice  of  vocation  in  331.702, 
on  obtaining  employment  in  331.115  [both  formerly 
371.425] 


,4251 

Job  selection 

.425  2 

Placement 

.425  3 

Follow-up 

[.426] 

Trade  and  vocational  education 

.46 

.48 


.53 


.54 


Class  trade  and  vocational  education  in  secondary  schools  in 
373.246,  adult  vocational  education  in  374.013 

Social  guidance 
Group  guidance 

School  discipline 

Class  classroom  control  [formerly  371.5]  in  371.102 

Rewards 

Class  competitions,  prizes,  literary  contests  [all  formerly 
371.53]  in  371.891 

Punishments 

Including  specific  punishments  [formerly  371.55-371.56] 


[.55-.56]         Specific  punishments 

Class  in  371.54 


.59 

.6 

.61 


Student  government 

Physical  plant 

Locations,  sites,  grounds 

404 


Education 


371.62 


.621 

[.622] 

.623 


.624 


.625 


.626 
.627 
.628 
.63 


Buildings 

Requirements  based  on  specific  functions 
Scope:  apparatus,  equipment,  supplies 

For  architecture  of  buildings  for  educational  purposes,  see 
727 


371.621-371.625  Rooms  and  buUdings  for  specific 
purposes 

Scope:  furnishings 

Study  rooms,  assembly  rooms,  classrooms 

Libraries  and  museums 

Class  Ubraries  in  022,  museums  in  069.2 

Laboratories,  observatories,  machine  shops 

Including  laboratory  equipment  and  supplies  [both  formerly 
371.66] 

Gymnasiums  and  swimming  pools 

Including    apparatus,    equipment,    supplies    [all    formerly 
371.67] 

Other 

Student  society  houses,  premises,  rooms  [all  formerly 
371.86],  dormitories,  infirmaries,  cafeterias 


371.626-371.628  General  principles 

For  rooms  and  buildings  for  specific  purposes,  see 
371.621-371.625 

Plumbing  facilities 
Lighting  and  use  of  color 
Heating  and  ventilation 

Furnishings 

For  furnishings  in  rooms  and  buildings  for  specific  purposes,  see 
371.621-371.625 


405 


Decimal  dassification 


' 


I 


[371.66] 


.67 


.7 

.71 

.712 


.716 


[.72] 


[.73] 


[.732  2] 


[.74] 


[.75] 


[.76] 


Laboratory  equipment  and  supplies 
Class  in  371.623 

Apparatus,  equipment,  supplies 

Class    apparatus,    equipment,    supplies    for    gymnasiums    and 
swimming  pools  [all  formerly  371.67]  in  371.624 

For  apparatus,  equipment,  supplies  based  on  specific 
functions,  see  371.62 

School  hygiene 

Student  health 

Promotion  and  maintenance 

Health  programs 

Services,  control,  conditions 

Including  care  of  students'  eyes  [formerly  371.72] 

Nutrition 

Lunch  and  milk  programs 

Care  of  students'  eyes 
Class  in  371.712 

Physical  education 
Class  in  613.7 

At  elementary  level 
Class  in  372.86 

Intramural  athletics,  games,  programs 

Class  intramural  athletics  and  games  in  796,  intramural 
programs  in  371.892 

Interscholastic  athletics,  games,  programs 

Class  interscholastic  athletics  and  games  in  796,  interscholastic 
sports  programs  in  371.893 

Health  education 

Class  at  elementary  level  in  372.37,  comprehensive  works  in 
613.07 

406 


Education 

37L77 

Safety  programs 

.774 

Fire  prevention 

.775 

Safety  precautions 

.8 

The  student 

Nonacademic  life  and  welfare 

.805 


[.806] 


.81 


.83 
.84 


.85 
.852 


.854 

.855 

.856 
[.857] 

[.86] 


Student  periodicals 

Class  school  joumaHsm  [formerly  371.805]  in  371.897 

Organizations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  371.83-371.85 

Attitudes  and  behavior 

For  school  discipline,  see  371.5;  guidance  and  counseling,  371.4 


371.83-371.85  Organizations 

General 

In  specific  fields 

Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  literary  societies  371.848 

For  Greek-letter  societies  in  specific  fields,  see  371.854 

Greek-letter  societies  and  fraternities  . 

Honorary 

Not  in  a  specific  subject  field 

In  specific  fields 

Divide  hke  001-999,  e.g.,  social  sciences  371.854  3 

Men  s  social  societies  and  fraternities 
Women's  social  societies  and  sororities 
High  school  Greek-letter  societies 
Class  in  373.12-373.18 

Student  society  houses,  premises,  rooms 
Class  in  371.625 


407 


Decimal  Classification 


371.87 
.871 
.872 
•89 


.891 


.892 


.893 


.894 


.895 


.897 
.9 


.91 

.911 

.912 

.914 

.916 


Housing  and  transportation  of  students 
Housing 
Transportation  [/ormer/y  379.175] 

Activities 

Programs  and  events  sponsored  or  formed  by  schools  or  student 
organizations,  carrying  partial  or  no  academic  credit 

Nonathletic  contests 

Including  competitions,  prizes,  literary  contests  [all  formerly 
371.53] 

Social  and  recreational  activities 

Including  intramural  atMetics  and  games  programs 
[formerly  Z71J^] 

Activities  for  public  entertainment 

Interscholastic  sports  programs  [formerly  371.75],  marching 
bands,  dramatic  groups 

School  service  activities 

For   student    government,    see    371.59;    school   iournalism, 
371.897 

Special  school  festivals  and  celebrations 

Including  special  day  programs  in  schools  [formerly 
371.365] 

Class  school  plays  in  800,  school  pageants  in  791.62,  school 
dramatics  in  792.022-792.028  [all  formerly  371.895] 

School  journalism  [formerly  371.805] 

Special  education 

Education    employing    nonstandard    curriculums    for    exceptional 
students 

Students  with  physical  handicaps 

Blind  and  partially  sighted 

Deaf  and  hard-of-hearing 

Speech  defectives  [formerly  371.927] 

Crippled 

408 


Education 


371.92 
[.927] 

.93 


.94 
.95 
.96 


.97 


.98 


372 


[.09] 


Students  w^ith  mental  deficiencies 

Speech  defectives 
Class  in  371.914 

Delinquent  and  problem  students 
Students  whose  conduct  is  troublesome 

Emotionally  disturbed  students 
Gifted  students 

Students  exceptional  because  of  class  distinction 
Socially  deprived,  nobility,  royalty 

Students  exceptional  because  of  race 

Class  integration  of  racial  groups  in  370.193  42,  segregation  of 
racial  groups  in  370.193  44  [both  formerly  371.97] 

Students  exceptional  because  of  national  origin 
Elementary  education 

Scope:  elementary  education  of  girls  [formerly  376] 
For  special  education,  see  371.9 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  372.9 


SUMMARY 

372.1  The  elementaiy  school 

,2  Levels  of  elementary  education 

.3  Science  and  health 

,4  Reading 

^  Creative  and  manual  arts 

J6  Language  arts  (Communication  skills) 

,7  Mathematics 

Ji  Other  studies 

,9  Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  elementary 

education  and  schools 


4og 


Decimal  Classification 


Education 


372.1 

[.109] 

.11-.18 


.19 


.24 


.241 


.242 


The  elementary  school 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  372.9 

Organization  {formerly  372.2]  and  administration 
Including  matriculation  [formerly  also  371.211-371.212] 
Divide  like  371.1-371.8,  e.g.,  elementary  school  day  372.124 

Curriculums 

Class  courses  of  study  in  specific  elementary  school  subjects  in 
372.3-372.8 

Levels  of  elementary  education 

Class  elementary  school  organization  [formerly  3722]  in 
372.11-372.18 


.21 

Preschool  education 

[.214] 

Storytelling 

Class  in  372.64 

[.215] 

Songs 

Class  in  372.87 

.216 

Nursery  schools 

.218 

Kindergartens 

When  not  considered  part  of  elementary  grades 

Elementary  grades 

Preschool  thru  upper  elementary 

For  preschool  education,  see  372.21 

Primary 

Thru  grade  3 

Upper  elementary 

Grades  4  thru  6,  grades  7  and  8  when  not  part  of  junior  high 
school 


410 


[.51] 


.6 


.61 

.62 


372.3-372.8  Elementary  school  subjects 

Methods  of  instruction,  courses  of  study,  textbooks 


372.3 

Science  and  health 

.35 

Science 

.357 

Nature  study 

.37 

Health  [/ormerZj/ 371.76]  and  hygiene 

.4 

Reading 

.41 

Methods  and  techniques 

.412 

Textbooks 

.413 

Remedial  reading 

[.415] 

Phonetics  and  speech 

Class  in  372.62 

[.42] 

Spelling 

Class  in  372.63 

Creative  and  manual  arts 

Class  drama  [formerly  372.5]  in  372.66 

Handwriting  and  lettering 


Class  in  372.6 

.52 

Drawing,  painting,  design 

.53 

Modeling  and  sculpturing 

.54 

Sewing 

.55 

Handicrafts 

For  sewing,  see  372.54 

Language  arts  (Communication  skills) 

Oral  and  written 

Including  handwriting  and  lettering  [both  formerly  also  372.51] 

For  reading,  see  372.4 

Grammar 

Phonetics  and  speech  [formerly  also  372.415] 

411 


Decimal  Classification 


Education 


:l't 


372,63 

Spelling  [formerly  also  372 A2' 

.64 

Storytelling  [formerly  372.214" 

.65 

Foreign  languages 

.66 

Drama  [formerly  also  372.5] 

.7 

Mathematics 

72 

Arithmetic 

.73 

Other 

.8 

Other  studies 

.83 

Social  studies 

Study  of  people  and  their  environment 

For  history  and  geography,  see  372.89 

.832 

Civics 

.86 

Physical  education  [formerly  371.732  2] 

.87 

Music 

Including  songs  [formerly  372.215] 

.89 

History  and  geography 

.891 

Geography 

.9 


.09 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  elementary 
education  and  schools 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  372.9 


373  Secondary  education 


For  special  education,  see  371.9 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in 
373.3-373.9 


^  373.11-373.18  Organization  and  administration 

373.11  Teaching  and  teaching  personnel 

Divide  like  371.1,  e.g.,  professional  qualifications  of  teachers 
373.112 

.12-.18  Other  elements 

Including  high  school  Greek-letter  societies  [formerly  also 

371.857],  matriculation  [formerly  also  371.213] 

Divide  like  371.2-371.8,  e.g.,  secondary  school  day  373.124 

,19  Curriculums 

For  courses  of  study  in  specific  subjects,  see  375.01-375.99; 
educational  programs  of  secondary  schools  of  specific  curricular 
types,  373.24 

.2  Types  of  secondary  schools 

.22  Types  as  to  control 

.222  Nonpublic 

Known  also  as  public  (in  Great  Britain) 
Including  boarding  schools,  day  schools 

For  church-supported  schools,  see  377.8-377.9 

.224  Public 

•23  Types  as  to  organization 

.231  Organizational  plans 

According  to  grades   covered  by  elementary,  junior  high, 

senior  high  levels 

.236  Junior  high  schools 

.238  Senior  high  schools 

Including  community  colleges  when  considered  part  of  high 
school  system 


,1 

109 


The  secondary  school 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  373.3-373.9 
412 


4^3 


Decimal  Classification 


373.24 

.241 
.242 


.243 
.246 


.246  3 
.246  4 
.246  5 
.246  7 

.3-.9 


Types  as  to  curriculum 

Based  on  and  including  educational  programs 
College  preparatory  (Academic) 

Classical  (Traditional) 

Including  Latin  grammar  schools 


373.243-373.246  Specialized  high  schools 
Military  academies 

Trade  and  vocational  [both  formerly  also  371.426] 
Designed  for  terminal  education 

Agriculture 

Home  economics 

Business  and  commerce  (Distributive  education) 

Industrial  arts 

Comprehensive  high  schools 

Secondary  education  and  schools  by  continent,  country, 
locality 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  373 


374  Adult  education 

Voluntary,  purposeful  eflForts  toward  self -development  of  adults, 
conducted  apart  from  formal  education  by  public  and  private 
agencies 

Scope:  workers'  supplementary  education  [formerly  331.85] 
Use  374.001-374.008  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  special  education,  see  371.9 

.01  Aims  and  objectives 

.012  Remedial 

To  fill  gaps  in  prior  education,  reduce  illiteracy 

,013  Vocational  [formerly  also  371.426]  and  occupational 

.014  Liberal  and  recreational 

To  enrich  interests,  resources,  leisure 
414 


Education 


[374.09] 
.1 

.21 
.22 

[.24] 

.26 
.27 
.28 

.29 


.291 
.292 

.292  2 
.292  3 
.292  4 

A 

.409 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  374.9 

Self -education 

Croup  education 

Methods  and  programs 

Special  interest  groups 

Reading  and  discussion  [formerly  also  374.24]  groups 

Discussion  groups 
Class  in  374.22 

Use  of  radio 

Use  of  motion  pictures  and  television 
Community  centers  for  adult  education 
Institutions  and  agencies 

Including  institutes  and  workshops  [both  formerly  374.8] 

Class  schools  in  374.4-374.8 

Private 
Governmental 

Federal  and  national 

State  and  provincial  ; 

County  and  local 

Correspondence  schools  and  instruction 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world  in  374.44-374.49 


.44_.49  Treatment  by   continent,   countr)%   locality   in   modern 

world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  374.4 


4^5 


Decimal  Classification 


Education 


374.8 


.9 


375 


Continuation  schools 

Schools  above  elementary  level  enabling  young  people  in  trade  or 
industry  to  continue  schooling  in  spare  time 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  374.8 

Class  institutes  and  workshops  [both  formerly  374.8]  in  374.29 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  adult  education 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  374.9 

Curriculums 

Programs  of  study  offered  to  students  by  schools 

Use  375.000  1  -  375.000  8  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  curriculums  at  a  specific  level  with  the 

level 


376.6  Education  of  women  by  level 

.63  Secondary 

.65  Higher 

For  colleges  for  women,  see  376.8 

.7  Coeducation  versus  separate  education  for  women 

.8  Colleges  for  women 

Class  specific  topics  in  378.01-378.36 

Class  specific  colleges  for  women  [formerly  376.8]  in  378.4-378.9 

.9  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  376.9 


.001  Construction  and  designs 

Theory  and  development 

.002  Required  courses 

.004  Elective  cotu:ses 

.006  Evaluation  and  revision 

.009  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

.01-.99  Courses  of  study  in  specific  subjects 

Guides  prepared  for  specific  schools  or  school  systems  as  aids  to 

teaching 

Divide  like  010-990,  e.g.,  history  375.9 

Class  courses  of  study  on  specific  subjects  at  elementary  level  in 

372.3-372.8 

376  Education  of  women 

Class  elementary  education  of  girls  [formerly  376]  in  372 


377 
.1 

[.2] 
.3 


Schools  and  religion 

Religious  instruction  in  nonsectarian  schools 

Moral,  ethical,  character  education 

Class  in  370.114 


Monastic  schools 

[.4]  Diocesan  schools 

Class  in  377.8 

[.5]  Parochial  schools 

Class  in  377.8 

.6  Mission  schools 

Schools  operated  by  reUgious  bodies  as  part  of  their  missionary 
work 


[.09] 


Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  376.9 


Convent  education 


416 


4^7 


Decimal  Classification 


Education 


: 


►  377.8-377.9  Church-supported  schools 

Schools   conducted  by  religious   groups,   usually  without  tax 

support 

Scope:  programs,  problems,  evaluation 

Class  a  specific  school  with  its  level 

For  monastic  schools,  see  377.3;  mission  schools,  377.6 

377.8  Schools  supported  by  Christian  groups 

Including   diocesan   schools    [formerly   377.4],   parochial   schools 

[formerly  377.5] 

Divide  like  281-289,  e.g.,  Roman  CathoHc  schools  377.82 

S  Schools  supported  by  other  groups 

Divide  Uke  292-299,  e.g.,  schools  of  Islamic  faith  377.97 

378  Higher  education 

For  special  education,  see  371.9 


.001 
.002 
.002  5 


.003-.008 


.009 


.01 

.012 

.013 


Philosophy  and  theory 

Miscellany 

Directories 

Class   directories   of  institutions   by   continent,   country, 
locaUty  in  modem  world  in  378.4-378.9 

Dictionaries,  serial  publications,  organizations,  study 

and  teaching,  collections 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world  in  378.4-378.9 

Aims  and  objectives 
General  education 
Professional  education  [formerly  378.99] 

Class    professional    and    graduate    education   in    a    specific 

subject  with  the  subject 


.02 


Finance 


378.04 


.05 


.052 


.053 
.054 


.1 


.101 
.1011 


.1012 

.102 

.103 

.104 

.105 


418 


378.04-378.05  Ownership  and  control  of  colleges  and 
universities 

Privately  operated  institutions 

Class  specific  institutions  in  378.4-378.9 

For  church-supported  schools,  see  377.8-377.9 

Publicly  operated  institutions  [formerly  379.16] 
Class  specific  institutions  in  378.4-378.9 

Community  colleges 

When  not  considered  part  of  high  school  system 

State  colleges  and  universities 
Land-grant  colleges  and  universities 

SUMMARY 

378.1  Colleges  and  universities 

,2  Academic  degrees 

.3  Student  costs  and  finances 

.4-,9      Higher  education  and  institutions  by  continent, 
country,  locality  in  modem  world 

Colleges  and  universities 

Organization  and  administration 

Use  378.100  1  -  378.100  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Government 

Personnel 

Boards,  trustees,  faculty  senates  and  coimcils 

Policies  and  regulations 
Financial  management 
College-community  relations 
Cooperation  among  colleges  and  universities 
Matriculation  [formerly  also  371.214] 

Divide  like  371.216-371.219,  e.g.,  entrance  requirements 
378.105  7 

4^9 


Decimal  Classification 


Education 


I 


378.11 

Administrative  personnel 

Functions  and  duties 

.111 

Academic 

.112 

Nonacademic 

.12 

Faculty 

.121 

Academic  freedom 

.122 

Organization 

.123 

Exchange 

.124 

Personal  and  professional  qualifications 

[.13] 


.14 


.15 


.154 

.154  2 
.154  3 
.154  4 
.155 
.155  2 
.155  3 
.155  4 

.16 


.17 


University  extension 
Class  in  378.155  4 

College  year 

Divide  like  371.23,  e.g.,  summer  school  378.142 

Types  and  levels  of  institutions 

Class  specific  institutions  in  378.4-378.9 

Colleges 

Senior 

Junior 

Evening  colleges 
Universities 

Undergraduate  departments 

Graduate  departments  and  schools 

Extension  [formerly  also  378.13] 
For  evening  colleges,  see  378.154  4 

Academic  control  and  organization  of  student  body 

Divide    like    371.26-371.29,    e.g.,    credit    and    credit    systems 
378.168  1 

Methods  of  instruction  and  study 

Divide  like  371.3,  e.g.,  seminars  378.177  1 
For  educational  exchanges,  see  378.35 
420 


378.18 

.19 
.194 


School  discipline 

Divide  like  371.5,  e.g.,  student  government  378.189 

Other  aspects 

Guidance  and  counseling 

Divide  like  371.4,  e.g.,  educational  guidance  378.194  22 


.196-.  198  Physical  plant,  hygiene,  the  student 

Divide  like  371.6-371.8,  e.g.,  student  activities  378.198  9 


199 


a 

.24 

.241 

.242 

.25 

.28 

.3 

[.32] 


Curriculums 

For  courses  of  study  in  specific  subjects,  see  375.01-375.99 

Academic  degrees 

Earned  degrees 

Course,  residence,  subject  requirements 

Thesis  requirements 

Class  preparation  of  theses  [formerly  378.242]  in  808.02 

Honorary  degrees 
Costumes  and  symbols 

Student  costs  and  finances 

Endowment  of  research 
Class  in  001.44 


378.33-378.36  Financial  aid  to  students 
For  veterans'  education  benefits,  see  355.115  2 


.33 

Fellowships 

.34 

Scholarships 

.35 

Educational  exchanges 

Including  Fulbright  exchanges 

.36 

Student  loans  and  employment 

.362 

Loans  and  loan  funds 

.365 

Employment 

421 

Decimal  Classification 


Education 


378.4-.9 


[-99] 


:5' 


Higher  education  and  institutions  by  continent,  country, 
locality  in  modem  world 

Scope:  specific  colleges  for  women  [formerly  376.8] 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  378 

If  preferred,  arrange  specific  colleges  and  universities  alpha- 
betically under  each  continent,  and  under  specific  countries  re- 
quiring local  emphasis 

If  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  to  a  specific  college  or 
university,  place  it  first  by  use  of  a  letter,  e.g..  University  of  South 
Africa  378.S  (preceding  378.4) 

(Optional:  publications  of  specific  colleges  and  universities;  prefer 
specific  subjects ) 

Subarrange  publications  of  specific  colleges  and  universities 
according  to  the  following  table: 

A  Charter  and  statutes 

B  Trustees  and  regents 

C  Administrative  oflacers 

D  Finances 

E  History 

F  Biographies  and  necrologies 

G  General  catalogs 

H  Annual  catalogs,  attendance  lists,  registers 

I  Handbooks  and  circulars  of  information 

J  Bulletins  and  official  periodicals 

K  Commencements,  inaugurals,  baccalaureate  and  other 

addresses 

L  Programs,  tickets,  memorabilia 

M  Faculty 

N  Lectures,  class  manuals,  examination  questions 

O  Student  theses,  orations,  essays 

P  Student  catalogs  and  society  annuals 

Q  Student  periodicals 

R  Student  societies  and  their  periodicals 

S  Student  miscellany 
'i  Including  songs,  class  days 

T  Alumni 

U  Classes 

V  Pictures  and  class  albums 

W  Buildings  and  grounds 

Z  Professional,  graduate,  other  schools 

Professional  education 
Qass  in  378.013 


379  Governmental  supervision  and  financial  support  of 

education 

.1  General  principles 

Class  applications  in  379.2-379.9 


.12 

.121 
.1212 
.121  22 
.121  24 
.1214 
.121  42 
.12144 

.122 

.123 

.13 

.132 
.134 

[-14] 
.15 


.152 


.152  1 
.152  2 


422 


379.12-379.13  Financial  support 

Federal,  national,  state,  provincial,  local  support  of 
education 

Federal  and  national  aid 

To  elementary  and  secondary  education 

Public 

Nonpublic 

To  higher  education 

Public 

Nonpublic 

Expenditures  and  support  at  state  and  provincial  level 
Expenditures  and  support  at  local  level 

Revenue  sources  for  public  schools 

Bonds  ; 

Taxation 

School  laws  and  regulations 
Class  in  340 

Government  supervision 

Class  pubhc  administration  aspects  [formerly  379.15]  in  350.85 

Central  government  supervision 

Thru  central  agencies 

For  certification  and  registration  of  teachers,  see  371.133 

School  standards  and  accreditation 
Surveys  and  evaluation 
4^3 


n 


Decimal  Classification 


379.153 


.153  1 

.153  5 

.156 


[.16] 


[.175] 


.209 


.23 

.24 

.3 


.4-.9 


School  districts 

Local  supervision  and  responsibility 

School  boards 

Centralization  and  consolidation  [both  formerly  also 

379.175] 

Textbook  selection 
Central  and  local 

Publicly  operated  institutions  of  higher  education 
Class  in  378.05 

Centralization,  consolidation,  transportation 

Class  centralization  and  consolidation  in  379.153  5, 
transportation  of  students  in  371.872 

Public  education 

Class  public  education  at  a  specific  level  with  the  level 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  treatment  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modern 
world  in  379.4-379.9 


379.23-379.24  Governmental  concern  with  and  control 
over  literate  populace 

Compulsory  education 
Illiteracy 

Nonpublic  education 

Class  nonpublic  education  at  a  specific  level  with  the  level,  pro- 
grams of  church-supported  schools  in  377.8-377.9 

Public  education  by  continent,  country,  locality  in  modem 
world 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  379 


424 


Commerce 


380 


Commerce 

Pubhcly  and  privately  owned  and  administered  activities  and  facilities 
for  human  intercourse  thru  exchange  of  goods  and  services,  communica- 
tion, transportation 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  public  utility  services  in  363.6,  public 
regulation  and  control  in  350.87,  management  in  658,  international 
commercial  law  in  341.57,  domestic  commercial  law  in  347.7  [all 
formerly  380] 


.01  Philosophy  and  theory 

.013  Value 

Including  commerce  and  civilization 


.02-.05 

.06 


.07-.08 

.09 

.1 


101 

.102 
.102  5 
.103-.  109 
.13 


.14 


Miscellany,  dictionaries,  serial  pubhcations 

Organizations 

Scope:  chambers  of  commerce,  boards  of  trade 

Study,  teaching,  collections,  anthologies 
Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Exchange  of  goods  and  services  (Trade )  [formerly  382] 
Scope:  marketing  [formerly  338] 
Class  specific  kinds  in  381—382 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Miscellany 

Directories  of  dealers  and  traders 
Other  standard  subdivisions 

Commercial  policy 

For  specific  commodities  and  services,  see  380.14 

Specific  commodities  and  services 


.141 


.142 


380.141-380.144  Primar)^  products 

Agricultural 

Divide  hke  633-638,  e.g.,  rice  380.141  318 

Mineral 

Divide  like  553,  e.g.,  petroleum  380.142  282 


Decimal  Classification 


Commerce 


380.143  Hunting  and  fishing 

Divide  like  592-599,  e.g.,  bearskins  380.143  974  446 

.144  Human  beings  (Slave  trade)  [formerly  326 A] 

.145  Secondary  products  and  services 

Use  380.145  000  1  -  380.145  000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  clothing  380.145  687 

.3  Communication  services 

Class  specific  kinds  in  383-384 

.301-.309  Standard  subdivisions 

.34  Activities 

.35  Facilities 


381.4  Specific  commodities  and  services 


.41 


.42 


.5 


.501-.509 

.51 

.52 

.53 

.58 


Transportation  services  \_formerly  385] 

Class  specific  kinds  in  385-388 

Standard  subdivisions 
Comparative  studies  of  kinds  of  transportation 
Activities 
Facilities 
Mergers  and  consolidations  of  systems 


381 


.3 


381-382  Exchange  of  goods  and  services 
(Trade) 

Scope:  marketing 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  380.1 

Internal  commerce  (Domestic  trade ) 

Commercial  policy 

Promotion  of,  competition  in,  barriers  to  commerce 
For  specific  commodities  and  services,  see  381,4 


.43 


.44 
.45 


382 


.09 


381.41-381.44  Primary  products 

Agricultural 

Divide  like  633-638,  e.g.,  rice  381.413  18 

Mineral 

Divide  like  553,  e.g.,  petroleum  381.422  82 

Hunting  and  fishing 

Divide  like  592-599,  e.g.,  bearskins  381.439  744  46 

Human  beings  ( Slave  trade ) 

Secondary  products  and  services 

Use  381.450  001  -  381.450  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  clothing  trade  381.456  87 

International  commerce  ( Foreign  trade ) 

Scope:  tariflF  [formerly  337],  trade  between  nations,  between  nations 
and  their  colonies,  protectorates,  trusts 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  exchange  of  goods  and  services  [for- 
merly 382]  in  380.1 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  382.09,  e.g.,  international  trade  of 
Great  Britain  382.094  2;  then,  for  trade  between  two  countries, 
regions,  areas,  places,  groups,  add  0  and  again  add  area 
notations  1-9,  e.g.,  trade  between  Great  Britain  and  communis* 
bloc  382.094  201  717 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  country,  region,  area,  place, 
group  requiring  local  emphasis,  e.g.,  libraries  in  United  States 
class  trade  between  Great  Britain  and  United  States  in 
382.097  304  2.  If  the  two  require  equal  emphasis,  give  priority 
to  the  one  coming  first  in  the  sequence  of  area  notations 


382.3 
A 
.5 
.6 
.7 
.9 


426 


SUMMARY 

Commercial  policy 

Specific  commodities  and  services 

Import  trade 

Export  trade 

Tariff  policy 

Trade  agreements 

427 


m 


I 


382.3 


.4 


.41 


.42 


.43 


.44 
.45 


.7 


.71 
72 

.73 
.74 


Decimal  Classification 


Commerce 


Commercial  policy 

Balance  of  trade,  control,  dumping,  correction  of  maladjustments, 
free  ports 

For  tariff  policy,  see  382.7;  specific  commodities  and  services, 


382.4 


Specific  commodities  and  services 


382.41-382.44  Primary  products 

Agricultural 

Divide  like  633-638,  e.g.,  rice  382.413  18 

Mineral 

Divide  like  553,  e.g.,  petroleum  382.422  82 

Hunting  and  fishing 

Divide  like  592-599,  e.g.,  bearskins  382.439  744  46 

Human  beings  ( Slave  trade ) 

Secondary  products  and  services 

Use  382.450  001  -  382.450  009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Divide  like  001-999,  e.g.,  clothing  382.456  87 


i 


382.5-382.6  Direction  of  flow 

For  specific  commodities  and  services,  see  382.4 

Import  trade 
Export  trade 

Tariff  policy 

For  specific  commodities  and  services,  see  382.4;  trade  agreements, 
382.9 


Free  trade  (No  tariff) 

Tariff  for  revenue  ( Fiscal  tariff) 

Protective  and  prohibitive  tariff 

Subsidies  and  drawbacks 

428 


382.78 
.782 


.788 
.9 


.91 


.911 


.913 


Exemptions 

Personal  and  institutional 

Including  commodities  used  for  educational  purposes, 
privileges  for  foreign-service  personnel  and  tourists 

On  relief  supplies 

Trade  agreements 

Class  agreements  on  a  specific  subject  in  382.3-382.6 

Multilateral  agreements  and  customs  unions 
Class  bilateral  agreements  in  382.93-382.99 

Regional 

Add  area  notation  1  to  382.91 

The  ancient  world 

Add  area  notation  3  to  382.91 


.914 
.914  2 

.914  3 
.915-.919 


.93-.99 


382.914-382.919  The  modern  world 

European 

European  Economic  Community   (European  Common 

Market) 

European  Free  Trade  Association 

Other 

Add  area  notations  5-9  to  382.91 

By  specific  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  382.9,  e.g.,  trade  agreements  of 
United  Kingdom  382.942;  then,  for  bilateral  agreements,  add  0 
and  again  add  area  notations  3-9,  e.g.,  agreements  between 
United  Kingdom  and  France  382.942  044 

Give  priority  in  notation  to  the  country  requiring  local 
emphasis,  e.g.,  libraries  in  United  States  class  agreements 
between  United  Kingdom  and  United  States  in  382.973  042.  If 
the  two  countries  require  equal  emphasis,  give  priority  to  the 
country  coming  first  in  the  sequence  of  area  notations 


4^9 


■p: 


Decimal  Classification 


383 


.09 


12 


.120  2 


.120  5 
.122 
.123 
.124 


.125 
.14 


383-384  Communication  services 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  380.3 

Postal  communication 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  national  systems  in  383.49 

Activities  and  facilities 

For  use  of  postage  stamps,  see  383.2 

Types  of  mailable  and  nonmailable  matter 

Use  383.120  01  -  383.120  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Free  mail 

Franking  privileges 

Nomnailable  matter 

Letters,  postal  cards,  other  written  matter 

Periodicals 

Miscellaneous  matter 

Nonperiodical  printed  matter  and  merchandise  of  limited 
weight 

Other  parcels 

Collection,  transportation,  delivery  systems 
For  types  of  mailable  matter,  see  383.12 


383.141-383.144  Long-distance  transport  services 
.141  Instantaneous  facsimile  transmission 

.142  By  sea 

.143  By  land 

.143  5  Railroad 

•143  6  Inland  waterway 

.143  8  Highway 

Including  star  routes  [formerly  383.148] 

430 


Commerce 

383.144 

By  air  and  space  vehicles 

.144  7 

Air 

.144  8 

Space 

.145 

Local  collection,  transport,  delivery 

Including  rural  collection  and  delivery 

For  star  routes,  see  383.143  8 

[.148] 

Star  routes 

Class  in  383.143  8 

.18 

Other 

.182 

Insurance  and  registry  of  mail 

.183 

Special  delivery 

.184 

Collection  of  charges  on  delivery  (COD) 

.185 

Bulk  mail 

.2 

[.22] 

.4 

.41 

.49 


.1 


•14 


Use  of  postage  stamps 

Separate,  precanceled,  printed  on  cards  and  envelopes 

Philately 

Class  in  769.56 

Systems 

International  systems  and  conventions 

National  systems 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  383.49 


384  Other  systems  of  communication 


Class   comprehensive   works   on   communication   in   001.5,   on   mass 
communication  in  301.16  [both  formerly  384] 


384.1-384.7  Telecommunication 

Wire  telegraphy 

For  submarine  cable  telegraphy,  see  384.4 

Activities 

Including  transmission  of  facsimiles  and  specific  lands  of 
messages,  communication  by  teletypewriter  and  ticker 

For  postal  facsimile  transmission,  see  383.141 
43^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Commerce 


384.15 


.4 


.5 

.52 

.53 


.54 

.55 

.554 

.555 


.7 


.9 


Facilities 

Apparatus  and  stations 

Submarine  cable  telegraphy 

Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384.44 

Wireless 

Radiotelegraphy 

Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384.524 

Radiotelephony 

Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384,534 

Radiobroadcasting  [formerly  also  791.44] 
Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384.544 

Television 

Broadcasting  [formerly  also  791  AS] 
Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  facilities  384.554  5 

Closed  circuit  communication 

Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  facilities  384.555  5 

Wire  telephony 

Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384.64 

Alarm  and  warning  systems 

Against  fires,  air  raids,  storms,  floods 

Motion  pictures  formerly  791.43] 
Divide  like  384.1,  e.g.,  activities  384.84 

Visual  signaling 


385 


22 


385-388  Transportation  services 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  380.5 

For  postal  transportation  systems,  see  383.14 

Railroad  transportation 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  transportation  services  [formerly  385] 
in  380.5 

For  local  rail  transit  systems,  see  388.4 


385.2-385.3  Heavy-duty  standard-gage  systems 

Activities 

Scope:  schedules,  routes,  classification 

Passenger  services  "  ' 

Including  baggage,  sleeper,  meal  services 


23 

Express  services 

24 

Freight  services 

26 

Warehousing  and  storage  services 

29 

Free  services 

3 

Facilities 

Jl 

Stationary 

Stations,  terminals,  yards 

.32-.34         Cars 

Divide  like  625.22-625.24,  e.g.,  passenger  cars  385.33 


.36 

.361 
.362-.366 


432 


Locomotives 

Steam 

Other 

Divide  like  625.262-625266,  e.g.,  diesel  385.366 

Light  railway  systems 

Monorailway,  narrow-gage,  industrial,  light  standard-gage 

433 


385.6 


.72 


:i7 


[.9] 


.22 


.24 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Commerce 


Inclined  and  mountain  railway  systems 

Funicular,  rack,  cable 

Railroad  combined  with  other  transportation  systems 

Unitized  cargo 

Including  piggyback  ( trucks,  trailers,  buses,  private 
automobiles  on  flatcars ) 

For  container-ship  operations,  see  387.544 

Ship  railway  systems 

Railways  transporting  vessels  overland  between  bodies  of  water 

Pipeline  transportation 

Class  in  388.5 


386  Inland  waterway  transportation 

JZ  Activities  and  facilities 

Except  for  ships  and  ports,  class  activities  and  facilities  of  specific 
types  of  inland  waterway  systems  in  386.3-386.6 

For  ports,  see  386.8 


Ships 

Description,  history,  rating,  tonnage,  classification 
Divide  like  623.82,  e.g.,  tugboats  386.223  2 

Activities 

Schedules,  routes,  classification 


386.3-386.6  Specific  types  of  inland  waterway  systems 

Activities  and  facilities 

For  ships,  see  386.22;  ports,  386.8 


386.3-386.5  Specific  kinds  of  waterways 

For  ferry  transportation,  see  386.6 

Rivers 

Including  canalized  rivers 

434 


u* 


386.4 


.42 


.43 

.44 

.444 

.445 
.447 

.45 


.46 


.47 
.48 

.6 


Canals 

Existing  and  proposed 

Interoceanic  canals 

For  canals  connecting  specific  oceans,  see  386.43-386.45 


386.43-386.45  Canals  connecting  specific  oceans 
Indian  and  Atlantic  Oceans  (Suez  Canal) 

Atlantic  and  Pacific  Oceans 
Panama  Canal 
Nicaragua  Canal 
Tehuantepec  Canal 

Pacific  and  Indian  Oceans 

Class  canals  connecting  parts  of  one  ocean  [formerly  386.45]  in 
386.46 

Noninteroceanic  canals 

Including   canals   connecting   parts   of   one   ocean    [formerly 
386.45] 

For  types  of  noninteroceanic  canals,  see  386.47-386.48 


386.47-386.48  Types  of  noninteroceanic  canals 

Scope:  specific  canals 

Ship  canals 

Small  craft  and  barge  canals 

Lakes 

Ferry  transportation 

For  passengers,  freight,  vehicles,  trains 

Ports 

Activities  and  facihties 


435 


Decimal  Classification 


387  Water,  air,  space  transportation 

Use  387.000  1  -  387.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  inland  waterway  transportation,  see  386 

.001-.009  Standard  subdivisions  of  water  transportation 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  ocean  (marine)  transportation 

SUMMARY 

387,l-.5  Ocean  (Marine)  transportation 


.1 


.109 


.12 


.122 
.123 
.125 

[.129] 
.13 


.2 


.1 

.2 
.5 
.7 
.8 


Ports 
Ships 
Activities  of  merchant  marine  (Maritime  transport) 

Air  transportation 
Space  transportation 


387.1-387.5  Ocean  (Marine)  transportation 

Class  standard  subdivisions  in  387.01-387.09 

Ports 

Activities  and  facilities 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Including  specific  ports  [formerly  387.129] 

Physiographic  types 

Class  specific  ports  in  387.109 

In  natural  bays 

In  river  mouths,  tidal  rivers,  estuaries 

In  roadsteads 

Specific  ports 
Class  in  387.109 

Free  ports 
I  Class  specific  ports  in  387.109 

Ships 

Description,  history,  rating,  tonnage,  classification 
Divide  like  623.82,  e.g.,  cargo  ships  387.245 


Commerce 


387.5 

Activities  of  merchant  marine  (Maritime  Uansport) 

.52 

Seaways  (Trade lanes) 

.522 

Intercoastal  routes 

.523 

Auxihary,  irregular,  tramp  routes 

.524 

Coastwise  routes 

.54 

Other  activities 

Scope:  shipping,  schedules,  classification 

For  salvage,  see  387.55 

.542 

Passenger  services 

Including  baggage  services 

.544 

Freight  services 

Loading,  handling,  unloading 

Including  container-ship  operations 

.549 

Free  services 

.55 

Salvage 

.7 

.72 
73 
.732-.733 

.736 


.74 


.742 

.744 
.749 

.8 


Air  transportation 

Airways 

Facilities 

Aircraft 

Divide  hke  629.133  2  -  629.133  3,  e.g.,  heUcopters  387.733  5 

Airports  and  landing  fields 

Runways,  terminal  buildings,  hangars,  control  towers, 
warehouses 

Activities 

Schedules,  classification 
For  airways,  see  387.72 

Passenger  services 

Including  baggage  services 

Freight  services 
Free  services 


Space  transportation 


437 


Decimal  Classification 


388 


.3 

.31 

.32 


.322 
.324 
.329 


Ground  transportation 

Other  than  nonlocal  rail  transportation 

Roads  and  highways 

Activities  and  services 

Including  vehicular  bridges  and  tunnels 

Vehicular  transportation 

Traffic  flow  and  maintenance 

Other  activities 

Scope:  schedules,  routes,  classification 

Passenger  services 

Freight  services  (Trucking) 

Free  services 


.33 


.34 
.341 


388.33-388.35  Facilities 

Stationary 

Terminal,  parking,  garage,  repair  facilities 

Class  vehicles  [formerly  388.33]  in  388.34-388.35 


388.34-388.35  Vehicles  [formerly  388.33] 

Conventional 

Carts,  wagons,  carriages 
Including  rickshaws 


.342-.348  Gasoline-,  oil-,  man-powered 

Divide  Uke  629.222-629.228,  e.g.,  taxicabs  388.342  32 
For  rickshaws,  see  388.341 


.349 


Other 


.35 


Air-cushion 


438 


Commerce 


388.4 
.42 
.44 
.46 

.5 


Local  rail  and  trolley  transit  systems 

Underground  (Subways) 

Elevated 

Surface 

Trolleycars  and  -buses 

Pipeline  transportation  Iformerly  385.9] 


389  Metrology  and  standardization 

For  horology,  see  529.7 

•1  Mass  and  dimension 

Weights  and  measures  used  in  commerce  and  daily  life 


.15 

Systems 

Scope:  conversion  tables 

.152 

Metric  system 

.153 

Imperial  (British)  system 

.159 

Other  systems 

Including  proposed  systems 

.16 


.62 


.63 


Standards  and  standardization 

Standardization 

For  standardization  of  weights  and  measures,  see  389.16 

Of  quantity 

For  interchangeability 

Of  quality 

For  performance 


439 


Decimal  dassification 


390     Customs  and  folklore 

Scope:  cultural  anthropology  [formerly  also  572] 
Including  food  customs  [formerly  also  641.3] 
Use  390.001-390.009  for  standard  subdivisions 


.01-.08 

.09 


A 


A 


Standard  subdivisions  of  customs 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment  of  customs 

Scope:    customs  of  specific  continents,  coimtries,  localities  in 
modem  world  [formerly  914-919] 


390,l-390.5  Customs  of  specific  classes  of  people 
Specific  economic  statuses 


^ 

Specific  ranks 

.22 

Royalty 

.23 

Nobility 

.24 

Free  commoners 

.25 

Slaves,  serfs,  peons 

Specific  occupations 

Divide  like  920.1-928.9,  e.g.,  customs  of  lawyers  390.434 

Specific  levels  of  education 


^  391-395  Specific  customs 

Origin,  description,  comparison  of  customs,  practices  [both 
formerly  also  398.3],  taboos,  manners,  habits,  conventions, 
rituals 

For  customs  of  war,  see  399 

391  Costume 

Scope:  fashion  [formerly  also  646.01] 

Use  391.001-391.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  art  aspects  of  costume  [formerly  391]  in  746.9 

.01-.05         Costumes  of  specific  classes  of  people 

Divide  like  390.1-390.5,  e.g.,  costumes  of  lawyers  391.043  4 

440 


Customs  and  folklore 


391.1-.3 


.4 

.41 


.42 
.43 
.44 
.45 
.5 


.6 

.62 

.63 

.64 

.7 


392 


.1 


3 

.32 

.33 
.36 


Outer  garments 

Divide  like  687.11-687.13,  e.g.,  outer  garments  for  women  391.2 

Other  garments  and  auxiliaries 

Hand-,  foot-,  neckwear 

Gloves,  mittens,  muffs,  hosiery,  shoes,  boots,  neckties 

Underwear 

Headgear 

Fans,  parasols,  canes,  eyeglasses 

Buttons 

Hair  styles 

Including  beards,  wigs 

The  person 

Body  contours 

Use  of  cosmetics  and  perfume 
Bathing 
Jewelry  and  tattooing 

Customs  of  life  cycle 

For  death  customs,  see  393 

Birth,  puberty,  majority 

Including  christening,  circumcision,  debuts,  other  rituals  and 
practices 

Family  and  home 

Kinship 

Totems  and  totemism 

Dwelling  places 

Including  heating,  lighting,  furnishings,  sanitation 
Use  392.360  01  -  392.360  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.360  1-.360  5 


Of  specific  classes  of  people 

Divide  Uke  390.1-390.5,  e.g.,  dwelling  places  of  royalty 
392.360  22 

441 


Decimal  Classification 


Customs  and  folklore 


392.37 

Food  and  meals 

.38 

Other  domestic  arts  and  sciences 

.4 

Courtship 

.5 

Marriage 

.6 

Sex  outside  marriage 

.9 

Treatment  of  aged 

393 

Death  customs 

.1 

Burial 

^ 

Cremation 

3 

Embalmment  and  mummification 

.4 

Exposure 

.9 

Mourning 

394  Public  and  social  customs 

Including  swearing,  use  of  signs  and  signboards 

.1  Eating,  drinking,  using  tobacco  and  narcotics 

JZ  Festivals  and  anniversaries 

25  Carnivals 

Including  Mardi  gras  celebrations 

Holidays 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Do  not  use;  class  in  394.269 

Specific  holidays 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  394.269 

,3  Games  and  dances 

.4  Official  ceremonies  and  observances 

Coronations,  inaugurations,  jubilees,  state  visits,  triumphs 

.5  Pageants,  processions,  parades 

For  carnivals,  see  394.25 

442 


.26 
[.260  9] 

.268 
.269 


394.6 


.S 


395 


.1 


2 

22 

,23 


.4 


Fairs 

Knightly  customs 

Dueling  and  suicide 

Etiquette 

Codes  of  social  and  formal  conduct 

For  maitary  etiquette,  see  355.13;  protocol  of  diplomacy,  341.7 

Specific  groups 

Divide  like  170.202,  e.g.,  etiquette  for  children  395.122 

For  specific  occasions,  see  395.2;  specific  activities,  395.3-395.4 

Specific  occasions 

Engagements  and  weddings 
Mourning 


395.3-395.4  Specific  activities 

For  specific  occasions,  see  395.2 


Hospitality  and  table  manners 
Social  letter  writing 


[396]       Woman 

Class  in  301.412 

[.2]  Legal  status  of  women 

Class  in  340 

[397]       Gipsies 

Class  in  area  notation  174 


H3 


398 


.21 
.22 
.23 


.24 


.3 


.32 


Decimal  Classification 


Customs  and  folklore 


Folklore 

Class  belles-lettres  in  800 


SUMMARY 

398.2  Tales  and  legends 

.3  The  real 

,4  The  unreal 

J5  Chapbooks 

S  Riddles 

Ji  Rimes  and  games 

J9  Proverbs 

Tales  and  legends 
Fairy  tales 

Tales  and  legends  of  heroes 
Tales  and  legends  of  places 

Including  tales  of  haunted  places  [formerly  398.32],  original 

home  of  man  [formerly  also  572.4] 

Tales  and  legends  of  animals  and  plants 


398.3-398.4  Subjects  of  folklore 

History  and  criticism 

The  real 

Class  customs,  practices  [both  formerly  398.3]  in  391-395 

Places 

Class  tales  of  haunted  places  [formerly  398.32]  in  398.23 


.322 

Physiographic  features 

.323 

Haunted  places 

.324 

Treasure  trove 

.329 

Specific  places 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  398.329 

^ 

Special  seasons  and  days 

.35 

Persons 

.352 

Kinds 

Women,  children,  kings,  heroes,  witches,  sorcerers 
444 


398.353 


.354 


.355 


.37 


Human  body  and  its  parts 
Including  medical  folklore 

Life  cycle 

Birth,  love,  marriage,  death 

Everyday  life 

Food,  dwellings,  occupations,  recreation 


.36 

Nature  and  natural  phenomena 

.362 

Cosmic  phenomena 

Heavenly  bodies,  weather 

.364 

Fire 

.365 

Minerals 

.368 

Plants 

.369 

Animals 

Superstitions 

Charms,  curses,  dreams,  predictions,  signs,  numbers 


.4 

The  unreal 

.42 

Imaginary  places 

.45 

Beings  of  human  and  semihuman  form 

Demons,  ogres,  fairies,  elves,  gnomes,  vampires 

.46 

Imaginary  minerals,  plants,  animals 

.465 

Minerals 

Inclurling  philosopher's  stone 

.468 

Plants 

.469 

Animals 

BasiUsks,  dragons,  phoenixes,  umcoms,  werewolves 

.47 

Ghosts 

For  haunted  places,  see  398.323 

445 

Decimal  Classification 


398.5 
.6 


.9 


399 


398.5-398.9  Specific  forms  of  folklore 

For  tales  and  legends,  see  398J2 

Chapbooks 
Riddles 

Rimes  and  games 

Nursery  rimes,  counting-out  rimes,  street  cries  and  songs 

Proverbs 

Divide  like  420-490,  e.g.,  Indo-Iranian  proverbs  398.991  1 

Customs  of  war 

Weapons,  dances,  treatment  of  captives,  e.g.,  scalping,  cannibalism 


400 


400  Language 


401 


.9 


404 


Expression  and  comprehension  of  ideas  thru  systematic  symbolism 
Class  language  of  a  specific  subject  with  the  subject 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Including  value 

Universal  languages  [formerly  408.9] 

Psycholinguistics 


402  Miscellany 

403  Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  concordances 


405  Serial  publications 


446 


406  Orgamzabons 

407  Study  and  teaching 

408  Collections  and  anthologies 
[•7] 


[.9] 


409 


Dialectology 

Class  in  417.2 

Universal  and  artificiallanguages 

Class  universal  languages  in  401.3,  artificial  languages  in  499.99 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

447 


Decimal  Classification 


Linguistics  and  nonverbal  language 


410     Linguistics  and  nonverbal  language 

Use  410.01-410.09  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  translation  [formerly  410]  in  418.02 
.1-.9         Standard  subdivisions  of  linguistics 


418 


411 


412 


.028 


415 


411-418  Linguistics 

Science  and  structure  of  spoken  and  written  language 

Scope:    comprehensive    works    on    Indo-European    languages 

[formerly  491] 

Class  linguistics  of  specific  languages  in  420-490 

Notations  ( Alphabets  and  ideographs ) 

Including  hieroglyphics  [formerly  419.25] 

Class  phonetic  transcription  [formerly  411]  in  414 

Etymology 

Phonetic,  graphic,  semantic  development  of  words  and  morphemes 
For  notations,  see  411;  phonology,  414 


.02 

.022 
.028 


Usage  ( Applied  linguistics ) 

Use  418.001-418.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  polyglot  dictionaries,  see  AlZ 

Translation  [formerly  410]  and  interpretation 
By  person 
By  machine 


419  Nonverbal  language 


[.25] 


Hieroglyphics 
Class  in  411 


413  Polyglot  dictionaries 


Lexicography 

Technique  of  recording  lexical  knowledge 


414  Phonology 


Including  phonetic  transcription  [formerly  411],  intonation 

Structural  systems 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 


416 

Prosody 

417 

Dialectology  and  paleography 

.2 

Dialectology  iformerly  408.7] 

.7 

Historical  linguistics  (Paleography) 

Study  of  early  writings 

Class  specific  elements  in  411-416 

448 

449 


Decimal  Classification 


English  and  Anglo-Saxon  languages 


420-490  Specific  languages 

Scope:  comprehensive  works  on  specific  languages  and  their 

literatures 

Divide  as  below,  but,  if  it  is  desired  to  give  local  emphasis  and 

a  shorter  number  to  a  specific  language,  place  it  first  by  use  of  a 

letter  or  other  symbol,  e.g.,  Arabic  language  4A0   (preceding 

420 ) ;  then  divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 

For  literatures  of  specific  languages,  see  810-890 


^  420-480  Indo-European  languages 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  411-418 

For  East  Indo-European  and  Celtic  languages,  see  491 

420     English  and  Anglo-Saxon 

Use  420.01-420.09  for  standard  subdivisions 
.1-.9  Standard  subdivisions  of  English 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  423 


421 


.52 


421-426  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 
English 

Class  standard  English  usage  in  428 

Written  and  spoken  codes 

Including  abbreviations,  acronyms,  punctuation,  capitalization 
For  lexicology,  see  422-423;  structural  system,  425 


.1 

Notation 

[.4] 

Spelling 

Class  in  421.52 

Phonology 

For  intonation,  see  421.6 

Spelling  [formerly  421  A]  and  pronunciation 
Including  spelling  reform,  phonetic  spelling 

For  standard  American  pronunciation,  see  421.54;  standard 
British  pronunciation,  42 1 .55 

450 


421.54 
,55 
.6 

.7 

[.8] 


422 


.4 


423 


.1 


Standard  American  pronunciation 
Standard  British  pronunciation 

Intonation 

Pitch,  stress,  juncture  (pauses) 
Paleography 

Study  of  early  writings 

Dictionaries  of  abbreviations 

Class  in  423.1 


422-423  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [dl  formerly  4241 

Etymology 

Phonetic,  graphic,  semantic  development  of  words  and  morphemes 
For  notation,  see  421.1;  phonologtj,  421.5 

Foreign  elements 

Divide  Uke  430-490,  e.g.,  French  words  in  EngHsh  422.44 
When   dividing   other   languages    as    instnicted   under   430-490 
divide  numbers  corresponding  to  422.4  hke  420-490,  e.g.,  English 
words  in  French  442.42 

Dictionaries 

Specialized 

Abbreviations  [formerly  421.8],  acronyms,  synonyms,  antonyms, 
homonyms 


,3-.9         Bilingual 


Divide  hke  430-490,  e.g.,  dictionaries  of  German  and  EngUsh 
423.3 

When  dividing  other  languages  as  instructed  under  430-490, 
interpret  this  entry  as  423.2-423.9  and  divide  hke  420-490 
Class  bihngual  dictionaries  with  the  language  requiring  local 
emphasis,  e.g.,  hbraries  in  Enghsh-speaking  regions  class  diction- 
aries of  German  and  English  in  433.2.  If  the  two  languages  re- 
quire equal  emphasis,  class  with  the  language  coming  later  m  the 
sequence  420-490 


451 


'    i 


Decimal  Classification 


[424] 


425 


Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  422-423,  standard  usage  in  428 

Structural  system 

Fonner  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 


426  Prosody 

427  Nonstandard  English 

Description,  analysis,  usage 
For  Old  English  see  429 


.02 

.09 


.1-.8 


428 


.02 


.1 


Middle  English,  1100-1500 
Modern  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 


427,l-427.9  Regional  variations 

In  England 

Divide  Uke  area  notations  421-428,  e.g.,  dialects  of  London  427.1 

In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  427.9 

Standard  English  usage  ( Applied  linguistics ) 

General  English,  formal  Enghsh,  infonnal  EngUsh,  Basic  English; 
synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  424] 
Use  428.001-428.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  dictionaries,  see  423;  composition,  808.042 

Translating  and  interpreting  from  other  languages 
Divide  like  418.02,  e.g.,  machine  translation  428.028 

Spelling  and  pronunciation 


428.2 


.24 


.34 


.4 


.42 


.43 


.6 


English  and  Anglo-Saxon  languages 


.62 


428.2-428.3  Expression 

Structural  approach 

Formal  presentation  of  grammar,  vocabulary,  reading  selections 
For  spelling  and  pronunciation,  see  428.1;  reading,  428.4 

For  those  whose  native  language  is  not  English 

Divide  hke  430-490,  e.g.,  English  for  Spanish-speaking  people 

428.246 

When  dividing  other  languages  as  instructed  under  430-490. 

divide  numbers   corresponding  to  428.24   like   420-490,  e.g., 

Spanish  for  Enghsh-speaking  people  468.242 

Audio-lingual  approach 

Informal  presentation  thru  practice  in  correct  usage 
For  pronunciation,  see  428.1 

For  those  whose  native  language  is  not  English 

Divide  like  430-490,  e.g.,  English  speech  for  Spanish-speaking 
people  428.346 

When  dividing  other  languages  as  instructed  under  430-490, 
divide  numbers  corresponding  to  428.34  like  420-490,  e.g., 
Spanish  for  Enghsh-speaking  people  468.342 

Reading 

For  readers,  see  428.6 

Remedial  reading 

Correcting  faulty  habits  and  increasing  proficiency 

Developmental  reading 

Increasing  reading  power  and  efficiency 

Readers 

Graded  selections  with  emphasis  on  structure  and  vocabulary  as 
needed 

Remedial 


45^ 


453 


^ 


Decimal  Classification 


428.64 


i 


429 


For  those  whose  native  language  is  not  English 

Divide  like  430-490,  e.g.,  English  readers  for  Spanish-speaking 
people  428.646 

When  dividing  other  languages  as  instructed  under  430-490, 
divide  numbers  corresponding  to  428.64  like  420-490,  e.g., 
Spanish  readers  for  English-speaking  people  468.642 

Anglo-Saxon  ( Old  English ) 

Divide  like  421-428,  e.g.,  dictionaries  429.3 


430 


430-490  Other  specific  languages 

Divide  each  language  identified  by  *  like  421-428,  e.g., 
Hebrew  language  dictionaries  492.43.  Under  languages  having 
more  than  one  entry  in  this  table,  divide  each  entry  identified 
by  *  like  the  corresponding  number  or  numbers  under  421-428, 
e.g.,  German  language  phonology  431.5.  Note,  however,  in 
subdivision  7  that  period  divisions  and  geographical  range  of 
nonstandard  variations  are  different  for  each  specific  language, 
and  are  shown  below  where  their  use  is  recommended;  they 
may  be  supplied  elsewhere  as  needed,  for  languages  requiring 
local  emphasis,  by  use  of  letter  notation 

Germanic  languages  [formerly  439] 

Use  430.01-430.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1-.9         Standard  subdivisions  of  German 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  433 


►  431-436  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 

German 

Class  standard  German  usage  in  438 

431         *  Written  and  spoken  codes 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


432 
433 
[434] 


435 


436 
437 


.01 
.02 
.09 


Germanic  languages 


432-433  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  434] 


* 


Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  432-433,  standard  usage  in  438 

Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 

Prosody 
Nonstandard  German 

Description,  analysis,  usage 

Old  High  German  to  1 100 
Middle  High  German,  1100-1 500 
Modern  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 


.1-.6 


.9 


438 


437. 1-437.9  Regional  variations 

In  Germany  and  Austria 

Divide  like  area  notations  431-436,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Bavaria  437.3 

In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  437.9 

♦Standard  German  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 

General  German,  formal  German,  informal  German;  synonyms, 
antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  434] 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


454 


455 


Decimal  Classification 


439 


Other  Germanic  languages 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  Germanic  languages  [formerly  439]  in 
430 


439.1-439.4  West  Germanic  languages 

Old  Low  Germanic  languages 

Old  Saxon  [formerly  439.4],  Old  Frisian  [formerly  439.2],  Old 
Low  Franconian,  Old  Low  German 


►  439.2-439.4  Modem  Low  Germanic  languages 

.2  *Frisian 

Class  Old  Frisian  [formerly  439.2]  in  439.1 

^  Dutch,  Flemish,  Afrikaans 

Jl  •Dutch 

.32  •Flemish 

.36  *Afrikaans 

.4  *Low  German  (Plattdeutsch) 

Middle  and  Modem  Low  German 

Class  Old  Saxon  [formerly  439.4]  in  439.1 
For  Yiddish,  see  492.49 

J  Scandinavian  ( North  Germanic )  languages 

Including  Common  Scandinavian  to  900,  Runic  Danish,  900-1150 
Class  other  specific  Scandinavian  languages  in  439.6-439.8 
•6  West  Scandinavian  languages 

Use  439.600  1  -  439.600  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

.601-609  Standard  subdivisions  of  Old  Norse  (Old  Icelandic) 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  439.63 

,61-.68        •Principles  of  Old  Norse  (Old  Icelandic) 

*  Divide  as  instructed  imder  430—490 


456 


Germanic  languages 


439.69 


Modern  Icelandic  and  Faeroese 

Use  439.690  01  -  439.690  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.690  1-.690  9  Standard  subdivisions  of  Modem  Icelandic 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  439.693 

.691-698        *Principles  of  Modem  Icelandic 


.699 


.7 
.8 

.81 


.82 
.83 

.9 


Faeroese 


439.7-439.8  East  Scandinavian  languages 

*  Swedish 
Danish  and  Norwegian  languages 

*Danish 

Scope:  Early  Common  Danish  (common  language  of  Denmark 
and  Norway),  1450-1800 

♦Norwegian  (Bokmaal) 
*New  Norse  (Landsmaal) 

♦Gothic  (East  Germanic) 


^  440-460  Romance  languages 

class  comprehensive  works  in  479.1 

440     French,  Provencal,  Catalan 

Use  440.01-440.09  for  standard  subdivisions 

.1-.9         Standard  subdivisions  of  French 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  443 


►  441-446  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 

French 

Class  standard  French  usage  in  448 

441         *Written  and  spoken  codes 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


457 


Decimal  Classification 


^  442-443  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  444] 

442  *Etymology 

443  *Dictionaries 

[444]       Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  442-443,  standard  usage  in  448 

445  Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 

446  Prosody 

447  Nonstandard  French 

Description,  analysis,  usage 

.01  Old  French  to  1400 

.02  Middle  French,  1400-1600 

.09  Modem  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 


^  447.1_447.9  Regional  variations 

.1-.8         In  France 

Divide   Uke    area   notations    441^48,   e.g.,    dialects    of   southern 

France  (Languedoc)  447.8 

Class  dialects  of  southeastern  France  (Provengal)  in  449 

Ji  In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  447.9 

448        *Standard  French  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 

General  French,  formal  French,  informal  French;  synonyms, 
antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  444] 

*  Divide  as  instructed  xmder  430-490 


French,  Provengal,  Catahn  languages 


449  Proven9al  and  Catalan 

Use  449.001-449.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  Proven9al 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  449.3 

.1-.8       *Principles  of  Provengal 


.9 


♦Catalan 


450     Italian,  Romanian,  Rhaeto-Romanic 


1-.9 


452 
453 
[454] 

455 


Use  450.01-450.09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Standard  subdivisions  of  Italian 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  453 


^  451-456  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 

Italian 

Class  standard  Italian  usage  in  458 

451         *  Written  and  spoken  codes 


452-453  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [aU  formerly  454] 

*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  452-453,  standard  usage  in  458 

Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 


'  ^  ■" 


456  Prosody 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


459 


457 


.01 
.02 
.09 


.1-.7 


Decimal  Classification 


Nonstandard  Italian 

Description,  analysis,  usage 
Old  Italian  to  1300 
Middle  Italian,  1300-1600 
Modern  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 


457.1-457.9  Regional  variations 

In  continental  Italy 

Divide  like  area  notations  451-457,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Lombardy 


457.2 


.8  In  Sicily 


Divide  like  area  notations  458  1-458  2,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Palermo 
457.823 


.9 

Other 

.91-.93 

In  Sardinia 

Divide  Uke  area  notations  459  1-459  3,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Cagliari 

457.91 

.95 

In  Corsica 

S9 

In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  457.99 

458  *Standard  Italian  usage  ( Applied  linguistics ) 

General  Italian,  formal  Italian,  informal  Italian;  synonyms,  antonyms, 
homonyms  [all  formerly  454] 

459  Romanian  and  Rhaeto-Romame 

Use  459.001-459.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  Romanian 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  459.3 

.1-.8       *Principles  of  Romanian 
J>  Rhaeto-Romanic  languages 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


460 


Spanish  and  Portugese  languages 


460     Spanish  and  Portuguese 

Use  460.01-460.09  for  standard  subdivisions 
Standard  subdivisions  of  Spanish 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  463 


.1-.9 


^  461-466  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 

Spanish 

Class  standard  Spanish  usage  in  468 

461         *Written  and  spoken  codes 


462 
463 
[464] 

465 


462-463  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  464] 

*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 
Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  462-463,  standard  usage  in  468 

Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 


466 

Prosody 

467 

Nonstandard  Spanish 

Description,  analysis,  usage 

.01 

Old  Spanish  to  1100 

.02 

Middle  Spanish,  1100-1600 

.09 

Modern  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 

► 

467.1-467.9  Regional  variations 

.1-.8 

In  Spain 

Divide  like  area  notations  461-468,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Andalusia 

467.8 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


461 


Decimal  Classification 


467.9 


In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  467.9 


468        *  Standard  Spanish  usage  ( Applied  linguistics ) 

General  Spanish,  formal  Spanish,  informal  Spanish;  synonyms, 
antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  464] 


469 


*Portuguese 
.7  Nonstandard  Portuguese 

Description,  analysis,  usage 

.701  Old  Portuguese  to  1100 

702  Middle  Portuguese,  1100-1600 

.709  Modem  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated  expressions 


.71-.76 


46971^69.79  Regional  variations 

In  continental  Portugal 

Divide  like  area  notations  469  1  -  469  6,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Lisbon 
469.74 


.78 

In  Madeira 

.79 

Other 

.791 

In  Azores 

.794 

In  Spain 

Galician  (Gallegan)  [formerly  A69. 9] 

.798 


.799 


[.9] 


In  Brazil 

Divide  like  area  notations  811-817,  e.g.,  dialects  of  Sao 
Paulo  469.798  6 

In  other  places 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  469.799 

Galician  (Gallegan) 

aass  in  469.794 


Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


462 


Italic  languages 


470     Italic  languages 

Use  470.01-470.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


•1-.9 


472 
473 


475 


476 
477 
478 


Standard  subdivisions  of  Latin 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  473 


►  471-476  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 

Latin 

Classical  Latin;   classical  revival    (medieval  and  modem) 
Latin  [formerly  479.3] 

Class  standard  Latin  usage  in  478 

471         *Written  and  spoken  codes 


472-473  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  474] 


*Etymology 
*Dictionaries 


[474]       Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  472-473,  standard  usage  in  478 


Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 

Prosody 

Old,  Postclassical,  Vulgar  Latin 
*Standard  Latin  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 

Classical    Latin;    classical    revival    (medieval    and    modem)    Latin 
[formerly  479.3];  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  474] 


*  Divide  as  instructed  imder  430-490 


463 


.1 


[■3] 


.9 


Decimal  Classification 


479  Romance  and  other  Italic  languages 


For  Etmscan,  see  499.94 
Romance  languages 

Class  specific  Romance  languages  in  440-460 

Classical  revival  (Medieval  and  modem)  Latin 

aass  description  and  analysis  in  471-476,  standard  usage  in  478 

Osco-Umbrian  languages 


480     Classicallanguages  [formerly4S91]  and 
modem  Greek 

Class  Latin  in  471-478 
.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  classical  languages 

.1-.9  Standard  subdivisions  of  classical  Greek 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  483 


481 


481-486  Description  and  analysis  of  standard 
classical  Greek 

Class  standard  classical  Greek  usage  in  488 

Written  and  spoken  codes 

Including  abbreviations,  acronyms,  punctuation,  capitalization 
For  lexicology,  see  482-483;  structural  system,  485 

.1-.6       *Notation,  phonology,  intonation 

J  Paleography 

Study  of  early  writings 
Including  Minoan  Linear  B 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


464 


Greek  languages 


482-483  Lexicology 

Scope:  synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  484] 


482  *Etymology 

483  *Dictionaries 

[484]       Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms 

Class  lexicology  in  482-483,  standard  usage  in  488 

485  Structural  system 

Former  heading:  Grammar 
Morphology  and  syntax 

486  Prosody 

487  Postclassical  Greek 

Hellenistic  and  Byzantine  Greek 
Including  Biblical  Greek 

488  *Standard  classical  Greek  usage  (Applied 

linguistics ) 

Synonyms,  antonyms,  homonyms  [all  formerly  484] 

489  Other  Greek  languages 

[.1]  Classical  languages 

Class  in  480 

.3  *Modem  Greek 

Katharevusa  and  Demotic 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


465 


Decimal  Classification 


490  Other  languages 

491  East  Indo-European  and  Celtic  languages 

Use  491.001-491.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  Indo-European  languages   [formerly 

491]  in  411-418 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions  of  East  Indo-European  languages 

SUMMARY 

491.1  Indo-Iranian  (Aryan)  languages 

.2  Sanskrit 

.3  Middle  Indie  languages  ( Secondary  Prakrits) 

.4  Modem  Indie  languages  ( Tertiary  Prakrits ) 

.5  Iranian  languages 

.6  Celtic  languages 

.7  East  Slavic  languages 

.8  Balto-Slavic  languages 

.9  Baltic   and  other  East  Indo-European  languages 


•1 


3 

.37 

.4 

.41 
.42 


Indo-Iranian  (Aryan)  languages 

For  Indo-Aryan  (Indie)  languages,  see  491.2-491.4;  Iranian 
languages,  491.5 


491.2-491.4  Indo-Aryan  (Indie)  languages 

♦Sanskrit 

Vedic  (Old  Indie)  and  classical 


491.3-491.4  Prakrits 

Class  nonstandard  Sanskrit  (Primary  Prakrits)  in  491.27 

Middle  Indie  languages  ( Secondary  Prakrits ) 
PaH 

Modem  Indie  languages  ( Tertiary  Prakrits ) 
*Sindhi 
♦Punjabi 


*  Divide  as  instructed  imder  430-490 


466 


Other  languages 


491.43 


Western  Hindi  languages 

Use  491.430  01  -  491.430  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.430  1-.430  9  Standard  subdivisions  of  Hindi  (High  Hindustani) 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  491.433 

431_.436        *Description  and  analysis  of  standard  Hindi  (High 
Hindustani) 

Class  standard  Hindi  usage  in  491.438 


.437 


.438 


Variations  of  Hindustani 
Description,  analysis,  usage 

♦Standard  Hindi  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 


.439 

•Urdu 

.44 

•Bengali 

.45 

Assamese  [formerly  491.49] ,  Bihari,  Oriya 

.46 

*Marathi 

.47 

*Gujarati-Rajasthani 

.48 

•Sinhalese 

.49 

Other 

Dard,  Eastern  Hindi,  Pahari,  Romany 

Class  Assamese  [formerly  491.49]  in  491.45 

.5 

Iranian  languages 

.51 

♦Old  Persian  (West  Iranian) 

.52 

•Avestan  (East  Iranian) 

.53 

Pahlavi  ( Middle  Persian ) 

[.54] 

Annenian 

Class  in  491.992 

.55 

•Modem  Persian 

.59 

Other  modem  Iranian  languages 

Baluchi,  Kurdish,  Tajiki,  Pashto,  Ossetic,  Pamir  dialects 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


467 


I 


Decimal  Classification 


491.6 

Celtic  languages 

Including  Cornish,  Breton,  Manx 

.62 

♦Irish  Gaelic 

.63 

•Scottish  Gaelic  (Erse) 

.66 

•Welsh 

.7 


East  Slavic  languages 

Use  491.700  1  -  491.700  9  for  standard  subdivisions 


.701-.709  Standard  subdivisions  of  Russian 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  491.73 


.71-.76 


.77 


.7701 
.770  2 
.770  9 


♦Description  and  analysis  of  standard  Russian 
Class  standard  Russian  usage  in  491.78 

Nonstandard  Russian 
Description,  analysis,  usage 

Old  Russian  to  1550 

Middle  Russian,  1550-1750 

Modem  nonregional  variations 

Slang,  ephemera,  picturesque  and  exaggerated 
expressions 


J74_779  Regional  variations 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  491.77 


.78 


.79 


♦Standard  Russian  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 

Ukrainian  and  Belorussian 

Use  491.790  01  -  491.790  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.790  1-.790  9 


Standard  subdivisions  of  Ukrainian 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  491.793 


.791-798        *Principles  of  Ukrainian 


.799 


Belorussian 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


468 


Other  languages 


491.8  Balto-Slavic  languages 

Including  Common  Slavic 

Use  491.800  1  -  491.800  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  East  Slavic  languages,  see  491.7;  Baltic  languages, 
491.91-491.93 

,801-.809  Standard  subdivisions  of  Slavic  languages 


.81 


.810  1-.810  9 


491.81-491.84  South  Slavic  languages 
Bulgarian  and  Macedonian 

Use  491.810  01  -491.810  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Standard  subdivisions  of  Bulgarian 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  491.813 


,811-.816        *Description  and  analysis  of  standard  Bulgarian 

Class  standard  Bulgarian  usage  in  491.818 


.817 


.817  01 
,818 

.819 

.82 


[.83] 


.84 


Nonstandard  Bulgarian 
Description,  analysis,  usage 

Old  Bulgarian  (Church  Slavonic) 
♦Standard  Bulgarian  usage  (Applied  linguistics) 

♦Macedonian 

♦Serbo-Croatian 

Including  Croatian  [formerly  491.83] 

Croatian 

Class  in  491.82 

♦Slovenian 


.85 


491.85-491.88  West  Slavic  languages 
♦Polish 

Including  Kashubian  dialect 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


469 


Decimal  Classiiication 


.99 


.991 
.992 


492 


.1 


J2 

.29 


491.86 

•Czech 

For  Moravian  dialects,  see  491.87 

.87 

Slovak 

Including  Moravian  dialects 

.88 

*Wendish 

.9 

Baltic  and  other  East  Indo-European  languages 

► 

491.91^91.93  Baltic  languages 

.91 

Old  Prussian 

.92 

•Lithuanian 

.93 

•Latvian  (Lettish) 

Other 

Including  Anatolian,  Tocharian,  Thraco-Phrygian,  lUyrian, 
Indo-Hittite 

•Albanian 

♦Armenian  [formerly  491.54] 


492-493  Afro-Asian  languages 

Semitic  languages 

Akkadian  (East  Semitic)  languages 

Including  Chaldean  ( Neo-Babylonian )  and  Assyro-Babylonian 


dialects 


492.2-492.3  Aramaic  (North  Semitic)  languages 
West  Aramaic 
Biblical  Aramaic 

Including  Samaritan  [formerly  492.5],  Chaldee 


.3  *East  Aramaic  (Syriac) 


Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


470 


Other  languages 


492.4 


.401-.409 


492.4-492.6  Canaanitic  (West  Semitic)  languages 

Hebraic  languages 

Use  492.400  1-492.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Standard  subdivisions  of  Hebrew 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  492.43 


.41-.48        *Principles  of  Hebrew 


.49 


[.5] 


.6 


.7 


.9 


.1 
.7 


♦Yiddish 

Samaritan 

Class  in  492.29 

Canaanite-Phoenician  languages 

Including  Minoan  Linear  A 


492.7-492.9  Arabic-Ethiopic  (South  Semitic) 
languages 

*  Arabic  (North  Arabic) 
Ethiopic  languages 
South  Arabic  languages 


493  Hamitic  and  other  languages 


493.1-493.5  Hamitic  languages 
*01d  Egyptian 
*Coptic 

Berber  languages 

Cushitic  (Hamitic Ethiopian)  languages 

Chad  family 

Including  Kanuri  [formerly  496.4] 
For  Hausa,  see  496.91 


*  Divide  as  instructed  imder  430-490 


47^ 


Decimal  Classification 


^  494-495  Asian  and  related  languages 

For  East  Indo-European  languages,  see  491;  Afro- Asian 
languages,  492-493 

494  Ural-Altaic,  Paleosiberian,  Dravidian  languages 


494.1_494.3  Altaic  languages 

.1 

Tungusic  family 

.2 

Mongolic  family 

.3 

Turkic  family 

.35 

♦Turkish 

494,4_494,5  Uralic  languages 

.4 

Samoyedic  family 

For  Ket  language,  see  494.6 

J 

Firaio-Ugric  languages 

.51 

Ugric  languages 

.511 

♦Magyar  (Hungarian) 

.53 

.54 
.541 

.545 
.55 


.81 


.811 


494.53-494.55  Finnic  languages 
Permian  languages 
Western  Finnic  languages 

♦Finnish  (Suomi) 

♦Estonian 
♦Lapp 

Paleosiberian  languages 

Luorawetlin  family,  Ainu,  Gilyak,  Ket 

Dravidian  languages 

Dravida  group 

Including  Kota  [formerly  494.821],  Toda  [fomerly  494.822], 
Kunikh  (Oraon)  [/ormeH!/ 494.826] 

♦Tamil 


•  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


Other  languages 

494.812 

*Malayalaui 

[.813] 

Telugu 

Class  in  494.827 

.814 

•Kaharese  (Kannada) 

.82 

Andhra  group 

[.821] 

Kota 

Class  in  494.81 

[.822] 

Toda 

Class  in  494.81 

.823 

•Gondi 

.824 

•Khond  (Kandh) 

[.826] 

Kurukh  (Oraon) 

Class  in  494.81 

.827 

•Telugu  [/ormeWy  494.813; 

.83 

Brahui 

495  Languages  of  East  and  Southeast  Asia 

,1  Chinese 

Use  495.001-495.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  Thai-Chinese  group,  see  495.919 

Standard   subdivisions   of  standard  written   Chinese 
(Mandarin) 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  495.13 


.101-.109 


.11-.16        ♦Description  and  analysis  of  standard  written  Chinese 
(Mandarin) 

Class  standard  usage  of  standard  written  Chinese  in  495.18 


.17 


,18 


Nonstandard  Chinese 
Description,  analysis,  usage 
Including  commercial  Chinese 

♦Standard  usage  of  standard  written  Chinese   (Applied 
linguistics) 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


472 


473 


Decimal  Classification 


Other  languages 


495.4  Tibeto-Burman  languages 

Use  495.400  1  -495.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
.401-.409  Standard  subdivisions  of  Tibetan 

Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  495.43 
.41-.48        *Principles  of  Tibetan 
.49  Other 

Including  Himalayan  dialects  [formerly  495.5] 
For  Burmese,  see  495.8 


[.5] 


*6 
.7 

.87 


.9 

.91 


.910  1-.910  9 

.911-.918 
.919 


Himalayan  and  Assamese  dialects 

Class  Himalayan  dialects  in  495.49,  Assamese  dialects  of  Burmese 
in  495.87 

*Japanese 

*Korean 

♦Burmese 

Nonstandard  Burmese 
Description,  analysis,  usage 
Including  Assamese  dialects  of  Burmese  [formerly  495.5] 

Other  languages  of  Southeast  Asia 

Thai  languages 

Use  495.910  01  -  495.910  09  for  standard  subdivisions 
Standard  subdivisions  of  Thai  (Siamese) 
Class  dictionaries  of  the  language  in  495.913 
•Principles  of  Thai  (Siamese) 
Other  Thai  languages 

Including  Thai-Chinese  group 


.92 
.922 
.93 
.932 

.95 


495.92-495.95  Austroasian  languages 
Annam-Muong  group 

•Vietnamese 
Mon-Khmer  group 

•Cambodian 
Munda  family 


•  Divide  as  instracted  under  430-490 


496 


.1 


[■2] 


.3 


[.4] 

.5 
.9 

.91 

.92 


497 


.1 

.2 
.3 
.4 
J» 
*6 
.7 
A 
.9 


498 


African  languages 

For  Afro-Asian  languages,  see  492-493 

Macro-Khoisan  family 

Including  Bushman  languages  [formerly  496.2],  Hottentot 
languages 

Bushman  languages 

Class  in  496.1 

Niger-Congo  family 

Including  Ewe  and  Mende  [both  formerly  496.4],  Bantu 

languages 

Class  Swahili  [formerly  496.3]  in  496.92 

Negro  dialects 

Class  Ewe  and  Mende  in  496.3;  Kanuri  in  493.7 

Chari-Nile  (Macrosudanic)  family 
Commercial  languages 

•Hausa 

•Swahili  [formerly  496.3] 

North  American  Indian  languages 
Eskimo-Aleut  group 
Na-Dene  group 
Algonkian-Mosan  group 
Macro-Penutian  group 
Hokan-Siouan  group 
Macro-Otomanguean  group 
Tarascan  family 
Miskito-Matagalpan  group 
Other  languages 

South  American  Indian  languages 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


474 


475 


Decimal  Classification 


:;r 


I 


499 


.1 
.11 

.12 
.15 


Austronesian  and  other  languages 
Nonaustronesian  languages  of  Oceania 

Negrito  languages 
Papuan  languages 
Australian  languages  [formerly  499.6] 


499.2-499.5  Austronesian  (Malayo-Polynesian) 
languages 

For  Austroasian  languages,  see  495.92-495.95 


.2 

Malayan  languages 

.21 

Tagalog  family 

.211 

♦Tagalog  (Filipino) 

22 

Malay-Javanese  languages 

.221 

•Indonesian  (Bahasa  Indonesia) 

.222 

•Javanese 

Including  Balinese,  Madureso,  Sundanese  dialects 

.4 

Polynesian  languages 

^ 

Melanesian  and  Micronesian  languages 

[.6] 

Australian  languages 

Class  in  499.15 

.9 

Other  languages 

.92 

Basque 

.93 

Elaniitic 

.94 

Etruscan 

.95 

Suuierian 

.96 

Caucasian  languages 

.99 

Artificial  languages  [formerly  408.9] 

.992 

•Esperanto 

.993 

•Interlingua 

500 


500  Pure  sciences 


.1 

.2 

.9 


501 
502 
503 
504 


.1 


Natural  sciences 


Physical  sciences 
Natural  history 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Miscellany 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  concordances 


505  Serial  publications 

506  Organizations 

507  Study  and  teaching 

508  Collections,  anthologies,  travels,  surveys 


.4-.9 


Collections  and  anthologies 

Travels  and  surveys 

For  geographical  treatment  of  travels  and  surveys,  see  508.4-508.9 

Geographical  treatment  of  travels  and  surveys 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  508 


•  Divide  as  instructed  under  430-490 


509  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 


476 


477 


Decimal  Classification 


Mathematics 


:vy 


510     Mathematics 


.78 


.782 
.782  3 
.782  4 
.783 
.783  2 
.783  4 


511 


.0212 


.024 


.076 


The  editors  anticipate  the  preparation  at  a  future  date  of  a  completely 
revised  schedule  510,  which  will  develop  mathematics  according  to 
modern  concepts.  The  schedule  that  follows,  while  conforming  to  the 
style  of  the  present  edition,  makes  no  substantive  modifications  from  the 
provisions  of  Edition  16.  For  the  present,  class  in  510  without  subdivision 
all  branches  of  mathematics  not  clearly  belonging  in  subordinate 
numbers 
Use  510.01-510.09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Computation  instruments  and  machines 

Mathematical  principles  of  mechanical,  electromechanical, 
electronic  calculating  devices 

Analog  instruments 

Slide  rules  and  planimeters 

Differential  analyzers 
Digital  machines 

Adding  and  calculating  machines 

Computers 

Arithmetic 

Formulas  and  specifications 
Class  tables  in  5 11.9 

Works  for  specific  types  of  users 
Class  business  arithmetic  in  5 1 1 .8 

Review  and  exercise 
Class  problems  in  5 1 1 .9 


.1 


.2018 


511.1-511.7  Specific  elements 
Numeration  systems 

Including  decimal,  duodecimal,  binary 

Fundamental  operations 

Use  511.200  1  -  511.200  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Short  cuts  and  rapid  calculations 

478 


511.207  6 
.207  8 
.22 
.23 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.7 
•8 


.9 


512 


.0212 


.076 


.1 
.2 

.21 


.22 

23 

.24 

.26 

.5 

.6 

.7 


Algorisms 
Abacus 
Addition  and  subtraction 
Multiplication  and  division 
Prime  numbers  and  factoring 
Fractions  and  decimal  fractions 
Ratio  and  proportion 
Involution  and  evolution 

Business  arithmetic 

Including  mensuration,  mercantile  rules,  calculation  of  interest 

Problems  and  tables 
Algebra 

Formulas  and  specifications 
Class  tables  in  512.9 

Review  and  exercise 
Class  problems  in  512.9 


512.1-512.7  Specific  elements 
Postulates 
Equations  and  imaginary  quantities 

Equations 

Linear,  quadratic,  simultaneous,  binomial,  polynomial 

For  indeterminate  equations,  see  512.23;  reciprocal 
equations,  512.26 

Approximate  computations 

Indeterminate  (Diophantine)  equations 

Imaginary  quantities 

Reciprocal  equations 
Combinations,  permutations,  distribution 
Simple  arithmetic  and  geometric  progressions 
Exponents  and  logarithms 

479 


Decimal  Classification 


512.8  Abstract  algebra 

Including  theory  of  games 

.81  Theory  of  numbers 

.812  Divisibility 

Including  theory  of  measure,  factorization,  linear 
congruences 

.813  Higher  congruences,  forms,  residues,  partitions 

Including  Fermat's  theorem 

.814  Theory  of  primes 

.81 5  Algebraic  fields 

.816  Complex  multiplication 

.817  Transfinite  numbers 

,82  Theory  of  equations 

.83  Determinants 

Ordinary,  symmetrical,  numerical,  infinite,  polydimensional 

.84  Symmetrical  f imctions  of  roots 

.85  Elimination  discriminants 

.86  Theory  of  groups 

Abstract,  substitution,  linear,  continuous,  Abelian 
Including  transformations,  substitutions 

.865  Lattice  theory 

.87  Theory  of  forms  ( Quantics ) 

Including  modular  theory 

.88  Invariant  theory 

Binary,  ternary,  n-ary,  orthogonal  invariants 

.89  Universal  algebra 

.893  Quaternion  algebra 

.894  Space  analysis  ( Ausdehnungslehre) 

.895  Vector  algebra 


480 


Mathematics 


512.896 
.897 
.9 


.076 


.8 

.81 

.82 

.83 

.84 

.85 

.9 

.92 


Matrices  and  tensor  algebra 
Linear  algebras 
Problems  and  tables 


513-516  Geometries 


513  Synthetic  geometry 


For  trigonometry,  see  514;  descriptive  geometry,  515 

Review  and  exercise 
Class  problems  in  513.9 


513.1-513.3  Elementary  (Euclidean) 

.1 

Plane 

.3 

Solid 

.5 

Modem  (Post-Euclidean) 

Plane  and  solid 

.6 

Denuinerative 

.94 


Determination  of  the  number  of  specific  configurations  fulfilling  a 
suflScient  number  of  conditions 

Non-Euclidean 

Absolute  geometry  of  one,  two,  three  dimensions 
Geometries  of  n  dimensions 
Geometric  topology  (Analysis  situs) 
Geometries  of  Lobachevski,  Bolyai,  Gauss 
Geometry  of  Riemann 
Problems 

Famous  problems 

Including  circle  squaring,  trisection  of  angles,  duplication  of 
cubes 

Porisms 


481 


Decimal  Classification 


Mathematics 


514 

Trigonometry 

.076 

Review  and  exercise 

Class  problems  in  514.9 

^ 

Plane 

JS 

Spherical 

.9 

Problems 

515 

Descriptive  geometry 

.1 

Orthogonal  projection  on  two  planes 

2 

Isometric  and  other  one-plane  projections 

A 

Oblique  projections 

A 

Conical  projections 

Ji 

Spherical  projections 

.6 

Perspective 

.7 

Shades  and  shadows 

516 

Analytic  (Coordinate)  geometry 

.076 

Review  and  exercise 

Class  problems  in  516.9 

.1 

.2 

.3 

.4 


.5 


.55 


516.1-516.4  Elementary  (Cartesian)  geometry 
Straight  lines  and  coordinate  axes 
Curves  in  Cartesian  form 

Conies  and  higher  plane  curves 

Planes  and  lines  in  space  with  Cartesian  forms 

Surfaces  in  Cartesian  form 

Spheres,    quadrics,    ellipsoids,    hyperboloids,    paraboloids,    higher 
surfaces 

Modem  algebraic  geometry 

Including  systems  of  coordinates,  abridged  and  symbolic  notations, 
conies,  quadrics,  higher  planes  and  surfaces,  space  curves 

Geometric  transformations 

Scope:  reciprocation,  inversions,  correlation  methods 
Including  quadratic,  Cremona,  birational,  isogonal 


516.56 
.57 


.6 

.66 

.7 
.74 

.8 


.82 
.83 


.9 


517 


.076 


Harmonic  and  anharmonic  properties 

Projective  geometry 

Spatial    relations,    ideas,    properties    unaltered    by    projective 
transformations 

Line  geometry 

Including  systems  of  curves,  surfaces,  rays 

Modular  geometry 

Differential  (Infinitesunal)  geometry 
Projective 

Kinematic  geometry 

Calculus  of  direction  and  position 

Quaternions 

Vector  and  tensor  analysis 

Problems 

Calculus 

Review  and  exercise 

Class  problems  in  517.9 


transformations 


482 


517.2-517.3  Kinds 

.2 

Differential 

.207  6 

Review  and  exercise 

Class  problems  in  517.29 

•21 

Series 

Indicated  siun  of  the  terms  of  a  sequence 

.22 

Indeterminate  forms 

.27 

Variation  of  function  values 

.28 

Differential  forms  and  invariants 

.29 

Problems 

483 

Decimal  Classification 


Mathematics 


^'i 


'-m 


.307  6 

.31 
.32 


.33 
.34 

.35 
.352 


.353 


.354 

.355 

.36 

^7 


.38 


.382 


.383 


.39 


517.3  Integral 

.302  12  Formulas  and  specifications 

Class  tables  in  517.39 


Review  and  exercise 

Class  problems  in  517.39 

Methods  of  integration 

Definite  integrals 

Including  gamma  functions,  Euler  functions 

Rectifications 
Multiple  integrals 
Orthogonal  expansions 
Spherical  harmonics 

Including  Legendre's  functions,  Laplace's  functions 

Cylindrical  harmonics 
Including  Bessel's  functions 

Ellipsoidal  harmonics 
Including  Lame's  functions 

Fourier  series 
Elliptic  and  hyperelliptic  functions 

Integral  equations 

Including  integral  differential  equations 

Diflferential  equations 

For  integral  differential  equations,  see  517.37 

Ordinary 

Linear  and  nonlinear 

Partial 

First  and  higher  orders 

Problems  and  tables 

484 


517.4 
.5 


.52 

.521 

.6 

.7 

.8 

.81 
.83 
.85 
.88 

.9 


518 


.6 
.7 
.8 


.9 

.92 

.93 


517.4-517.8  Branches 
For  calculus  of  direction  and  position,  see  516.8 

Calculus  of  variations 

Calculus  of  functions  ( Functional  analysis ) 

For  a  specific  function,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  gamma  functions 
517.32 

Functions  of  real  variables 
Theory  of  point  sets 
Numerical  analysis  and  finite  differences 
Calculus  of  operations 
Functions  of  complex  variables 

For  elliptic  and  hyperelliptic  functions,  see  517.36 

Riemann  surfaces 

Algebraic  functions 

Automorphic  and  polyhedral  functions 

Hypergeometric  functions 

Problems 


519  Probabilities  and  statistical  calculations 

•1  Probabilities 

Including  mathematical  expectation,  prediction 


519.6-519.9  Statistical  calculations 
Theory  of  errors 
Information  theory 

Treatment  of  data 

Including  application  of  methods  of  least  squares,  theory  of  closest 
approximation 

Other 

Linear  and  dynamic  programing 
Theory  of  sampling  and  quality  control 

485 


Decimal  Classification 


Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


520     Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 

Use  520.01-520.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1 


.2-.8 


520.1-520.9  Standard  subdivisions  of  astronomy 
Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  natural  astrology,  ancient  and  medieval  astronomy  [all 
formerly  520.1]  in  520.9 

Miscellany,  dictionaries,  serial  publications,  organizations, 
study  and  teaching,  collections 

Class  techniques,  apparatus,  equipment  in  522.1-522.6 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Including  natiural  astrology,  ancient  and  medieval  astronomy  [all 
formerly  520A] 


521  Theoretical  astronomy  and  celestial  mechanics 


•1 

.11 

.12 
.13 
.16 
3 


.4 


.62 
.63-.68 


521.1-521.4  General  principles 

Class  application  to  specific  celestial  bodies  in  521.5-521.7 

Celestial  dynamics 

Laws  of  planetary  equilibrium  and  motion 
Law  of  universal  gravitation  and  motion 
Problems  of  three  and  n  bodies 
Equilibrium  of  rotating  fluid  masses 
Kepler's  laws  and  their  application 

Determination,  calculation,  correction  of  orbits 

Perturbations 
Theory  of  planets 
Theory  of  satellites 

Class  satellites  [formerly  521.6]  in  523.98 

Theory  of  moon  (Lunar  theory) 
Theories  of  other  specific  satellites 

Divide  like  523.43-523.48,  e.g.,  of  satellites  of  Mars  521.63 

486 


521.7 
.8 
.9 


522 


.1 

.109 


.19 


.21 
.22 
.23 

.24 


Theory  of  comets 

Theory  of  eclipses,  transits,  occultations 

Precession  and  nutation 

For  corrections  of  precession,  see  522.95;  of  nutation,  522.96 

Practical  and  spherical  astronomy 

SUMMARY 


522.1 

Observatories 

.2 

Telescopes  and  accessories 

.3 

Meridional  instruments 

.4 

Extrameridional  instruments 

.5 

Auxiliary  instruments 

.6 

Special  techniques 

.7 

Spherical  astronomy 

.9 

Corrections 

522.1-522.6  Practical  astronomy 

Methods  and  techniques  of  observing  and  measuring  celestial 
bodies 

Scope:  apparatus  and  equipment  [formerly  520.78],  practical 
computations 

Class  applications  to  specific  celestial  bodies  in  523 
For  corrections,  see  522.9 

Observatories 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 
Class  specific  observatories  in  522.19 

Specific  observatories 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  522.19 


522.2-522.5  Instruments 

Telescopes  and  accessories 

For  zenith  telescopes,  see  522.43;  equatorial  telescopes,  522.46 

Reflecting  telescopes 
Refracting  telescopes 
Eyepiece  and  accessories 

Object  glass  and  accessories 

487 


Decimal  Classification 


Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


.1 


522.25 
.26 
.27 
.29 


.3 


Altazimuth  mountings 
Equatorial  mountings 
Transit  mountings 
Famous  telescopes 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  522.29 

Meridional  instruments 

For  transit  mountings,  see  522.27;  zenith  telescopes,  522.43 


.4 

Extrameridional  instruments 

.41 

Sextants,  quadrants,  reflecting  circles,  astrolabes 

.43 

Zenith  telescopes 

.46 

Equatorial  telescopes 

.5 

Auxiliary  instruitients 

.51 

Sidereal  clocks  and  chronometers 

.52 

Chronographs 

.53 

Micrometers 

.54 

Personal  equation  machines 

.56 

Instruments  for  solar  observation 

For  heliostats,  see  522.58 

.562 

Spectroheliographs  and  photoheliographs 

.563 

Coronagraphs 

.58 

Heliostats 

.6 

Special  techniques 

.62 

Photometry 

.622 

Photographic  photometry 

.623 

Photoelectric  photometry 

.63 

Photography 

For  photographic  photometry,  see  522.622 

.65 

Polarimetry 

.67 

Spectroscopy 

522.7 


.71 

.75 

.76 

.78 

.9 

.91 

.92 

.94 

.95 

.96 

.97 

.98 


523 


.01 

.013 
.016 
.017 


.1 

.11 
.111 


488 


Spherical  astronomy 

Class  application  to  geodesy  in  526.6 

Celestial  sphere  and  coordinates 

Interpolation 

Meridian  lines  and  variations  of  compass 

Use  of  globes,  planispheres,  astronomical  models 

Corrections 
Of  parallax 

Of  astronomical  refraction 
Of  aberration 
Of  precession 
Of  nutation 
Of  personal  equation 
Of  instrumental  errors 

Descriptive  astronomy 

Use  523.001-523.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

Physical  and  chemical  aspects 
For  spectroscopy,  see  522.67 

Astrophysics 
Radio  astronomy 
Radar  astronomy 

SUMMARY 

523.1  Physical  universe  (Cosmology) 

.2  Solar  system 

.3  Moon 

.4  Planets 

,5  Meteors  and  zodiacal  light 

.6  Comets 

.7  Sun 

.8  Stars 

.9  Transits,  satellites,  occultations 

Physical imiverse  (Cosmology) 

Structure 

Space 

4S9 


Decimal  Classification 


Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


i-^-. 


S  • 


523.112 
.113 
.113  5 
.12 


.13 


[.14] 


.18 


[.302  1] 


[.302  2] 


Jl 


.32 
.33 


Extragalactic  systems 

Galactic  system  ( Milky  Way ) 

Interstellar  material  and  galactic  nebulas 

Origin  and  development  (Cosmogony) 

Glacial  cosmogony  [formerly  523.14],  nebular  and  meteoritic 
hypotheses 

Astrobiology 

Former  heading:  Plurality  of  worlds 

Glacial  cosmogony 
Class  in  523.12 

Expanding  universe 

Theories  of  Einstein,  de  Sitter,  Eddington,  Lemaitre 


.19 

Destruction  of  universe 

.2 

Solar  system 

[.207  4] 

Planetariums 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.28 

24 

Motion  in  space 

.28 

Planetariums  (Orreries) 

.29 

Zodiac 

^ 

Moon 

Tabulated  and  related  materials 
Do  not  use;  class  in  523.39 

Illustrations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.39 

Constants  and  dimensions 
Size,  mass,  distance,  parallax 

Phases,  brightness,  radiation 
Orbit  and  motions 

Sidereal  month,  perigee  and  apogee,  librations 


523.34 


.340  2 

.340  3 

.35 

.37 

.38 

.39 

.4 


[.4021] 

[.402  2] 

.41 

.42 

.43 

,44 

.45 

.46 

.47 

.48 

.481 

.482 

.49 

.5 

.51 

.53 

.57 

.59 


Selenography 

Use  523.340  01  -  523.340  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Earth  side  of  moon 

Far  side  of  moon 
Theories  of  atmosphere 
Spectroscopy 
Eclipses 
Charts,  photographs,  tables 

Planets 

Distance,  motions,  orbits,  physical  condition,  spectroscopy 

For  earth,  see  525 

Tabulated  and  related  materials 
Do  not  use;  class  in  523.49 

Illustrations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.49 

Mercury  and  intramercurial  planets 
Venus 

Mars 

Minor  planets  (Asteroids,  planetoids) 

Jupiter 

Saturn 
Uranus 

Transuranian  planets 
Neptune 
Pluto 
Charts,  photographs,  tables 
Meteors  and  zodiacal  light 
Meteorites 
Meteoric  showers  and  radiant  points 

Spectroscopy 

Zodiacal  Hght  and  counterglow 

49^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


^  (  ■ 


;  I- 

■!!■ 


i! 
J 


# 


523.6 


[.602  1] 
[.602  2] 

.63 
.64 


.66 
.67 

.69 

•7 

[.702  1] 

[.702  2] 
.71 


.72 

.73 

.74 
.75 
.76 
.77 
.78 
.79 


Comets 


Tabulated  and  related  materials 
Do  not  use;  class  in  523.69 

Illustrations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.69 

Orbits 

Famous  comets 

Class  a  specific  aspect  with  the  subject 

Physical  constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Charts,  photographs,  tables 


Sun 


Tabulated  and  related  materials 
Do  not  use;  class  in  525.38 

Illustrations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.79 

Constants  and  dimensions 
Size,  mass,  distance,  parallax 

Heat,  light,  radiation 

Apparent  motion  and  rotation 

Sunspots  and  faculae 

Prominences,  chromosphere,  corona 

Internal  constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Eclipses 

Charts  and  photographs 


523.8 


[.802  1] 


[.802  2] 


.81 


.82 

.822 

.83 


.84 

.841 
.842 
.843 
.844 
.844  2 
.844  25 
.844  26 
.844  4 
.844  6 
.85 
.852 
.855 

.86 
.87 
.89 
.890  3 
.890  8 


Stars 

For  Milky  Way,  see  523.113;  sun,  523.7 
Tabulated  and  related  materials 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.89 
Illustrations 

Do  not  use;  class  in  523.89 
Constants  and  dimensions 
Size,  mass,  distance,  parallax 

Heat,  light,  radiation 

Magnitudes 
Proper  motion  and  radial  velocity 

523.84-523.85  Systems  and  aggregations 
Class  a  specific  aspect  with  the  subject 
Double,  multiple,  variable  stars 
Visual  binaries 
Spectroscopic  binaries 
Astrometric  binaries 
Variable  stars 

Intrinsic  variables 

Cepheids  and  cluster-type  variables 
Long-period  variables 
Eclipsing  variables 
Novae  and  supemovae 

Clusters 

Open  and  moving  clusters 
Globular  clusters 

Physical  constitution 

Spectroscopy 

Charts,  photographs,  tables 

Observers'  atlases  of  constellations 

Star  catalogs 


49^ 


493 


'k' 


eJ 


Decimal  Classification 


523.9 
.91 


Transits,  satellites,  occultations 

Transits  of  Merciiry 


.92 


.96 
.97 

.98 


523.92-523.97  Transits  of  Venus 
Methods  of  observation  and  recording 
Delisle's,  Halley's,  photographic  methods 

Transits  of  1761,  1769,  1874 
Transit  of  1882 

Satellites  [formerly  521.6] 
For  moon,  see  523.3 


,983-.988  Of  specific  planets 

Divide  like  523.43-523.48,  e.g.,  sateUites  of  Mars  523.983 


.99 


524 


525 


Occultations 


Earth  ( Astronomical  geography ) 
Constants  and  dimensions 

Size,  shape,  mass,  position,  parallax 

For  determination  of  size  and  shape,  see  526.1 

Heat,  light,  radiation 

For  internal  heat  of  earth,  see  551.12 


^ 

Orbit  and  motions 

.35 

Rotation 

.36 

Foucault  s  pendulum 

.38 

Tables  of  the  sun 

Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


525.6 


[.602  1] 


.69 


.7 


.1 


.31 


.32 


.33 


.36 


.37 
.38 


Tides 


Tabulated  and  related  materials 
Do  not  use;  class  in  525.69 

Tide  tables 
Astronomical  twilight  and  twilight  tables 


526  Mathematical  geography 


526.1-526.7  Geodesy 
Determination  of  size  and  shape 

Geodetic  surveying 

Surveys  in  which  curvature  of  the  earth  is  considered  in 
measurement  and  computation 

Reconnaissance  (Preliminary  surveys) 
Bench  marks 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  526.32 
Triangulation,  traversing,  trilateration 

526.36-526.38  Leveling 
For  bench  marks,  see  526.32 

Spirit  leveling 

Differential  and  precise  spirit  leveling 

Barometric  leveling 

Trigonometric  leveling  (Geodetic  refraction) 


.5 


Seasons 


494 


495 


?'■,:! 


W 


526.6 


.64 


.7 
Ji 

.82 

.85 

[.88] 

[.89] 


.92 
.98 
.981 


Decimal  Classification 


Astronomy  and  allied  sciences 


Geodetic  and  positional  astronomy 

Application  of  spherical  astronomy  to  geodesy 


526.61-526.63  Coordinates 

Theory,  computation,  determination  of  geodetic   (geographic, 
topographic)  coordinates 


.61 

Latitude 

.62 

Longitude 

.63 

Azimuth 

Geographic  position 

Including  effect  of  inregularities  of  earth's  surface  on 
determination  of  position 

Gravity  determinations  (Physical  geodesy) 

Map  projections 

Networks  of  parallel  lines  and  meridians  for  map  drawing 

Conformal  ( Orthomorphic )  projections 

Equal-area  (Equivalent)  projections 

Map  scales  and  symbols 
Class  in  912.014  8 

Printing  maps 
Class  in  655.383 

Surveying 

Class  engineering  surveys  in  622-628 
For  geodetic  surveying,  see  526.3 


:  526.92-526.99  Plane  surveying 

Surveys   in   which   curvature   of  the   earth   is   disregarded   in 
measurement  and  computation 

Boundary  surveying  (Land  surveys) 
Topographic  surveying 
Contour  surveying 

4g6 


526.982 

Photogrammetry 

.982  3 

Aerial  surveying 

.982  5 

Ground  (Terrestrial)  surveying 

.99 


Hydrographic  surveying 
For  snow  surveys,  see  551.579 


527  Celestial  navigation 


.1 

.2 
•3 


.5 

.53 

.55 


528 


.1-.8 


.9 


Determination  of  geographic  position  and  direction  from  observation 
of  celestial  bodies 

Class  practical  navigation  with  the  subject 
For  finding  time,  see  529,7 

Latitude 

Longitude 

Fixes 

Summer's  and  line-of -position  methods 

Direction  and  course 

Rhumb  Hne  course 
Great  circle  course 

Ephemerides  ( Nautical  almanacs ) 

Class  tables  of  specific  celestial  bodies  in  523 

In  specific  coimtries 

Divide  like  061-068,  e.g.,  English  ephemerides  528.2 

Ephemeris  making 


497 


■    '1 


e-  •"  ■( 


■   .1 

i. 


■A 


.1 


.2 


.3 


.32 


75 


.78 


Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


529  Chronology 


Sidereal  and  solar  day 

Apparent  and  mean  time,  equation  of  time,  causes  of  inequality 

Intervals  of  time 

Kinds  of  years,  months,  weeks,  days 

Calendars 

For  Christian  calendars,  see  529.4;  calendar  reforms,  529.5 

Ancient  and  non-Christian  calendars 

Divide  like  292-299,  e.g.,  Jewish  calendar  529.326 


.4 

Christian  calendars 

.42 

Jnlian 

.43 

Gregorian 

.44 

Church 

Detennination  of  movable  feast  and  fast  days 

J 

Calendar  refonus 

.7 

Horology 

Finding  and  measuring  time 

For  extrameridional  instruments,  see  522.4 

Time  systems  and  standards 

Universal,  standard,  dayhght-saving  time,  conversion  tables 

Instruments  for  measuring  time 
Dials,  hourglasses,  clocks,  watches 

For  sidereal  clocks  and  chronometers,  see  522.51 


498 


530     Physics 

.01  Philosophy  and  logic  [formerly  530.101] 

Class  theories  in  530.1 

.02-.09  Other  standard  subdivisions 

.1  Theories 

[.101]  Philosophy  and  logic 

Class  in  530.01 

.11  Relativity  theory 

.12  Quantum  theory 

Class  classical  mechanics  in  531-533 

.122  Matrix  mechanics 

.123  Quantum  mechanics 

.  1 24  Wave  mechanics 

.  1 3  Statistical  and  kinetic  theories 

Class  classical  mechanics  in  531-533 

.132  Statistical  mechanics 

.  1 33  Quantum  statistics 

.14  Field  theories 

,142  Unified  field  theory 

,143  Quantum  field  theory 

.144  Problem  of  many  bodies 

.15  Mathematical  physics 

Including  dimensional  analysis  [formerly  530.8] 
Divide  like  510,  e.g.,  analysis  530.157 

.16  Measurement  theory  [formerly  530.8] 

A  States  of  matter 

Class  plasma  in  537.16 

.41  Solids  ( Solid-state  physics ) 

.42  Liquids 

.43  Gases 

499 


Decimal  Classification 


530.7 


.8 


Instrumentation 

For  measurement,  control,  recording 

Physical  units,  dimensions,  constants 

Class  measurement  theory  in  530.16,  dimensional  analysis  in 
530.15  [both  formerly  530.8] 


531 


.01 

.015  17 
[.017] 

.02-.09 


531-538  Classical  physics 
Mechanics 

For  mechanics  of  fluids,  see  532 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Analytical  mechanics  [formerly  531.017] 
Analytical  mechanics 
Class  in  531.015  17 

Other  standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  531.9 


.1 
.11 


.16 

.162 
.163 


531.1 


SUMMARY 

Kinematics  and  particle  mechanics 


.2-.5  Solids 

J2 

Statics 

J 

Dynamics 

.4 

Friction 

J 

Mass,  gravity,  ballistics 

JS 

Energetics 

.1 

Transport  phenomena  in  solids 

A 

Simple  machines 

S 

Tables,  review,  exercise 

Kinematics  and  particle  mechanics 

Kinematics  ( Geometry  of  motion ) 

Linear    and    relative    motion,    centripetal    acceleration,    vector 
quantities,  radial  and  transverse  acceleration  in  a  plane 

Particle  mechanics 

Statics  [/ormer/y  531.26] 
Dynamics  [/ormerZj/ 531.36] 


500 


Physics 


531.2 


.23 

.25 


[.26] 


531.2-531.5  Solids  (Rigid  bodies) 

For  transport  phenomena  in  solids,  see  531.7 

Statics 

Static,  translational,  rotational  equilibrium 

Moments  of  inertia 

Graphic  statics 

Representation  of  magnitude,  direction,  position  of  forces  by 
straight  lines  and  determination  of  unknown  quantities  by 
mechanical  measurement 

Statics  of  a  particle 
Class  in  531.162 

Dynamics 

Forces  and  their  effect  on  the  motion  of  rigid  bodies 
Including  Newton's  laws  of  motion 

For  friction,  see  531.4;  mass,  gravity,  ballistics,  531.5 


.31 

Trajectories 

.32 

Oscillations 

.33 

Wave  motions 

.34 

Gyrodynamics 

.35 

Centrifugal  and  centripetal  forces 

[.36] 

Dynamics  of  a  particle 

Class  in  531.163 

.38 

Elasticity  and  deformation 

.381 

Elastic  constants  and  their  mea 

.382 
.382  2 


Young's  modulus,  Poisson's  ratio,  bulk  modulus,  shear 
modulus  ( modulus  of  rigidity ) 

Stresses  and  types  of  deformation 

Stresses 

Tensile,  compressive,  shearing  stresses 


SOI 


Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


531.382  3 


.382  5 


.383 
.4 

^ 
.52 

.54 

.55 
.552 
.555 
.555  2 
.555  4 
,555  8 

.6 


.62 

.64 

.642 

.643 

.68 


.7 


Temporary  deformation  (Elasticity) 

Including  elastic  limit,  coefficient  of  restitution 

Permanent  deformation  (Plasticity) 
Including  yield  point 

Vibrations 
Friction 

Mass,  gravity,  ballistics 

Laws  of  falling  bodies 
Density  and  specific  gravity 
Projectiles 
In  air 

In  space 

Escape  velocity  (Parabolic  velocity) 
Orbital  velocity 
Re-entry  problems 

Energetics 

For  simple  machines,  see  531.8 

Law  of  conservation  of  energy 
Forms  of  mechanical  energy 

Potential 

Kinetic 
Transformation 

Change  of  mechanical  energy  to  other  forms  of  energy 

Class   transformation  to   a   specific  form   of  energy  with  the 
subject 

Transport  phenomena  in  solids 

Simple  machines 

Lever,  wheel  and  axle,  cord  and  pulley,  geared  wheel,  inclined 
plane,  wedge,  screw 

Tables,  review,  exercise 


$02 


532 


Mechanics  of  fluids 

For  mechanics  of  gases,  see  533 


.001-.009 


.02 


.05 


.1 


[.3] 

A 
.5 


.51 


Standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  532.9 

Statics 

Static,  translational,  rotational  equilibrium 
Including  moments  of  inertia,  transmission  of  pressure 

Dynamics 

Forces  and  their  effects  on  the  motion  of  fluids 

Mechanics  of  liquids  (Hydromechanics) 

For  specific  aspects  of  hydromechanics,  see  532.2-532.7 

532.2-532.7  Specific  aspects  of  hydromechanics 

Hydrostatics 

Static,  translational,  rotational  equilibrium 

Including  buoyancy  [formerly  532.3],  moments  of  inertia, 

transmission  of  pressure 

For  surface  phenomena,  see  532.6 

Buoyancy 

Class  in  532.2 

Mass,  density,  specific  gravity 
Hydrodynamics 

Forces  and  their  effect  on  the  motion  of  liquids 
For  transport  phenomena,  see  532.7 

General  principles  of  flow 

Class  general  principles  applied  to  flow  variations  in 


532.52-532.56 

.511 

Kinetic  theory 

.515 

Laminar  flow 

.516 

Transition  flow 

.517 

Turbulent  flow  [formerly  532.56] 

503 

Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


532.52 
.53 
.54 
.55 
.56 


.57 
.58 


.59 

.593 
.595 


.7 


.9 


532.52-532.56  Flow  variations 

Thru  orifices  and  nozzles 

Over  weirs  and  spillways 

Thru  pipes  and  open  channels 

Thru  bends  and  irregular  enclosures 

When  pressure  is  variable 

Including  flow  over  and  around  submerged  bodies 
Class  turbulent  flow  [formerly  532.56]  in  532.517 

Velocity  and  its  measurements 

Viscosity 

Measurements,  effects  on  flow 

Other  types  of  motion 
Wave  motions 
Vortex  motions  and  cavitation 

Surface  phenomena 

Surface  tension,  capillarity,  thin  films,  bubbles 

Transport  phenomena 

Diffusivity,  permeability,  osmosis 

Special  developments 
Tables,  review,  exercise 


533  Mechanics  of  gases 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  533.9 


533.1 


.12 


.13 


.14 
.15 
.2 


21 


.29 


.5 

.52 
.54 


533.1-533.5  Gases  in  general 

For  aeromechanics,  see  533.6;  other  aspects  of  gases  in  general, 

533.7-533.9 

Statics  and  other  phenomena 

For  dynamics,  see  533.2;  vacuum  and  vacuum  production,  533.5 

Statics 

Static,  translational,  rotational  equilibrium 
Including  moments  of  inertia,  transmission  of  pressure 

Transport  phenomena 

DifiFusivity,  permeability,  osmosis 

Class  viscosity  [formerly  533.13]  in  533.28 

Absorption  and  adsorption 
Mass,  density,  specific  gravity 

Dynamics 

Forces  and  their  effect  on  the  motion  of  gases 
For  transport  phenomena,  see  533.13 

Types  of  flow 

Divide  like  532.515-532.517,  e.g.,  turbulent  flow  533.217 


.27 

Velocity 

.273 

Subsonic 

.274 

Transonic 

.275 

Supersonic 

.276 

Hypersonic 

.28 

Elasticity  and  compressibility 

Including  viscosity  [formerly  533.13] 

504 


Other  types  of  motion 

Divide  like  532.59,  e.g.,  cavitation  533.295 

Vacuum  and  vacuum  production 

Rarefaction  of  gases 
High-vacuum  production 

505 


Decimal  Classification 


533  6 


61 


.62 


.63 


Aeromechanics 

For  vacuum  and  vacuum  production,  see  533.5 

Aerostatics 

Static,  translational,  rotational  equilibrium 

Aerodynamics 

Forces  and  their  effect  on  the  motion  of  air 

Divide  like  533.2,  e.g.,  cavitation  533.629  5 

For  transport  phenomena,  see  533.63 

Transport  phenomena 

DifiFusivity,  permeability,  osmosis 


.7 
S 
.9 


533.7-533.9  Other  aspects  of  gases  in  general 
Kinetic  theory  of  gases 
Special  developments 
Tables,  review,  exercise 


534  Sound  and  related  vibrations 

.01-.09  Standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  534.9 

SUMMARY 


.1 

.12 
.13 
.14 


.1 

A 
Jt 


534.1-.4  Sound  waves 

Generation  thru  vibration 

Propagation  (Transmission) 

Characteristics 

Measurements,  analysis,  synthesis 

Related  vibrations 

Special  developments 

Tables,  review,  exercise 


534.1-534.4  Sound  waves 
Generation  thru  vibration 

Of  strings  and  wires 
Of  rods,  plates,  bells 
Of  air  columns  in  pipes 
Including  resonance 

506 


534.15 
[.16] 


Physics 


Of  membranes 
Subsonic  vibrations 
Class  in  534.52 

Propagation  (Transmission) 

Use  534.200  1  -  534.200  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  interference  [formerly  534.2]  in  534.47 


.202 

Velocity 

.203 

Directionality 

.204 

Reflection  (Echoes) 

.205 

Refraction 

.206 

DiflEraction 

.207 

Polarization 

.208 

Absorption  (Daiupmg) 

534  22-534.24  Transmission  m  specific  medmms 

.22 

In  solids 

.23 

In  liquids 

.24 

In  gases 

3 

Characteristics 

.32 

Frequency  and  pitch 

Including  Doppler  effect 

.33 

Intensity  and  loudness 

.34 

Amplitude  and  timbre 

.35 

Irregular  and  discordant  frequencies 

.352 

Dissonance 

.355 

Noise 

.4 

Measurements,  analysis,  synthesis 

,42 

Measurement  techniques 

507 


Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


534.44 
.45 

.46 
.47 


.52 

.55 

[.59] 

[•6] 


.9 


.01 


.012 


534.44^534.45  Analysis 
For  graphic  and  optical  representations,  see  534.46 

Qualitative 
Quantitative 

Graphic  and  optical  representations  [formerly  534.6] 

Synthesis 

Compounding  sound  waves 

Including  superposition  principles  [formerly  534.59], 
interference  [formerly  534.2],  beats 

For  graphic  and  optical  representations,  see  534.46 

Related  vibrations 

Generation,  transmission,  characteristics,  measurements,  analysis, 
synthesis 

Subsonic  vibrations  [formerly  534.16] 
Ultrasonic  vibrations 
Superposition  principles 
Class  in  534.47 

Graphic  and  optical  representations 

Class  in  534.46 

Special  developments 
Tables,  review,  exercise 


535  Visible  light  and  paraphotic  phenomena 

Former  heading:  Optics 


Spectral  regions 

Class  theories  in  535.1,  spectroscopy  in  535.84 

Infrared 

For  heat  radiation,  see  536.33 


508 


535.013 


.014 

.02-.09 


•1 

.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 


.22 
.24 

Ji 

.32 


.322 
.323 
.324 
.326 


Visible 

Class  specific  elements  in  535.2-535.6 

Ultraviolet 
Standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  535.9 

SUMMARY 

535.1  Theories 

;Z  Physical  optics 

J  Transmission,  absorption,  emission 

.4  Dispersion,  interference,  diffraction 

JS  Beams  and  their  modification 

JS  Color 

S  Special  developments 

•9  Tables,  review,  exercise 

Theories 

Corpuscular  (Emission)  theory 
Mechanical  wave  theory 
Electromagnetic  theory 
Quantum  theory 


535.2-535.6  Specific  elements  of  visible  light 

For  visual  spectroscopy,  see  535.843 

Physical  optics 

For  special  aspects  of  physical  optics,  see  535.4-535.5 

Intensity 
Velocity 

Transmission,  absorption,  emission 

Geometrical  optics 

For  optical  instruments,  see  535.33;  color,  535.6 

Rectilinear  propagation 
Reflection 
Refraction 
Absorption 

509 


Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


535.33 


.35 


.4 


.5 

.52 
.523 
.524 
.58 


.6 
S 

.84 


536 


Optical  instruments 
Principles  and  design 

Luminescence,  fluorescence,  phosphorescence 


535,4-535.5  Special  aspects  of  physical  optics 
Dispersion,  interference,  diffraction 

For  color,  see  535.6 

Beams  and  their  modification 

Polarization 

Plane 

Rotary 

Amplification 

Including  amplification  by  stimulated  emission  of  radiation 
(lasers) 

Color 

Special  developments 

Spectroscopy  (Emission  and  absorption  spectroscopy) 

Techniques  for  studying  light  emitted  by  physical  objects  by 
means  of  the  spectroscope  and  methods  of  measuring  intensity 
and  frequency  of  spectrum  lines 


.842 

Infrared 

.843 

Visible  (Chromatic) 

.844 

Ultraviolet 

.845 

Vacuum  ultraviolet 

.846 

Raman 

.9 

Tables,  review,  exercise 

Heat 


.0 1  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  theories  in  536.1 

.02-.09  Other  standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  536.9 

5^0 


— — ^-^— 

SUMMARY 

536.1 

Theories 

Transmission  (Heat  transfer) 

Radiation  and  efiFects  of  matter  on  heat 

.4 

Effects  of  heat  on  matter 

J 
A 
.7 

J 
.9 

Temperature 
Calorimetry 
Thermodynamics 
Special  developments 
Tables,  review,  exercise 

536.1 

Theories 

- 

2 

Transmission 

(Heat  transfer) 

.201 


.2012 

.2014 

.23 

.25 

Ji 

.31 

.32 

.33 

.34 

•4 

.401 


.41 


.412 


Use  536.200  1  -  536.200  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  radiation,  see  536.33 

Material  properties 

For  specific  heats,  see  536.63-536.65 

Conductivity 

Diffusivity 
In  solids  (Conduction) 
In  fluids  (Convection) 
Radiation  and  effects  of  matter  on  heat 
Reflection 
Refraction 
Radiation 
Absorption 

Effects  of  heat  on  matter 

Use  536.400  1  -  536.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Change  of  state  (Phase  changes) 
Including  triple  points 
Class  specific  transformations  in  536.42-536.44 

Expansion  and  contraction 

Pressure-volume-temperature  relationships,  coefiBcients  of 
expansion 

Of  gases 

For  liquefaction  of  gases,  see  536.56 

5" 


536.413 
.414 


.42 


.44 
.443 


.445 


.45 


.51 

.52 


.53 

.56 


.57 


Decimal  Classification 


Of  liquids 
Of  solids 


536.42-536.44  Specific  transformations 

Fusion  and  solidification 

Solid-to-liquid  and  liquid-to-solid  transfonnations 
Including  freezing  and  melting  points,  latent  heats  of  fusion 

Vaporization  and  condensation 

Liquid-to-gas  and  gas-to-liquid  transformations 

Critical  points,  heats  of  vaporization,  dew  points,  boiling 
points 

Solid-to-gas  and  gas-to-solid  transformations 
Sublimation 

Incandescence 
Temperature 


536.51-536.53  Measurement 
Liquid-in-glass  thermometry 

Pyrometry 

Pyrometers  and  thermocouples  for  temperatures  over  500"  C 

Electrical  resistance  thermometry 

Cryogenics 

Production  of  temperatures  below  91**  K 

Including  liquefaction  of  gases,  absolute  temperature, 
properties  of  matter  at  extremely  low  temperatures 

Class  a  specific  property  with  the  subject 

High  temperatures 

Production  of  temperatures  over  3000°  K 
Including  plasma  temperatures 


5^^ 


536.6 


.62 


.63 
.65 

.7 


.701 


.71 


.73 


•9 


537 


.01 


Physics 


Calorimetry 

Measurement  of  heat  quantities  and  thermal  capacity 
Class  heats  of  transformation  in  536.42-536.44 

Calorimeters 


536.63-536.65  Specific  heats 
Of  solids  and  liquids 
Of  gases  and  vapors 

Thermodynamics 

Mathematical  and  physical  relations  between  mechanical  work  and 
heat  energy 

Including  transformation  of  heat  into  mechanical  energy,  of  me- 
chanical energy  into  heat 
For  calorimetry,  see  536.6 

Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  537.71 

Theories 

Three  laws   of   thermodynamics,   Joule's   law.   Maxwell's   four 
thermodynamic  formulas,  Carnot  cycle 

Entropy 

Measurement  of  unavailable  energy  in  thermodynamic  systems 

Special  developments 
Tables,  review,  exercise 

Electricity  and  electronics 

For  magnetism,  see  538 

Philosophy  and  theory 
Class  theories  in  537.1 


lii 


.02-.09  Other  standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  537.9 


5^3 


537.1 


.11 

.12 

.122 

.123 

.125 

.14 
.16 
.2 
.21 


.23 

.24 

.242 

.243 

.244 

.245 

.246 

.5 

.52 


Decimal  Classification 


SUMMARY 

537.1 

Theories 

.2 

Electrostatics 

S 

Electronics 

J6 

Electric  currents 

A 

Special  developments 

S 

Tables,  review,  exercise 

Theories 

537.11-537.12  Electromagnetic  theory 
Maxwell's  equations 
Electromagnetic  fields  and  waves 

Field  intensity  and  equations 

Microwave  circuit  theory 

Wave  guides 

Corpuscular  theory 
Plasma  and  plasma  dynamics 
Electrostatics 

Charge  and  potentials 
Including  triboelectricity 

Generators 
Dielectrics 

Capacitors  (Condensers) 

Dipole  moments 

Pyroelectricity  and  piezoelectricity 

Electrocapillarity 

Electrostriction 

Electronics 

For  semiconductors,  see  537.622 

Disruptive  discharge 

Luminous  discharge  produced  by  the  disruptive  passage  of 
high-voltage  electricity  thru  gases  or  vapors  at  atmospheric 
pressure 

Including  electric  arc 

For  ionization  of  gases,  see  537.532 

5^4 


537.53 
.532 

.533 
.534 


.534  2 


.534  3 


.534  4 


.535 


.535  2 

.535  3 
.535  5 

.54 

.56 


Physics 


Discharge  thru  rarefied-gas  and  high-vacuum  tubes 

Ionization  of  gases 

Including  electron  ballistics 

Thermionic  emission 
Radio-  and  microwaves 

Spectroscopy,  circuitry,  specific  tubes,  wave  guides 

Class  wave  guide  theories  in  537.125 

Long  waves 

Frequency  ranges  between  l(P  and  10«  cycles  per  second 

Short  waves 

Frequency  ranges  between  10*^  and  10»  cycles  per  second 

Microwaves  (Ultra-high-frequency  waves) 

Frequency  ranges  between  10^  and  10^^  cycles  per  second 

Including  ampUfication  by  stimulated  emission  of 
radiation  (masers) 

X  and  gamma  rays 

Frequencies  over  10^^  cycles  per  second 

Spectroscopy 

Class  a  specific  application  with  the  subject 

Circuitry 
Specific  tubes 

Photoelectric  effects 

Photoemissivity,  photovoltaism,  photoconductivity 

Electron  and  ion  optics 

Focusing  and  deflecting  streams  of  charged  particles  by  means 
of  electrostatic  and  magnetic  lenses  and  fields 

Electric  currents 

Direct  currents  and  circuitry 


515 


Decimal  Classification 


Physics 


537.62  Conductivity  and  resistance 

For  dielectrics,  see  537.24 

.622  Semiconductivity 

Including  semiconductors 

.623  Superconductivity 

.624  Thermal  eflFects  of  currents 

.63  Alternating  currents  and  circuitry 

.64  Electi'odynamics 

Mutual-  and  self-induction 

.65  Thermoelectricity 

Electricity  produced  by  direct  action  of  heat 

.8  Special  developments 

.9  Tables,  review,  exercise 

Magnetism 

.01  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  theories  in  537.1 

,02-.09  Other  standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  538.9 

SUMMARY 

538.2  Magnets  and  magnetic  induction 

.3  Magnetic  phenomena 

•4  Magnetic  materials  and  permeability 

.6  Magnetohydrodynamics 

•7  Geomagnetism  and  allied  phenomena 

.8  Special  developments 

.9  Tables,  review,  exercise 

.2  Magnets  and  magnetic  induction 

.22  Permanent  magnets 

.23  Temporary  magnets  ( Induced  magnetism ) 

.24  Induction  in  coils 


538 


538.3 


.4 

.42 
.43 
.44 

.45 

.6 


•7 


.72 


.74 

.742 

.743 

.744 

.746 

.748 

.76 

.767 

.767  2 

.767  3 


.767  4 

.767  5 
.768 


s^e 


Magnetic  phenomena 

Hysteresis,  magnetostriction,  reluctance,  piezomagnetism, 
pyromagnetism 

For  permeability,  see  538.4 

Magnetic  materials  and  permeability 

Diamagnetic 
Paramagnetic 
Ferromagnetic 
Ferrimagnetic 

Magnetohydrodynamics 

Motion  of  plasmas  in  magnetic  fields 

Geomagnetism  and  allied  phenomena 

For  atmospheric  electricity,  see  551.56 

Permanent  magnetic  field 

Theory,   analysis,   secular  variations   of  magnetism   of   earth's 
crust  and  interior 

Transient  magnetism 
Diurnal  variations 
Other  periodic  variations 
Magnetic  storms  and  pulsations 
Sunspot  effects 
Earth  currents 
Allied  phenomena  of  overhead  activation 
Ionosphere 
D  region 
E  region 

E  and  sporadic  E  layers  ( Kennelly-Heaviside  layers ) 

F  region 

Fi  and  Fa  layers  ( Appleton  layers ) 

Van  Allen  radiation  belts 
Auroras 

5^7 


Decimal  Classification 


538.78  Magnetic  surveys 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  538.78 

.79  Magnetic  observations  at  permanent  stations 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  538.79 


539 


.8  Special  developments 

.9  Tables,  review,  exercise 

Modem  physics 

Molecular,  atomic,  nuclear  physics 
For  electronics,  see  537.5 


.01-09  Standard  subdivisions 

Class  tables,  review,  exercise  in  539.9 

1  Structure  of  matter 

Scope:  interpretation  thru  spectroscopy 
For  nuclear  structure,  see  539.74 


.12 

Molecular  structure 

.14 

Atomic  structure 

.7 

Nuclear  physics 

SUMMARY 

539.72 
.73 
.74 
.75 
.76 
.77 

Fundamental  radiations 
Farticle  acceleration 
Nuclear  structure 
Transmutations 
High-energy  reactions 
Particle  detection  and 

.72 


.721 
.721  1 
.7212 
.7213 


Fundamental  radiations 

Mass,  charge,  size,  velocity,  scattering,  energy  levels 
For  treatment,  structure,  reactions,  see  539.73-539.77 

Fundamental  (Subatomic)  particles 
Electrons  (Beta  particles) 
Protons  and  antiprotons 
Neutrons  and  antineutrons 


.7ZZ 


.734 


.735 


.74 

.742 
.743 
.744 


Physics 


539.721  4 

Positrons 

.7215 

Neutrinos  and  antfneutrinos 

.7216 

Mesons 

Mu-,  pi-,  K-mesons 

.7217 

Photons 

.7219 

Other  particles 

.722 

Penetrating  radiation 

.722  2 

X  and  gamma  rays 

Class  production  in  537.535 

.722  3 

Cosmic  rays 

For  mesons,  see  539.721  6 

► 

539.73-539.77  Treatment,  struc 

.73 

Particle  acceleration 

.732 

In  hieh-voltaffe  accelerators 

Use  of  voltage  multipliers  and  Van  de  GraaflF  electrostatic 
generators 

In  resonance  accelerators 

Use  of  linear  accelerators  and  cyclotrons 

In  induction  accelerators 
Use  of  betatrons 

In  synchronous  accelerators 

Use  of  synchrocyclotrons  and  synchrotrons 
( betatron-synchrotons ) 

Nuclear  structure 

Scope :  isotope  structure 

Liquid-drop  model 

Shell  model 

Interpretation  thru  spectroscopy 


If 


5^9 


Decimal  Classification 


539.75 


.752 
.752  2 
.752  3 
.752  4 
.753 


539.75-539.76  Nuclear  reactions 

Transmutations  » 

Decay  schemes,  half-life  periods,  electron  and  radiative 
capture,  element  disintegration 

Radioactive  decay  (Natural  transmutations) 

Alpha  decay 

Beta  decay 

Gamma  decay 
Artificial  transmutations 

Bombardment  of  elements  with  high-speed  particles  from 
natural  radioactive  sources  and  accelerators 


.76 

High-energy  reactions 

.762 

Fission 

.764 

Fusion 

.77 

Particle  detection  and  measurement 

.772 

In  ionization  chambers 

.773 

In  proportional  counters 

.774 

In  Geiger-Miiller  counters 

.775 

In  scintillation  counters 

.776 

In  crystal  conduction  counters 

.777 

In  Wilson  cloud  chambers 

.778 

Thru  photographic  means 

.9 


Tables,  review,  exercise 


520 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


540     Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 

Use  540.01-540.09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.1 


.2-.9 


541 


.22 


.221 
.222 
.223 


.224 


.225 
.225  2 


540.1-540.9  Standard  subdivisions  of  chemistry 

Early  theories 

Alchemy,  phlogiston  theory,  philosopher's  stone,  other  ancient  and 
medieval  philosophies 

Class  theoretical  chemistry  in  541.2 

Other 

Class  apparatus  and  equipment  in  542 


541-547  Chemistry 
Physical  and  theoretical  chemistry 

Class  physical  and  theoretical  organic  chemistry  in  547.1 

Theoretical  chemistry 

For  periodicity  and  periodic  law,  see  541.901 

Molecular  structure 

For  quantum  chemistry,  see  541.28 

« 

Structural  formulas 

Molecular  weights  [formerly  541.25] 

> 

Stereochemistry  [formerly  541.6] 

Spatial  molecular  arrangement  and  bond  distances 

Molecular  bonds  and  valences  [both  formerly 

541.396] 

Including  hnkages  (conjugations),  radicals 
For  bond  distances,  see  541.223 

Structural  variations  [formerly  541.7] 

Isomers  and  tautomerism 

Structural  and  geometrical  isomers  and  their  equilibrium 
states 


5^^ 


5 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


541.225  3 

Chelates 

.225  4 

Polymers 

.226 

Intermolecular  forces 

.24 

Atomic  structure 

For  radiochemistry,  see  541.38 

.242 


.243 
.244 

.246 

[.25] 


.26 


.28 


.3 


Atomic  constants 

Atomic  weights  and  numbers  [both  formerly  541.25], 
atomic  mass 

Spatial  atomic  arrangements 

Homopolar  and  heteropolar  bonds  [both  formerly 
541.396] 

Interatomic  forces  [formerly  541.396] 

Molecular  and  atomic  weights,  atomic  numbers 

Class  molecular  weights  in  541.222,  atomic  weights  and 
numbers  in  541.242 

Stoichiometry  [formerly  541.901  5] 

Nxunerical  relationship  between  elements  and  compounds, 
determination  of  proportions  in  which  elements  combine, 
weight  relations  in  reactions 

Quantum  chemistry  [formerly  541.383] 

Use  of  quantum,  wave,  statistical  mechanics  for  interpretation 
of  molecular  structure  and  chemical  reactivity  in  terms  of 
motion  of  electrons 

Physical  chemistry 

For  optical  activity y  see  541.7 

SUMMARY 

541.34  Solutions 

.35  Photochemistry 

.36  Thermochemistry  and  thermodynamics 

.37  Electro-  and  magnetochemistry 

,38  Radiochemistry 

•39  Reaction  kinetics  and  mechanisms 


541.34 


.341 

.3413 
.3414 
.3415 


.3416 


.345  13 


.345  14 


.345  15 


Solutions 

General  and  nonelectrolytic 

For  electrolytic  solutions,  see  541.372-541.374 

Properties 

Mechanical 

Optical 

CoUigative 

Freezing-point  depression,  boiling-point  elevation, 
vapor-pressure  lowering,  osmotic  pressure 

Thermal 


.342 

Solubility 

.342  2 

In  water 

.342  3 

In  non-aqueous  solvents 

541.343-541.345  Specific  types  of  solutions 

.343 

By  concentration  of  solute 

.343  2 

Dilute 

.343  3 

Normal  and  molar 

.343  4 

Saturated 

.343  5 

Supersaturated 

.345 

Colloidal 

.3451 

Colloidal  systems 

For  specific  properties,  see  541.345  3  -  541.345  4 

522 


Matter  in  sohd  disperoids 

Solids,  Uquids,   gases  disperst  in  soUds,  e.g.,   alloys, 
gels,  sohd  foams 

Hydrosols 

Sohds,  hquids,  gases  disperst  in  liquids,  e.g., 
suspensions,  emulsions,  foams  ( lathers,  froths ) 

Aerosols 

Sohds  and  Hquids  disperst  in  gases,  e.g.,  smokes,  fogs, 
mists 


i 


541.345  3 


.345  4 


.36 


Decimal  Classiiication 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


541.345  3  -  541.345  4  Specific  properties 
Surface  properties 

Surface    tension,    capillarity,    interfacial    tensions,    films, 
electric  double  layers 

Other 

Including  formation  of  Liesegang  rings 


.348 

Solution  components 

.348  2 

Solvents 

.348  3 

Solutes 

.348  5 

Precipitates 

•35 

Photochemistry 

Reactions  due  to  visible  light  and  paraphotic  radiations 

.351 

Energy  transformations 

.353 

Specific  radiations 

.360  1-.360  9 


Divide  like  535.01,  e.g.,  chemical  reactions  due  to  ultraviolet 
radiation  541.353  4 

Thermochemistry  and  thermodynamics 

Use  541.360  01  -  541.360  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Standard  subdivisions  of  thermochemistry 


,361 
.362 


.363 


.364 
.368 
.368  6 


541.361-541.368  Thermochemistry 
Combustion 
Exothermic  and  endothermic  reactions 

Heat  liberated  or  absorbed  during  neutralization,  fonnation, 
dilution,  combustion,  solution 

Change  of  state  (Phase  changes) 
Including  triple  points 

Thermal  dissociations 
Reactions  under  temperature  extremes 
Low  temperatures 

Reactions  below  -100**  C 
5^4 


541.368  7 

.369 
.37 


High  temperatures 

Reactions  above  critical  temperatures 

Thermodynamics 
Electro-  and  magnetochemistry 

Use  541.370  01  -  541.370  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.370  1-.370  9  Standard  subdivisions  of  electrochemistry 


.372 
.372  2 
.372  3 
.372  4 
.372  8 
.374 


.388 


.388  2 
.388  4 
.389 


541.372-541.377   Electrochemistry 


541.372-541.374  Electrolytic  solutions 
Electrical  properties  (Electrolyte  conductivity) 

Ionization  (Electrolytic  dissociation) 

Ion  exchange  and  equilibriums 

Ionic  migration  to  electrodes 

Hydrogen-ion  concentration 

Other  properties 

Divide  like  541.341,  e.g.,  optical  properties  of  electrolytic 
solutions  541.374  4 


.377 

Semiconductors 

Former  heading;  Dielectric  phenomena 

.378 

Magnetocheuiistry 

.38 

Radiochemistry 

.382 

Radiolysis 

[.383] 

Quantum  chemistry 

Class  in  541.28 

Isotopes 

Class  isotopes  of  specific  elements  in  541.389 

Stable 
Radioactive 
Radiochemistry  of  specific  elements 

Divide  like  546.38-546.75,  e.g.,  radiocarbon  541.389  681 

5^5 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


\ 


I 


541.39  Reaction  kinetics  and  mechanisms 

.392  Chemical  equilibriums 

Including  law  of  mass  action  and  Le  Chatelier's  principle 

.393  Types  of  reactions 

Chain,  reversible,  irreversible,  homogeneous,  heterogeneous 

,394  Reaction  rates 

.395  Catalysis 

Acceleration  and  retardation  of  chemical  reactions  by  means 
of  catalysts 

[.396]  Chemical  bonds,  valences,  interatomic  forces 

Class  molecular  bonds  and  valences  in  541.224,  homopolar 
and  heteropolar  bonds  in  541.244,  interatomic  forces  in 
541.246 

[.6]  Stereochemistry 

Class  in  541.223 

,7  Optical  activity 

Optical  rotation,  racemization,  mutarotation 

Including  polarimetry 

Class  structural  variations  [formerly  541.7]  in  541.225 

•9  Other  topics 

.901  Periodicity  and  periodic  law 

[.901  5]  Stoichiometry 

Class  in  541.26 

542  Laboratories,  apparatus,  equipment 

Scope:  general  procedures  and  manipulation  of  equipment 
Class  a  specific  application  with  the  subject 

.1  Laboratories 

Layouts,  installations,  basic  equipment 

For  specific  types  of  apparatus,  see  542.2-542.9 


5^6 


542.2 


.3 


.4 
.5 
.6 

.7 


.8 
•9 


543 


.01 

.02 

.07 

.08 

.083 

.085 

.086 

.087 

.088 


542.2-542.9  Specific  types  of  apparatus 
Receptacles  and  accessory  equipment 

Beakers,   flasks,   retorts,    test   tubes,   funnels,   crucibles,    supports, 
stoppers,  tubing 

For  measuring  apparatus,  see  542.3;  distilling  apparatus,  542.4; 
gas  apparatus,  542.7 

Measuring  apparatus 

Gravimetric  and  volumetric 
For  gas  apparatus,  see  542.7 

Heating  and  distilling  apparatus 

Blowpipes 

Filters  and  dializers 

Gas  apparatus 

For  producing,  collecting,  washing,  dissolving,  storing,  measuring, 
rarefying,  compressing,  liquefying,  solidifying  gases 

Electrical  and  electronic  apparatus 
Other  apparatus 


543-545  Analytical  chemistry 

Class  organic  analytical  chemistry  in  547.3 

General  analysis 

Use  543.001-543.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  qualitative  analysis,  see  544;  quantitative  analysis,  545 

Reagents 

Sample  preparation 

Instrumentation 

Instrumental  methods 

Mechanical  analysis 

Optical  analysis 

Thermal  analysis 

Electrical  analysis 

Radiochemical  analysis 

5^7 


i 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


543.1 

.31 

.312 

.313 

,314 

.32 

.4 

^ 

S 

544 


.01-.08 


.12 
.13 
.16 


543.1-543.6  Specific  product  groups 
Food  products  other  than  dairy  products 
Dairy  products 
Sanitary  analysis 
Water  constituents 
Domestic 
Industrial 
Agricultural 
Sewage 
Cosmetics  and  perfumes 
Pesticides  and  other  poisons 
Rocks  and  ores 

Qualitative  analysis 

Systematic  macro  and  semiquantitative  methods  and  procedures  for 
detecting  and  identifying  constituents  of  a  substance 

Scope:  identification  of  specific  elements  [formerly  546] 

Use  544.001-544.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

General  principles 

Divide  like  543.01-543.08,  e.g.,  mechanical  analysis  544.083 

SUMMARY 

544.1  Systematic  separations 

.2  Pyrolysis  and  combustion 

.3  Blowpipe  analysis 

.4  Gas  analysis 

.5  Diffusion  analysis 

.6  Spectrochemical  analysis   (Spectroscopic  analysis) 

.8  Micro  and  semimicro  methods 

.9  Other  methods 

Systematic  separations 

Former  heading;  Wet  analysis 

Cation  separation  and  identification 
Anion  separation  and  identification 
Separation  of  groups  of  elements  and  their  components 
Divide  like  546.3-546.7,  e.g.,  separation  of  halogens  544.167  3 


544.2 


.3 


.4 
.5 


.6 


.82 


.83 


.832 

.834 

[.84] 


Pyrolysis  and  combustion 

Former  heading:  Dry  methods 

Blowpipe  analysis 

Flame  tests,  bead  tests,  reactions  on  charcoal  and  plaster  of  paris 
in  conjunction  with  blowpipe 

Gas  analysis 
Diffusion  analysis 

Including  ultrafiltration  methods  (dialysis) 

Spectrochemical  analysis  ( Spectroscopic  analysis ) 

Class  quantitative  methods  in  spectrochemical  analysis   [formerly 
544.6]  in  545.83 


.62 

Microwave 

.63 

Infrared 

.64 

Visible  light 

Including  Raman  spectroscopy 

.65 

Ultraviolet 

.66 

X-ray  and  gamma-ray 

.8 

Micro  and  semimicro  methods 

Class  quantitative  micro  and  semimicro  methods  [formerly  544.8] 
in  545.84 


Microscopical  analysis 

Use  of  compound,  electron  and  ultramicroscopes  for 
identification 

Microchemical  analysis 

Reactions  performed   with   small   quantities,   e.g.,   micrograms 
and  microliters,  and  using  small  apparatus 

Class  semimicro  analysis  [formerly  544.83]  in  544.85 

Systematic  analysis 
Spot  tests  [formerly  544.84] 
Spot  tests  and  paper  chromatography 

Class  spot  tests  in  544.834,  paper  chromatography  in  544.925 

5^9 


Decimal  Classification 


544.85 


J9 

.92 

.922 
.923 

.924 
.925 
.926 

.94 


545 


.01-.08 


.22 
.23 

.24 


Semimicro  analysis  [formerhj  544.83] 

Small-scale  adaptations  of  existing  macro  methods 

Other  methods 

Chromatographic  analysis 

Adsorption 

Ion-exchange  separations 

Liquid-liquid  chromatology 

Paper  chromatography  [formerly  544.84] 

Gas-liquid  partition  chromatography  ( Gas 
chromatography ) 

Biochemical  methods 

Identification  by  means  of  microorganisms 

Quantitative  analysis 

Determination  of  the  amount  of  a  constituent  in  a  substance 
Use  545.001-545.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

General  principles 

Divide  like  543.01-543.08,  e.g.,  mechanical  analysis  545.083 

SUMMARY 

545.1  Gravimetric  analysis  of  precipitates 

•2  Volumetric  analysis 

•3  Electroanalysis 

•4  Thermogravimetric  methods 

.7  Gasometric  methods 

•8  Other  methods 

Gravimetric  analysis  of  precipitates 

Volumetric  analysis 

Determination   of  elements   and   compounds   in   a   substance   by 
titration  with  standard  solutions  and  indicators 

Neutralization  methods  (Alkalimetry  and  acidimetry) 

Oxidation-reduction  methods  (Oxidimetry  and 
iodometry) 

Precipitation  methods 


530 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


545.3 
.31 
.311 
.312 
.32 


Electroanalysis 

Conductometric  and  potentiometric  titrations 

Conductometric  methods 

Potentiometric  methods 
Polarographic  methods 

Analysis  based  on  current-voltage  curves  obtained  in 
electrolysis  with  a  slowly  dropping  mercury  cathode 
( polarimetric  titration ) 


.33 

Mass  spectrographic  methods 

.34 

Electrodeposition 

.4 

Thermogravimetric  methods 

.42 

Pyrolysis  and  combustion 

.43 

Blowpipe  analysis 

.46 

Volatilization 

.7 

Gasometric  methods 

.8 

Other  methods 

.81 

Optical  methods 

For  spectroscopic  analysis,  see  545.83 

.812 


.813 

.816 

.82 

.822 

.824 

.83 


.84 


1 

Photometric  analysis 

Colorimetric,  nephelometric,  turbidimetric, 
fluorophotometric  methods 

Refractometric  and  interferometric  analysis 

Polarimetric  analysis  ( Polariscopic  analysis) 
Radiochemical  methods 

Activation  analysis  ( Radioactivation  analysis) 

Tracer  techniques 
Spectroscopic  analysis  [formerly  also  544.6] 

Former  heading:  Diffraction  methods 

Divide  like  544.6,  e.g.,  X-ray  diffraction  methods  545.836 

Micro  and  semimicro  methods  [formerly  544.8] 

Divide  like  544.83-544.85,  e.g.,  semimicro  quantitative  analysis 
545.845 


53^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


546 


.1 


.11 
.12 

.121 
,122 
.123 
.129 
.15 


.2 

.21 


Inorganic  chemistry 

An    optional    schedule,   based   on   earlier    concepts    of   the    subject, 
appeared  in  Edition  16,  p.  2429-2439 

Divide   each   subdivision   identified   by    *    as    follows,    e.g.,    arsenic 
compounds  546.715  2 

1  The  element 

2  Compounds 

22        Acids  and  bases 

24  Salts 

25  Complex  compounds 

3  Molecular  and  colloidal  mixtures 

Class  identification  of  specific  elements  [formerly  546]  in  544 

For  analytical  chemistry,  see  543-545;  physical  and  theoretical 
chemistry,  541 


SUMMARY 


546.1 

Ji 
A 

JS 
.7 


General  principles 

Hydrogen  and  its  compounds 

Metals,  their  compounds  and  mixtures 

Rare-earth  elements  (Group  3A) 

Groups  4A,  5A,  6A,  7A 

Groups  8,  IB,  2B,  3B,  4B 

Nonmetals 

Periods  of  periodic  table 

General  principles 

Class   general  principles   applied  to   specific  elements   and  their 
compounds  in  546.38-546.75 

Elements 
Specific  reactions 

Catalysis 

Hydrolysis 

Oxidation  and  reduction 

Other 

Synthesis 

Preparation  of  new  compounds,  and  new  methods  for  preparing 
old  compounds 

Hydrogen  and  its  compounds 

The  element 


546.22 


.24 


.3 


.31 


.32 

.34 
.342 

.343 
.345 


546.22-546.24  Compounds 
Water 

Including  deuteriimi  oxide  (heavy  water) 

Acids 

Class  a  specific  acid  with  its  nonmetallic  element 

Metals,  their  compounds  and  mixtures 

Class  metals,  their  compounds  and  mixtures  of  groups  other  than 
lA  and  2A  in  546.4-546.6 

Metallic  elements 

Class  alkali  metals  and  alkaline  earth  metals  (groups  lA  and 
2A)  in  546.38-546.39 


546.32-546.34  Compounds 
Class  a  specific  metallic  compound  with  its  metallic  element 

Bases 

Salts 
Simple 

Neutral,  acidulous,  alkaline,  amphoteric,  binary  salts 

Double  ( Molecular  compounds ) 

Salts  formed  by  union  of  two  simple  salts,  e.g.,  altuns 

Complex 

Double  salts  which  do  not  form  their  component  simple  salts 
on  solution,  e.g.,  potassium  ferrocyanide 


37 

Alloys 

Molecular  and  colloidal  mixtures 

546.38-546.39  Alkali  and  alkaline  earth  metals 

38 

Alkali  metals  (Group  lA) 

381 

*Lithium 

382 

*Sodium  (Natrium) 

383 

^Potassium  (Kalivmi) 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  546 


532 


533 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


546.384 

*Rubidiuin 

.385 

*  Cesium  (Caesium) 

.386 

*Francium 

.39 

Alkaline  earth  metals  (Group  2A) 

.391 

*Beryllium  (Glucinium) 

.392 

•Magnesium 

.393 

*  Calcium 

.394 

•Strontium 

.395 

•Barium 

.396 

•Radium 

.4 

Rare-earth  elements  ( Group  3A ) 

Use  546.400  1  -  546.400  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

.401 

•Scandium 

.403 

•Yttrium 

.41 

Lanthanide  series 

.411 

•Lanthanum 

.412 

•Cerium 

.413 

Praseodymium  and  neodymium 

.414 

•Promethium  (Illinium) 

.415 

Samarium  and  europium 

.416 

Gadolinium  and  terbium 

.417 

Dysprosium  and  holmium 

.418 

Erbium  and  thulium  ( aldebaranium ) 

.419 

Ytterbium  and  lutetium  (cassiopeium,  lutecium) 

.42 


.421 
.422 
.424 


546.42-546.44  Actinide  series 
Terrestrially-occurring  actinides 
For  uranium,  see  546.431 

•Actinium 
•Thorium 
•Protactinium  (Protoactinium) 


546.43  Uranium,  neptunium,  plutonium 

.431  •Uranium 

,432  •Neptunium 

.434  *Plutonium 

.44  Transuranium  elements 

Use  546.440  01  -  546.440  09  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  neptunium,  see  546.432^  plutonium,  546.434 

.440  1-.440  2  *Special  subdivisions 

.441  Americium 

.442  Curium 

.444  Berkelium 

.448  Californium 

.449  Other 

Einsteinium,  fermium,  mendelevium,  nobelium,  lawrencium 

J  Groups  4A,  SA,  6A,  7A 

.51  Titanium  group  ( Group  4A ) 

.512  *Titanium 

,513  *Zirconium 

.514  *Hafnium  (Celtium) 

.52  Vanadium  group  (Group  5A) 

.522  •Vanadium 

.524  *Columbium  (Niobium) 

.526  *Tantalum 

.53  Chromium  group  (Group  6A) 

.532  •Chromium 

.534  *  Molybdenum 

.536  •Tungsten  (Wolfram) 

.54  Manganese  group  (Group  7A) 

.541  •Manganese 

.543  Technetium 

.545  •Rhenium  (Bohemium) 


5 


! 


•  Divide  as  instructed  under  546 


*  Divide  as  instructed  imder  546 


534 


535 


Decimal  Classification 


* 


546.6 

Groups  8,  IB,  2B,  3B,  4B 

SUMMARY 

546.62            Iron  series 

.63            Ruthenium  series 

.64            Osmium  series 

.65            Copper  group  (Croup  IB) 
.66           Zinc  group  (Croup  2B) 
.67           Boron  group  (Croup  3B) 
.68            Carbon  group  (Croup  4B) 

► 

546.62-546.64  Transition  metals  (Group  8) 

.62 

Iron  series 

.621 

*Iron  (Ferrum) 

.623 

*Cobalt 

.625 

♦Nickel 

.63 

Ruthenium  series 

.632 

*  Ruthenium 

.634 

*Rhodium 

.636 

♦Palladium 

.64 

Osmium  series 

.641 

♦Osmium 

.643 

♦Iridium 

.645 

♦Platinum 

.65 

Copper  group  (Group  IB) 

.652 

♦Copper  (Cupnim) 

.654 

♦Silver  (Argentum) 

.656 

♦Gold  (Aurum) 

.66 

Zinc  group  ( Group  2B ) 

.661 

♦Zinc 

.662 

♦Cadmium 

.663 

♦  Mercury  (Hydrargyrum) 

*  Divide  as  instructed  under  546 


536 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


546.67 

Boron  group  ( Group  3B ) 

.671 

•Boron 

.673 

•Aluminum 

.675 

•Galliuai 

.677 

•Indium 

.678 

•Thallium 

.68 

Carbon  group  ( Group  4B ) 

.681 

•Carbon 

.683 

•Silicon 

.684 

•Germanium 

.686 

•Tin  (Stannum) 

.688 

•Lead  (Plumbum) 

.7 

Nonmetals 

Class  a  specific  nonmetal  with  the  subject 

.71 

Nitiogen  group  (Group  5B) 

.711 

•Nitrogen 

.712 

•Phosphorus 

.715 

•Arsenic 

.716 

•Antimony  (Stibium) 

.718 

•Bisiimth 

.72 

Oxygen  group  ( Group  6B ) 

.721 

•Oxygen 

.723 

•Sulfur 

.724 

•Selenium 

.726 

Tellurium 

.728 

•Polonium 

.73 

Halogen  group  (Group  7B) 

.731 

•I'luorine 

.732 

•Chlorine 

.733 

•Bromine 

Si 


*  Divide  as  instructed  under  546 


537 


Decimal  Classification 


546.734 

•Iodine 

.735 

•Astatine 

.75 

Rare  gases  ( Group  0) 

.751 

Helium 

.752 

Neon 

.753 

Argon 

.754 

Krypton 

.755 

Xenon 

.756 

Radon  (Niton) 

.8 


.81 


.82 


Periods  of  periodic  table 

Bohr's  arrangement  of  elements  according  to  atomic  number 

Class  hydrogen  and  its  compounds  in  546.2,  other  specific  elements 
and  their  compounds  in  546.38-546.75 

Period  1 

Hydrogen  and  helium 

Period  2 

Lithiimi,  berylliiun,  boron,  carbon,  nitrogen,  oxygen,  fluorine, 
neon 


.83 


.84 


.85 


Period  3 

Sodium,    magnesimn,    aluminum,    sihcon,    phosphorus,    sulfur, 
chlorine,  argon 

Period  4 

Potassium,  calcium,  scandium,  titanium,  vanadium,  chromium, 
manganese,  iron,  cobalt,  nickel,  copper,  zinc,  gallium, 
germanium,  arsenic,  selenium,  bromine,  krypton 

Period  5 

Rubidium,  strontiiun,  yttrium,  zirconium,  columbium,  molyb- 
dentun,  technetium,  rutheniimi,  rhodium,  palladium,  silver, 
cadmium,  indium,  tin,  antimony,  tellurium,  iodine,  xenon 


•  Divide  as  instructed  under  546 


53S 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


546.86 


.87 


547 


.01 


.02 
.03 

.031 

.035 

,036 

.037 

.038 

.04 

.041 

.042 

.043 

.044 

.05 


Period  6 
Cesium,  barium,  lanthanide  series,  hafnium,  tantalum,  tungsten, 
rhenium,  osmium,  iridium,  platinum,  gold,  mercury,  thallium, 
lead,  bismuth,  polonium,  astatine,  radon 

Period  7 

Franciimi,  radium,  actinide  series 

Organic  chemistry 

Chemistry  of  nonpolar  compounds 

An    optional    schedule,   based    on   earlier   concepts    of   the    subject, 
appeared  in  Edition  16,  p.  2429-2439 
Use  547.001-547.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  theoretical  chemistry  in  547.12 
For  biochemistry,  see  574.192 


547.01-547.09  General  groupings  of  compounds 
Hydrocarbons 

547.02-547.04  Hydrocarbon  derivatives 
Halogen  derivatives 
Oxy  and  hydroxy  derivatives 

Alcohols 

Ethers 

Aldehydes  and  ketones 

Acids 

Esters 
Nitrogen  derivatives 

Nitro  and  nitroso  compounds 

Amines 

Azo  compounds 

Nitriles  and  isonitriles 
Metallic  compounds 

Salts,  chelates,  arsenicals,  Grignards 


I 


539 


Decimal  Classijication 


547.06 

Sulfur  compounds 

.061 

Sulfites  ( Thioethers ) 

.063 

Hydrosulfites  (Thioalcohols,  mercaptans) 

.064 

Thioacids 

.065 

Oxy  derivatives  of  thioethers 

Sulfones,  sulfoxides,  thioaldehydes,  thioketones 

.066 

Sulfinic  acids 

.067 

Sulfonic  acids 

.07 

Phosphorus  compounds 

Divide  like  547.06,  e.g.,  phosphinic  acids  547.076 

.08 


.09 


.1 

a, 

2\ 


.22 

.223 
.225 
.23 


Sihcon  compounds 

Divide  like  547.06,  e.g.,  silicones  547.085 

Other 


SUMMARY 

547.1  Physical  and  theoretical  chemistry 

.2  Synthesis  and  named  reactions 

3  Analytical  chemistry 

.4  Aliphatic  compounds 

JS  Alicyclic  and  heterocyclic  compounds 

J^  Aromatic  compounds 

,7  Natural  products 

A  Other 

Physical  and  theoretical  chemistry 

Divide  like  541,  e.g.,  electrochemistry  547.137 
Synthesis  and  named  reactions 

Alkylation,  acylation,  aromatization 

Including  Friedel-Craft,  Wiirtz-Fittig,  Wittig  reactions 

Halogen  and  hydroxy  addition  and  substitution 

Halogenation 

Hydrolysis  and  saponification 

Oxidation  and  reduction 

Hydrogenation,  dehydrogenation,  peroxidation,  quinonization 


540 


547.24 
.25 
.26 
27 
.28 


.29 


.3 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


Esterification 

Amination  and  diazotization 

Nitration  and  nitrosation 

Sulfonation 

Polymerization 

Formation  of  addition  and  condensation  polymers 

Other 

Including  fermentation  processes 

Analytical  chemistry 

Use  547.300  1  -  547.300  9  for  standard  subdivisions 


.301-.308  General  principles 

Divide  like  543.01-543.08,  e.g.,  reagents  547.301 


.33 


.34 


.35 


General  analysis  of  specific  product  groups 

Divide  like  543.1-543.6,  e.g.,  organic  analysis  of  dairy  products 
543.332 

For  qualitative  analysis,  see  547.34;  quantitative  analysis, 
547.35 

Qualitative  analysis 

Divide  like  544,  e.g.,  microscopical  analysis  547.348  2 

Quantitative  analysis 

Divide  like  545,  e.g.,  electroanalysis  547.353 

547.4_547.6  Compounds  of  defined  structure 

Class  compounds  of  complex  structure  not  subject  to  precise 
structural  classification  in  547.7-547.8 


.4 

Aliphatic  compounds 

.41 

Hydrocarbons 

.411 

Paraffins 

.412 

Olefins  (Alkenes) 

.413 

Acetylenics  (Alkynes) 

54^ 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


547.42-.44 


.45 


.46 


.47 


.48 


.49 


.51 


.52-.58 


.59 


,592 


.593 


Hydrocarbon  derivatives 

Divide  like  547.02-547.04,  e.g.,  aliphatic  alcohols  547.431 

Metallic  compounds 

Salts,  chelates,  arsenicals,  Grignards 

Sulfur  compounds 

Divide  like  547.06,  e.g.,  aliphatic  sulfinic  acids  547.466 

Phosphorus  compounds 

Divide  like  547.06,  e.g.,  ahphatic  phosphinic  acids  547.476 

Silicon  compounds 

Divide  like  547.06,  e.g.,  ahphatic  silicones  547.485 

Other 


547.5-547.6  Cyclic  compounds 
Alicyclic  and  heterocyclic  compounds 


547,51_547.58  Alicyclic  compounds 
Nonaromatic  compounds  with  ring  structure 

Hydrocarbons 

Divide  hke  547.41,  e.g.,  cycloparaffins  547.511 

Other 

Divide  hke  547.02-547.08,  e.g.,  aUcycUc  acids  547.537 

Heterocyclic  compounds 

Cyclic  compounds  containing  other  than  carbon  atoms  in  the 


nng 


With  hetero  oxygen  atoms 
Furans,  pyrans,  oxazoles 

With  hetero  nitrogen  atoms 

Pyrroles,  porphyrins,  chlorophylls,  pyridines,  pyrazoles, 
imidazoles,  diazines 


54^ 


547.594 


.595 


.596 


.6 

.61 

.611 
.613 


With  hetero  sulfur  atoms 
Thiophenes,  thiazoles 

With  several  different  hetero  atoms 
Oxazines,  oxdiazines,  oxdiazoles 

With  fused  hetero  rings 

Quinolines,  purines,  nucleic  acids 

Aromatic  compounds 
Hydrocarbons 
Benzenes 
Polyphenyl  hydrocarbons 


.615 

.616 

.62 

.63 

.631 

.632 

.633 


.635-.638 


.64-.69 


547.615-547.616  Fused  hydrocarbons 

Napthalenes 

Anthracenes 
Halogen  derivatives 
Oxy  and  hydroxy  derivatives 

Alcohols 

Phenols 

Polyhydroxy  aromatics 

Dihydroxy  and  trihydroxy  aromatics,  catechols,  resorcinols, 
hydroquinones 

Other 

Divide  like  547.035-547.038,  e.g.,  aromatic  esters  547.638 

Other  aromatics 

Divide  like  547.04-547.09,  e.g.,  aromatic  amines  547.642 


.71 


547.7-547.8  Macromolecular  compounds 

Natural  products 

Substances  directly  derived  from  Uving  organisms 
For  high  polymers,  see  547.84 

Terpenes  and  essential  oils 

543 


\h 


W 

'« 


54772 


73 

731 


734 
734  2 
734  3 

734  5 

737 

74 

75 


752 


754 


756 


758 


Decimal  Classification 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


Alkaloids 

Basic,  nitrogenous  plant  products  having  strong  physiological 
activity,  e.g.,  nicotine,  quinine,  strychnine,  cocaine,  caffeine, 
atropine 

Steroids 

Sterols 

Cholesterol,    ergosterol,    phytosterol,    other    solid    alcohols 
derived  from  plant  and  animal  sources 

Hormones 

Gibberellins  and  other  auxins 
Sex  hormones 

Progesterone,  estrone,  testosterone,  androsterone 

Other  hormones 

Adrenahn,  thyroxin,  insulin,  oxytocin,  cortin,  vasopressin 

Bile  acids  (Cholic  acids) 
Vitamins 
Proteins 


547752-547756  By  structure 
For  enzymes,  see  547.758 

Simple 

Albumins,  globuUns,  histones 

Conjugated 

Nucleoproteins,  phosphoproteins,  hemoglobins, 
chromoproteins 

Derived 

Peptones  and  peptides 

Enzymes 

Proteins    having    strong    catalytic   properties,    e.g.,    trypsin, 
pepsin,  coenzyme  A,  dehydrogenases,  hexokinase, 
phosphorylases,  amylases 


54776 
78 
781 
7813 

7815 


782 


783 


.8 


Antibiotics 
Carbohydrates 
Sugar 

Monosaccharides 

Glucose,  fructose,  levulose,  dextrose,  gallactose 

Ohgosaccharides 

Disaccharides  (sucrose,  maltose,  lactose,  cellobiose)  and 
trisaccharides  ( raffinose ) 

Polysaccharides 

Starches,    inulin,    glycogen,    cellulose,    cotton    derivatives, 
pentosans,  dextrans,  pectin 


Tannins 


Other 


547.82-547.83  Fossil  substances 


Class  a  specific  compound  derived  from  fossil  substances  with 
the  subject 


.82 

Coal-tar 

.83 

Petroleum 

.84 

High  polymers 

.842 

Elastic  polymers  (Elastomers) 

.842  5 

Latexes 

Natural  and  synthetic 

.842  6 

Natural  rubber 

.842  7 

Synthetic  polymers 

For  synthetic  latexes,  see  547.842  5 

.842  72 

Synthetic  rubber 

.842  73 

High-styrene  resins  (Elastoplastics) 

544 


545 


Decimal  Classification 


547.843 


.843  2 


.843  4 
.85 


.86 


Flexible  polymers 

Polymers  with  high  tensile   strength  without  elasticity  of 
rubber 


Plastics 

Divide   like    668.42-668.45,    e.g.,    polyethylene    plastics 
547.843  223  4 

Gums  and  resins 
Man-made  fibers 

Divide  like  677.46-677.47,  e.g.,  nylon  547.857  3 

Dyes  and  pigments 

Use  547.860  01  -  547.860  09  for  standard  subdivisions 


.860  1-.860  9  Standard  subdivisions  of  dyes 


.862 
.863 
.864 
.866 


.867 
.868 
.869 


548 


.1 

.12 

.14 


.3 


547.862-547.868  Dyes 
Nitro  and  nitroso 
Azo-oxy  and  azo-tetrazo 
Di-  and  triphenylmethane 
Hydroxyketone 

Quinoidals  and  alizarines 

Indigoid 
Other 

Pigments 

Crystallography 

Geometrical  crystallography 

External  shape  of  crystals 
Fundamental  systems 

Isometric,  tetragonal,  orthorhombic,  monoclinic,  triclinic, 
hexagonal,  and  trigonal  systems 

Chemical  crystallography 

Relationship  between  structure  and  bondings 
Including  isomorphism,  polymorphism,  pseudomorphism 

546 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


548.5 
.7 


.81 

.812 

.814 

.83 


.84 


.842 


.843 
.845 
.85 


.86 


Growth  and  aggregation  of  crystals 
Mathematical  crystallography 

Goniometric  measurements  and  calculations 

Physical  and  structural  crystallography 


548.81-548.83  Crystal  structure 
Study  of  internal  structure  of  crystals 

Diagrammatic  representations 

Of  molecular  structure 

Of  atomic  structure 
Photographic  representations  (Crystallograms) 

Study  of  internal  structure  by  X-ray  diffraction 


548.84-548.86  Physical  properties  of  crystals 
For  optical  properties,  see  548.9 

Mechanical  properties 

Class  fusibility  [formerly  548.84]  in  548.86 

Stresses  and  deformation 

Elasticity,  plasticity,  fracture,  stresses  of  tension, 
compression,  shear 

Cleavage  and  cohesion 
Density  and  specific  gravity 
Electrical,  electronic,  magnetic  properties 
Conductivity,  semiconductivity,  dielectrics 
Class  thermal  properties  [formerly  548.85]  in  548.86 

Thermal  properties  [/ormerZy  548.85] 
Including  fusibihty  [formerly  548.84] 

Optical  crystallography 

Optical  properties  and  methods 
Including  liquid  crystals 


547 


Decimal  Classifxation 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


m 


549 


.09 


.1 


.11 

.113 
.114 


.116 

.118 

.119 

.12 

.121 


.125 


.127 


Mineralogy 

Occurrence,  description,  classification,  identification  of  naturally- 
occurring  elements  and  compounds  formed  by  inorganic  processes 

For  economic  geology,  see  553 

Historical  and  geographical  treatment 

Class  geographical  distribution  of  minerals  in  549.9 

SUMMARY 

549.1  Determinative  mineralogy 

.2  Native  elements 

.3  Sulfides,  sulfosalts,  related  minerals 

,4  Halides 

,5  Oxides 

.6  Silicates 

.7  Other  minerals 

.9  Geographical  distribution  of  minerals 

Determinative  mineralogy 

Class  determinative  mineralogy  of  specific  minerals  in  549.2-549.7 

Modes  of  occurrence  and  associations  of  minerals 
In  placers 

In  rocks 

Divide   like    552.1-552.5,    e.g.,    minerals    in   igneous   rocks 
549.114  1 

In  pegmatite  dikes 
In  association  with  other  minerals 
In  veins 
Physical  mineralogy 
Mechanical  properties 

Cleavage,  parting,  fracture,  hardness,  tenacity,  specific 
gravity 

Optical  properties 

Luster,  color,  streak,  iridescence,  luminescence,  fluorescence, 
refractivity 

Electrical  and  magnetic  properties 

Pyroelectric  and  piezoelectric  phenomena  • 


549.13 
.131 
.133 


.18 


23 


.25 


27 


.3 

.32 


.35 


.4 


«5 

.52 

.522 

.523 


Chemical  mineralogy 

Composition,  properties,  reactivity 

Analysis  and  identification 

Blowpipe  analysis,  microchemical  reactions,  etch  tests 

Crystallographic  mineralogy 

Geometrical,  structural,  mathematical.  X-ray  crystallography  of 
minerals 


549.2-549.7  Specific  minerals 
Native  elements 

Metals 

Gold,  silver,  copper,  lead,  platinum,  palladium,  iridium, 
osmium,  iron,  mercury,  tantalum,  tin,  zinc 

Semimetals 

Arsenic,  antimony,  bismuth,  selenium,  tellurium 

Nonmetals 

Carbon  ( diamonds,  graphite ) ,  sulfur 

Sulfides,  sulfosalts,  related  minerals 

Sulfides,  selenides,  tellurides,  antimonides 

Galena,  stannite,  cinnabar,  stibnite,  bismuthinite,  pyrite, 
calaverite,  smaltite  { skutterudite ) ,  argentite,  chalcocite, 
molybdenite,  sphalerite,  niccoUte 

Sulfosalts  ( Double  sulfides ) 

Enargite,  polybasite,  stephanite,  proustite,  pyrargyrite, 
tetrahedrite,  jamesonite,  bournonite 

Halides 

Hahte,  cryolite,  fluorite,  sylvite,  cerargyrite,  atacamite,  carnaUite 

Oxides 

Simple  and  multiple  oxides 
Cuprite,  ice,  zincite 
Hematite  group 

Corundum,  hematite,  ilmenite 

549 


iH 


Decimal  Classification 


\% 


549.524 


.525 


.526 


.528 


.53 


.6 

.62 


.63 


.64 


.66 


.67 


.68 


Rutile  group 

Rutile,  pyrolusite,  cassiterite 

Goethite  group  [formerly  549.53] 

Diaspora  and  goethite 

Spinel  group 

Spinel,  gahnite.  magnetite,  franklinite,  chromite 

Other  groupings 

Uraninite  [formerly  549.74],  chrysoberyl,  columbite 

Hydroxides 

Manganite,  limonite.  bauxite,  brucite,  psilomelane 
Class  goethite  group  [formerly  549.53]  in  549.525 

Silicates 

Nesosilicates 

Phenacite,  willemite,  olivine,  gamet,  zircon,  andalusite, 
sillimanite,  kyanite,  topaz,  stauroUte,  chondrodite, 
sphene,  dumortierite 

Sorosilicates 

Hemimorphite,  lawsonite,  epidote,  idocrase,  prehnite 

Cyclosilicates 

Axinite,  beryl,  cordierite,  tourmaline,  chrysocolla 

Inosilicates 

Pyroxenes,  spodumene,  rhodonite,  wollastonite,  pectolite, 
amphiboles 

Phyllosilicates 

Apophyllite,  kaolinite,  serpentine,  garnierite,  pyrophyllite,  talc, 
micas,  chlorite,  sepiolite 

Tectosilicates 

Quartz,  opal,  feldspars,  leucite,  lazurite,  scapoUtes,  zeohtes 


550 


Chemistry  and  allied  sciences 


549.7 

72 


.73 
.732 

.735 


.74 


.75 

.752 


.755 


.78 
,782 


.785 


Other  minerals 

Phosphates,  vanadates,  arsenates 

Monazite,    triphylite,    apatites,   vanadinite,    lazulite,    scorodite, 
turquoise,  vivianite,  erythrite 

Nitrates  and  borates 

Nitrates 

Soda  niter  (Chile  saltpeter)  and  niter  (saltpeter) 

Borates 

Boracite,  borax,  kernite,  ulexite,  colemanite 

Tungstates  and  molybdates 
Wolframite,  scheelite,  wulfenite 
Class  uraninite  [formerly  549.74]  in  549.528 

Chromates  and  sulfates 

Chromates  and  anhydrous  sulfates 

Crocoite,  glauberite,  barite,  celestite,  anglesite,  anhydrite 

Hydrous  and  basic  sulfates 

Antlerite,  polyhalite,  gypsum,  epsomite,  chalcanthite,  alunite 

Carbonates 

Calcite  group 

Calcite,  dolomite,  magnesite,  siderite,  rhodochrosite, 
smithsonite 

Aragonite  group 

Aragonite,  witherite,  strontianite,  cerussite,  malachite, 
azurite 

Geographical  distribution  of  minerals 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  549.9 


55^ 


11)^ 


Decimal  Classification 


m 


550  Earth  sciences 

,1  Philosophy  and  theory 

Class  geologic  time  [formerly  550.1]  in  551.701 

551  Physical  and  dynamic  geology 

Scope:    geophysics    and    geochemistry    of    lithosphere,    hydrosphere, 
atmosphere 

For  astronomical  geography,  see  525 


.1 


11 


12 


.13 
.14 


a 

.21 

.22 
.23 


SUMMARY 

Cross  structure  and  properties  of  the  earth 

Plutonic  phenomena 

Exogenous  processes  and  their  agents 

Geomorphology 

Descriptive  and  dynamic  meteorology 

Climatology  and  weather 

Historical  geology  (Stratigraphy) 

Structural  geology  ( Tectonophysics ) 

Geochemistry 

Cross  structure  and  properties  of  the  earth 

For  geomagnetism,  see  538.7 


551.1 

.4 
Ji 

.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 


551.11-551.12  Earth's  interior 

Structure 

Core,  mantle,  mohorovicic  discontinuity 

Properties 

Heat,  temperature  ranges,  isostasy 


551.13-551.14  Earth's  crust 
Structure 
Properties 

Heat,    temperature    ranges,    thermal    conductivity,    elasticity, 
deformation 

Plutonic  phenomena 

Volcanoes 

Earthquakes 

Fumaroles,  hot  springs,  geysers 


552 


Earth  sciences 


551.3 


.302 
.303 
.304 
.305 


.31 

.312 


.313 


.314 


.315 


[.32] 


[,33] 


.34 


.342 
.343 


Exogenous  processes  and  their  agents 

Use  551.300  1  -  551.300  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

Erosion  and  weathering 
Deposition,  sedimentation,  transport 
Transported  materials 
New  formations 


551.31-551.34  Geologic  work  of  ice 
For  frost  action  in  soils  and  rocks,  see  551.38 

Glaciology 

Glaciers 

Nourishment,  advances,  recessions,  oscillations 
For  icebergs,  shelf  ice,  growlers,  see  551.342 

Glacial  action 

Class  cirques,  drumlins,  kettles,  kames,  roches  moutonnees 
[all  formerly  551.313]  in  551.315 

For  Pleistocene  epoch,  see  551.792 
Glacial  debris 

Including  moraines  [formerly  551.32],  other  glacier- 
transported  materials  [formerly  551.33] 

New  formations 

Cirques,  drumlins,  kettles,  kames,  roches  moutonnees    [all 
formerly  551.313] 

Moraines 

Class  in  551.314 

Other  glacier-transported  materials 
Class  in  551.314 

Other  ice  forms 


551.342-551.343  Ice  in  the  sea 
Icebergs,  shelf  ice,  growlers 
Sea  ice  ( Frozen  seawater) 

553 


Decimal  Classification 


.t 


551.344 
.345 


.35 

.36 

.37 

.38 

.382 

.383 

.384 

.4 


.46 


.4601 


Anchor  and  frazil  ice 

Ice  cover 

Lake  and  river  ice 


551.35-551.36  Geologic  work  of  water 

Of  surface  waters 

Divide  like  551.302-551.305,  e.g.,  mudflows  551.353 

Of  marine  waters 

Wave  action,  beach  erosion,  coastal  changes 

Geologic  work  of  wind 

Divide  like  551.302-551.305,  e.g.,  dune  formations  551.375 

Frost  action  in  soils  and  rocks 
Fragmentation  of  rocks 
Nivation 

Permafrost  phenomena 
Geomorphology 

Origin,  development,  transformations  of  topographic  featiures 
Class  physical  geography  [formerly  551.4]  in  910 

SUMMARY 

551.41-.45  Specific  land  forms 

.46  Oceans  and  sea  waters 

.47  Dynamics  of  the  sea 

.48  Surface  waters 

.49  Ground  water   (Subsurface  waters) 

.41-45  Specific  land  forms 

Divide  like  area  notations  141-145,  e.g.,  caves  551.44 


551.46-551.47  Oceanography 

Oceans  and  sea  waters 

Use  551.460  01  -  551.406  09  for  standard  subdivisions 
Class  tides  [formerly  551.46]  in  551.470  8 
For  dynamics  of  the  sea,  see  551.47 

Composition  and  properties  of  sea  water 

Salinity,  density,  temperature  distribution,  color. 


Earth  sciences 

551.460  7 

Deep-sea  surveys  and  explorations 

.460  8 

Submarine  geology 

.460  83 

Deposits  and  sedimentation 

.460  84 

Topography 

.460  9 


.461 

.462 

.463 

.464 

.465 

.466 

.467 

.468 

.469 

.47 


.4701 


.470  2 
.470  22 
.470  23 
.470  24 
.470  8 
.471-.479 


transparency 


.48 
.482 


Ridges,  canyons,  mountains  of  ocean  floor 

Special  oceanographic  forms 

Salt-water  laj^oons,  inland  seas,  coastal  pools 


554 


551.461-551.469  Specific  oceanic  bodies 
North  Atlantic  Ocean 
Mediterranean  and  Black  Seas 
Caribbean  Sea  and  Gulf  of  Mexico 
South  Atlantic  Ocean 
West  Pacific  Ocean 
East  Pacific  Ocean 
Indian  Ocean 
Arctic  Ocean 
Antarctic  waters 
Dynamics  of  the  sea 

Use  551.470  01  -  551.470  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

Ocean  currents 

Theories,  circulation,  observational  methods 
Class  specific  ocean  currents  in  551.471-551.479 

Waves 

Ocean  waves 

Seiches 

Tidal  waves 
Tides  [formerly  551.46]  and  tidal  cvirrents 

Specific  ocean  currents 

Divide  like  551.461-551.469,  e.g..  Gulf  Stream  551.471 

Surface  waters 

Lakes,  ponds,  fresh-water  lagoons 

555 


Decimal  Classification 


551.483 
.484 
.49 
.492 
.498 


.51 

.511 

.5112 

.5113 


.513 
.514 
.514  2 
.514  5 

.515 
.515  1 
.515  2 
.515  3 

.517 


Rivers  and  streams 
Waterfalls 
Groundwaters  (Subsurface waters) 
Water  table 
Specific  manifestations 
Wells,  springs,  runoff 


551.5-551.6  Meteorology,  climatology,  weather 
Descriptive  and  dynamic  meteorology 

SUMMARY 


551.51 
.52 
.54 
.55 

.56 

.57 


Composition,  stnicture,  mechanics  of  atmosphere 

Thermodynamics,  temperatures,  radiation 

Atmospheric  pressure 

Atmospheric  formations  and  disturbances 

Atmospheric  electricity  and  optics 

Hydrometeorology 


551.51-551.52  Dynamic  meteorology 
Composition,  structure,  mechanics  of  atmosphere 
Composition 
Gases 
Dust  and  other  particulates 


551.513-551.514  Structure 
Troposphere 
Upper  atmosphere 

Stratosphere 

Ionosphere 

Mechanics 
Kinematics 
Statics 
Dynamics 

For  circulation,  see  551.517 

Circulation  [formerly  551.518] 

For  wind  systems,  see  551.518;  atmospheric  formations  and 
disturbances,  551.55 

556 


Earth  sciences 


551.518 


.518  3 


.518  4 
.518  5 


.518  7 

.52 
.522 


Wind  systems 

Class  circulation  [formerly  551.518]  in  551.517 


551.518  3  -  551.518  5  Systems  in  troposphere 
Planetary  and  terrestrial  systems 

Trade  winds,  prevailing  westerlies,  polar  easterlies, 


doldrums 


Continental  systems  (Monsoons) 

Local  systems 

Drainage  winds,  mountain  and  valley  breezes,  land  and 


sea  winds 


Systems  in  upper  atmosphere 

Thermodynamics,  temperatures,  radiation 
Thermodynamics 


551.523-551.525  Temperatures 
Distribution,  variations,  frequencies,  gradients 


.523 

Earth  temperatures 

.523  2 

Surface  temperatxires 

.523  4 

Vertical  distribution 

.523  8 

Pennafrost 

.524 

Water  temperatures 

.524  6 

Oceans  and  seas 

.524  8 

Lakes  and  rivers 

.525 

Air  temperatures 

.525  2 

Distribution  at  earth's  surface 

.525  3 

Variations  at  earth's  surface 

Diuraal  and  annual  variations,  maximums  and 

minimums,  frosts 

.525  4 

Vertical  distribution  in  troposphere 

.525  7 

Upper-atmosphere  temperatures 

557 


Decimal  Classification 


551.527 


.5271 
.527  2 
.527  3 
.527  6 
.54 


.542 

.543 

.547 

.55 

.551 

.5512 

.5513 

.5514 


.552 


.553 


.554 


.555 
.557 
.559 


Radiation 

Absorption,  emission,  reflection,  scattering,  transmission 

Solar  radiation 
Terrestrial  radiation 
Atmospheric  radiation 
Cosmic  and  corpuscular  radiations 
Atmospheric  pressure 

Distribution,  variations,  frequencies,  gradients 

Distribution  at  earth's  surface 
Variations  at  earth's  surface 
Upper-atmosphere  pressures 
Atmospheric  formations  and  disturbances 
Formations 

Air  masses  and  fronts 

Cyclones  and  cyclogenesis 

Anticyclones  and  anticyclogenesis 


551.552-551.559  Disturbances 
Hiurricanes 

Known  also  as  typhoons,  cyclones  ( in  India ) ,  baguios, 
willy-willies 


551.553-551.554  Thermal  convective  storms 
Tornadoes  (Twisters) 

Including  waterspouts  [formerly  551.559] 

Other 

Thunderstorms,  thermal  convective  showers,  hailstorms 

Snowstorms 

Upper-atmosphere  storms 
Other  storms 

Class  waterspouts  [formerly  551.559]  in  551.553 


558 


m 


Earth  sciences 


551.56 


.561 

.563 
.563  2 

.563  3 
.563  4 
.564 


,565 


.566 


.567 


Atmospheric  electricity  and  optics 


551.561-551.564  Electrical  phenomena 

In  stable  atmosphere 

Ionization,  conductivity,  charge  potential  gradient 

In  unstable  atmosphere 
Disruptive  discharges 

Chain,  heat,  sheet  lightning 

Silent  discharges  (Saint  Ehno's  fire) 
Ball  Ughtning 
Electricity  of  aerosols 

Electricity  of  snow,  ice  crystals,  water  droplets,  dust,  other 
particulates 


551.565-551.567  Optical  phenomena 

Produced  by  refraction 

Mirages,  scintillation,  distortion  of  celestial  bodies 

Class  twilight  and  night  skies  in  551.566,  halos  and 
rainbows  in  551.567  [all  formerly  551.565] 

Produced  by  absorption  and  scattering 

Twilight,  night  skies  [both  formerly  551.565],  sky  color 

Produced  by  condensation  products 

Halos,  rainbows  [both  formerly  551.565],  cloud  coloration 


.568 

Visibility 

.57 

Hydrometeorology 

SUMMARY 

551.571 
.572 
.574 

Humidity 

Evaporation  and  evapotranspiration 

Condensation  and  deposits 

.575 

Fogs  and  mists 

.576 

Clouds 

.577 
.578 

Precipitation 

Specific  forms  of  precipitation 

.579 

Snow  surveys 

559 


If  ^ 


m^ 


551,571 


.5712 
.5713 
.5714 
.5717 

.572 


[,572  4] 


[.572  8] 


[.573] 


[.573  3] 


[.573  5] 


[.573  8] 

.574 

.5741 

.574  4 
.574  7 


Decimal  Classification 


Humidity 


551.571  2-551.571  4  In  troposphere 
Horizontal  distribution 
Variations 
Vertical  distribution 
In  upper  atmosphere 

Evaporation  and  evapotranspiration 

Class    condensation    and    deposits    [formerly    551.572]    in 
551.574 

Clouds,  fogs,  mists 

Class  clouds  in  551.576,  fogs  and  mists  in  551.575 

Droughts 

Class  in  551.577  3 

Precipitation 
Class  in  551.577 

Rain  and  rainfall 
Class  in  551.578  1 

Snow  and  hail 

Class  snow  and  snowfall  in  551.578  4,  snow  surveys  in 
551.579,  hail  and  graupel  in  551.578  7 

Artificial  precipitation  and  cloud  seeding 
Class  in  551.68 

Condensation  and  deposits  [formerly  551.572] 
Condensation  processes 

Nucleation,  formation  of  cloud  particles,  change  of  state 

Deposits  on  earth's  surface 
Dew,  rime,  hoarfrost,  glaze 

Deposits  on  objects  in  upper  atmosphere 


551.575 


.576 


.577 


.5771 

.577  2 

.577  3 

.577  5 


.578 
.5781 


.578  4 


Earth  sciences 


Fogs  and  mists  [formerly  551.572  4] 

Structure,  formation,  dissolution,  composition,  distribution, 
variations,  gradients 

Clouds  [formerly  551.572  4] 

Structure,  formation,  dissolution,  composition,  distribution, 
variations,  gradients 

Precipitation  [/ormerZy  551.573] 

For  specific  forms  of  precipitation,  see  551.578 

Structure,  composition,  temperature 
Distribution 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  551.577  2 

Variations 

Including  droughts  [formerly  551.572  8] 

Factors  affecting  precipitation 

Influences  of  topography,  vegetation,  population 
concentrations,  bodies  of  water 

Specific  forms  of  precipitation 
Liquid  precipitation 

Rain  and  rainfall  [both  formerly  551.573  3] 

Divide  hke  551.577  1  -  551.577  3,  e.g.,  variations  in  rain 
and  rainfall  551.578  13 

Crystalline  precipitation 

Snow  and  snowfall  [both  formerly  551.573  5] 


.578  41-.578  43  Properties,  distribution,  variations 


Divide  like  551.577  1-551.577  3,  e.g.,  variations  in 
snow  and  snowfall  551.578  43 


.578  46 

Snow  cover 

For  snow  surveys,  see  551.579 

.578  461 

Duration 

.578  464 

Ablation 

560 


561 


\K^ 


ffi 


Decimal  Classification 


Earth  sciences 


551.578  465 
.578  466 


.578  47 
.578  48 

.578  7 

,579 

[.59] 

.6 
.62 

,63 


.631 


.632 

.633 
,634 
.635 
.635  2 
.635  3 
.635  4 

.636 


,636  2 


.636  5 


Firnification 
Stratification 


551.578  47-551.578  48  Snow  formations 

Drifts  and  cornices 

Avalanches 
Solid  amorphous  precipitation 

Hail  and  graupel  [both  formerly  551.573  5],  hailstones 

Snow  surveys  [formerly  551.573  5] 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  551.579 

Climatology  and  weather 
Class  in  551.6 

Climatology  and  weather  Iformerly  551.59] 
Weather  belts  and  types  of  climate 
Weather  prediction 


551.631-551.635  Specific  methods 

Historic  methods 
Weather  lore 

Synoptic  reports 
Statistical  forecasting 
Numerical  forecasting 
Thru  special  instrumentation 

Radiosondes 

Radar 

Weather  satellites 

Types  of  forecasts 

Class  specific  methods  of  forecasting  in  551.631-551.635 

Short-range  forecasts 

Predictions  for  a  maximum  of  three  days 

Long-range  forecasts 

Predictions  more  than  three  days  in  advance 
562 


551.64 


.65 


.66 
.68 


.7 


.701 

.71 

.712 

.715 


.72 
[.726] 

.73 

.731 


.732 


.74 


Forecasting  specific  elements  and  phenomena 
Divide  like  551.5,  e.g.,  hurricane  warnings  551.645  2 

Weather  reports 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  551.65 

Microclimatology 

Artificial  modification  and  control  of  weather 

Including    artificial    precipitation    and    cloud    seeding    [both 
formerly  551.573  8] 

Historical  geology  (Stratigraphy) 

Use  551.700  1  -  551.700  9  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  paleontology,  see  560 

Geologic  time  [formerly  550.1]  and  age  measurements 

Pre-Cambrian  eras 

Archeozoic  (Lower  Pre-Cambrian)  era 
Keewatin  and  Timiskaming  periods 

Proterozoic  (Upper  Pre-Cambrian)  era 
Huronian  and  Keeweenawan  periods 


551.72-551.75  Paleozoic  era 
Cambrian  period 
Ordovician  period 
Class  in  551.731 

Silurian  period 

Lower  Silurian  epoch 

Known  also  as  Ordovician  period  [formerly  also  551.726] 

Upper  Silurian  epoch 

Known  also  as  Silurian  period 

Devonian  period 


563 


Decimal  Classification 


Earth  sciences 


551.75 


.751 

.752 

.756 


.76 
77 


.78 


.79 

.792 

.793 

.8 


.81 
.84 
.85 
.86 
.87 
.88 


.9 


Carboniferous  and  Permian  periods 


551.751-551.752  Carboniferous  periods 
Mississippian  ( Lower  Carboniferous )  period 
Pennsylvanian  ( Upper  Carboniferous )  period 

Permian  period 


551.76-551.77  Mesozoic  era 
Triassic  and  Jurassic  periods 
Cretaceous  period 


551.7&-551.79  Cenozoic  era 
Tertiary  period 

Paleocene,  Eocene,  Oligocene,  Miocene,  Pliocene  epochs 

Quaternary  period 

Pleistocene  epoch  ( Ice  age ) 
Recent  (Postglacial)  epoch 

Structural  geology  ( Tectonophysics ) 

Forms,  position,  deformation  of  rocks 

Stratifications 
Joints  and  cleavages 
Dips,  outcrops,  strikes 
Synclines  and  antisynclines 
Faults,  folds,  dislocations 
Other  deformations 

Veins,  dikes,  necks,  bosses,  laccoliths,  sills 

Geochemistry 

For  chemical  analysis  of  rocks  and  ores,  see  543.6 


.01 
.02 

.06 
.09 


.1 


.3 


.4 


552  Petrology 


Origin,  occurrence,  constitution,  classification  of  rocks 
Use  552.001-552.009  for  standard  subdivisions 
For  mineralogy,  see  549;  economic  geology,  553 

Theoretic  and  interpretive  petrology 
Descriptive  and  systematic  petrology 
Properties,  composition,  structure  of  rocks 
Geographical  distribution  of  rocks 
Add  area  notations  1-9  to  552.09 


552.1-552.5  Macroscopic  petrology 

Igneous  rocks 

For  specific  igneous  rocks,  see  552.2-552.3 


552.2-552.3  Specific  igneous  rocks 

Volcanic  rocks 

Lavas,  pumice,  felsites,  basalt,  obsidian,  rhyolite,  andesite,  tuff, 
volcanic  ashes  and  tufa 

Plutonic  rocks 

Granites,  syenites,  porphyries,  gabbros,  dolerites,  diorites,  norites, 
peridotites 

Metamorphic  rocks 

Gneisses,  schists,  slates,  quartzites,  serpentines,  chrysolitic  rocks, 
crystalline  limestones  ( marble ) 

Sedimentary  rocks 

Sandstones,  shales,  gypsum,  limestones,  dolomites,  oolites,  green- 
sands  and  their  components,  e.g.,  sand,  clay,  silt,  glauconite, 
diatomaceous  earth,  salt 

Microscopic  petrography 

Study  of  rocks  in  thin  sections  and  fragments 


564 


565 


Earth  sciences 


Decimal  Classification 


553 


a 


.21 
.22 

.23 
.24 

.25 

.26 


Economic  geology 

Quantitative   occurrence   and  distribution   of  rocks,   minerals,   other 

geological  materials  of  economic  importance 

Scope:  comprehensive  works  on  specific  nonmetallic  materials 

For  a  specific   aspect   of   specific   geological   viaterials,    see   the 
subject,  e.g.,  prospecting  622.18 

SUMMARY 

553,1  Ore  deposits 

J2  Carbonaceous  deposits 

Ji  Ferrous  ores 

,4  Nonferrous  ores 

S  Building  stone  deposits 

.6  Earthy  material  deposits 

.7  Aqueous  deposits 

S  Gem  deposits 

Ore  deposits 

Formation,  structure,  classification  of  ores 

Including  comprehensive  works  on  metallic  ore  deposits  [formerly 

553.3]  and  nonmetallic  deposits 

Class  specific  ores  and  deposits  in  553.2-553.8 


.13 

Placers 

.14 

Stratified  layers  and  beds 

.16 

Pegmatite  dikes 

.19 

Mineral  veins 

553,2-553.8  Specific  ores  and  deposits 

Carbonaceous  deposits 

For  industrial  diamonds,  see  553.65;  gem  diamonds,  553.82 


553.21-553.25  Coal  deposits 
Peat  and  peat  coal 
Lignite,  brown  coal,  jet 
Cannel  coal  and  bituminous  shale 
Bituminous  and  semibituminous  coal 
Anthracite  and  graphitic  anthracite  coal 

Craphite  (Plumbago,  Black  lead) 

566 


5.27 

Pitch 

Asphalt,  bitumen,  ozocerite,  ceresin,  parafBn 

.28 

Oil  and  gas 

.282 

Petroleum 

.285 

Natural  gas 

.29 

Fossil  gums  and  resins 

.4 


.41 

.42 

.421 

.422 

.43 

.44 

.45 

.452 

.453 

.454 

.46 


.462 
.464 
.465 


553.3-553.4  Specific  metallic  ore  deposits 

Ferrous  ores 

Class  comprehensive  works  on  metallic  ore  deposits  [formerly 
553.3]  in  553.1 

Nonferrous  ores 


553.41-553.42  Precious  metals 

Gold 

Other  precious  metals 

Silver 

Platinum 
Copper 
Lead 
Zinc,  tin,  mercury 

Zinc 

Tin 

Mercury 
Ferro-alloying  metals 

Class  niobium  [formerly  553.46]  in  553.499 
For  nickel  and  cobalt,  see  553.48 

Titanium,  vanadium,  manganese 
Chromium,  molybdenum,  tungsten 
Zirconium  [formerly  553.499]  and  tantalum 


567 


Decimal  Classification 


553.47 
.48 
.49 
.492 


.493 


.499 


.51 


.52 
.53 
.54 

.55 


J5 

.61 


.62 
.63 


.632 
.633 
.635 
.636 


Antimony,  arsenic,  bismuth 
Nickel  and  cobalt 
Other 

Light  metals 

Beryllium  [formerly  553.499],  aluminum,  magnesium 

Fissionable  metals 

Uranium,  radium,  thoriimi 

Minor  metals 

Niobium  [formerly  553.46],  hafnium,  germanium,  gallium, 
indium,  selenium,  tellurium,  thallium 

Class   zirconium   in   553.465,   beryllium   in   553.492    [both 
formerly  SS3A99] 

Building  stone  deposits 

Marbles  and  limestones 

For  onyx  and  verd  antique  marbles,  see  553.55 

Granites  and  syenites 
Sandstones,  bluestones,  flagstones 
Slates 

Serpentines,  soapstones,  and  their  variants 
Including  onyx  and  verd  antique  marbles 

Earthy  material  deposits 

Clays 

Kaolin,  bentonite,  fuller's  earth,  diaspore  clay 

Sands  and  gravels 

Salts 

For  mineral  waters,  see  553.72-553.73;  soda  niter  and  niter, 
553.64 

Rock  salt 

Borax  and  other  borates 

Gypsum 

Potash  salts  [formerly  553. 6A] 

568 


Earth  sciences 


553.64 


.65 


.66 

.662 

.668 
.67 


.68 


Nitrate  and  phosphate  fertilizers 

Soda  niter  (Chile  saltpeter),  niter  (saltpeter),  apatites 
Class  potash  salts  [formerly  553.64]  in  553.636 

Abrasive  materials 

Emery,  corundum,  pumice,  garnet,  flint,  carbonado,  industrial 
diamonds,  tripoli 

For  sands,  see  553.62 

Sulfur  and  earth  pigments 
Pigment  materials 

Barite  (heavy  spar),  ochers,  umber,  sienna,  rutile 

Sulfur 
Refractory  materials 

Asbestos,  mica,  vermiculite,  talc 
For  soapstones,  see  553.55 

Cementing  materials 

Cements,  limes,  chalks,  calcites,  marl 
For  gypsum,  see  553.635 


.69 

Other 

.7 

Aqueous  deposits 

553.72-553.73  Mineral  waters 

.72 

Saline  waters 

.73 

Other  mineral  waters 

.78 

Surface  waters 

.79 

Ground  water  (Subsurface  waters) 

.8 

Gem  deposits 

553.82-553.86  Precious  stones 

.82 

Diamonds 

.84 

Rubies  and  sapphires 

.86 

Emeralds 

.87 

Semiprecious  stones 

569 

Decimal  Classification 


Paleontology 


555 


556 


557 


558 


554-559  Regional  geology 

Geology  of  specific  continents,  countries,  localities 

Class  a  specific  geological  aspect  of  a  region  with  the  subject 


554  Europe 


Add  area  notation  4  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  England  554.2 

Asia 

Add  area  notation  5  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  Japan  5552 

Africa 

Add  area  notation  6  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  South  Africa  556.8 

North  America 

Add  area  notation  7  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  Ohio  557.71 

South  America 

Add  area  notation  8  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  Brazil  558.1 


559  Other  parts  of  world 


Add  area  notation  9  to  55,  e.g.,  geology  of  Australia  559,4 


570 


560     Paleontology 

.1  Philosophy  and  theory 

.17  Stratigraphic  paleobotany  and  paleozoology 

Class  specific  fossils  or  groups  of  fossils  in  561-569 

^1 71  Archeozoic  and  Proterozoic  paleontology 

.  1 72  Paleozoic  paleontology 

Fossils  of  Cambrian,  Ordovician,  Silurian,  Devonian, 
Carboniferous,  Permian  periods 

,176  Mesozoic  paleontology 

Fossils  of  Triassic,  Jurassic,  Cretaceous  periods 

.178  Cenozoic  paleontology 

Fossils  of  Tertiary  and  Quaternary  periods 

,9  Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  like  574.9,  e.g.,  hydrographic  paleontology  560.92 

561  Paleobotany 

Class  stratigraphic  paleobotany  in  560.17 

.09  Historical  treatment 

Class  regional  and  geographical  treatment  in  561.19 

SUMMARY 

561.1  General  principles 

J2  Fossil  Spermatophyta  (Fossil  seed  plants) 

Ji  Dicotyledones 

.4  Monocotyledones 

JS  Gymnospermae  ( Naked-seed  plants ) 

,6  Fossil  Cryptogamia  (Fossil  seedless  plants) 

.7  Pteridophyta 

.8  Bryophyta  (Moss  plants) 

.9  Thallophyta 

,1  General  principles 

Class  specific  classes,  orders,  families  in  561.2-561.9 

,13  Fossil  pollen  and  spores 

.14  Fossil  fruit  and  seeds 


57^ 


Decimal  Classification 


561.19 


.2 


.21 


.3 
.4 

.45 
.49 

.5 
.51 

.52 


.55 

.57 
.59 

.591 
.592 


.595 


Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  like  574.9,  e.g.,  fresh-water  fossil  plants  561.192  9 


561.2-561.9  Taxonomic  paleobotany 
Fossil  Spermatophyta  (Fossil  seed  plants) 

For  Angiospermae,  see  561.3-561.4;  Gymnospermae,  561.5 

Trees  and  petrified  wood 

For  trees  of  a  specific  group,  see  the  group,  e.g.,  ginkgo  trees 
561.57 


561.3-561.4  Angiospermae  (Flowering  plants) 

Class  comprehensive  works  in  561,2 

Dicotyledones 
Monocotyledones 

Palmaceae  ( Palms ) 
Gramineae  (Grasses) 
Gymnospermae  (Naked-seed plants) 

Gnetales 

Conif erales  ( Conifers ) 

Taxaceae,  Podocarpaceae,  Araucariaceae,  Cephalotaxaceae, 
Pinaceae,  Taxodiaceae,  Cupressaceae 

Cordaitales 

Pityeae  (Callixylon),  Cordaiteae,  Poroxyleae 

Ginkgoales  ( Ginkgo  trees ) 

Cycadophyta  and  related  orders 

Cycadales  ( True  cycads ) 

Cycadeoidales 

Williamsoniaceae,  Cycadeoidaceae 

Pteridospermae  ( Seed  ferns ) 

MeduUosaceae,  Lyginodendraceae,  Calamopityaceae 


572 


Paleontology 


561.597 


.6 


.7 

,71 
.72 


.73 


.74 


.79 


.8 

.9 

.92 
.93 


Femlike  fossils  of  uncertain  taxonomic  position 

Archaeopteris,  Megalopteris,  Glossopteris,  Mariopteris, 
Alliopteris,  Taeniopteris,  Neuropteris,  Odontopteris, 
Cyclopteris,  Linopteris,  Callipteris,  Alethopteris,  Pecopteris, 
Sphenopteris,  Rhacopteris 

FossU  Cryptogamia  (Fossil  seedless  plants) 

For  Pteridophyta,  see  561.7;  Bryophyta.  561.8;  Thdlophyta,  561.9 

Pteridophyta 

Isoetales 

Sphenopsida  (Scouring rushes) 

Equisetales,  Calamitales,  Sphenophyllales,  Pseudobomiales, 

Hyeniales 

Filicineae  (Fems) 

Filicales,  Marattiales,  Ophioglossales,  Coenopteridales 

Psilopsida 

Psilotales,  Psilophytales 

Lycopsida  (Lycopods) 

Pleuromeiales,  Lepidodendrales,  Selaginellales,  Lycopodiales 
For  Isoetales,  see  561.71 

Bryophyta  (Moss  plants) 

Thallophyta 

Mycophyta  (Fungi) 
Characeae  (Algae) 


^  562-569  Taxonomic  paleozoology 

562  Invertebrate  paleozoology 

For  Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa,  see  563;  Mollusca  and  molluscoidea. 
564;  other  invertebrates,  565 


573 


Decimal  Classification 


563  Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa 


.1 

.4 


.47 


.5 


.6 


.7 


.73 


.78 
.8 


.9 


.91 


.93 


.94 


Flasmodroma  and  Mastigophora 

Porifera  and  other  sponges 

Including  Calcispongiae,  Hyalospongiae,  Desmospongiae 

Archaeocyatha 

Cambrian  fossils  with  characteristics  of  sponges  and  corals 

Coelenterata 

For  Anthozoa,  see  563.6;  Hydrozoa  and  related  orders,  563.7 

Anthozoa  ( Corals ) 

For  Archaeocyatha,  see  563.47 

Hydrozoa  and  related  orders 

Including    GraphtoHtoidea,    Hydroida,    Trachylina,    Milleporina, 
Stylasterina,  Siphonophora 

Scyphozoa 

Lucemariidea,  Charybdeidea,  Corona,  Semaeostomea 

Stromatoporoidea 

Ctenophorae 

Tentaculata,  Nuda 

Echinodermata,  Enteropneusta,  Linguatula 

Including  Cystoidea,  Blastoidea 

Crinoidea 

Camerata,  Adunata,  Flexibiha,  Inadunata,  ArticiJata, 
ComatuUda 

Asteroidea  ( Starfish ) 

Phanerozonea,  Spinulosa,  Forcipulata 

Ophiuroidea 

Lysophiurida,  Ophiocystiida,  Aganasterida,  Phrynophiurida, 
Laemophiurida,  Gnathophiurida,  Chilophiurida 

574 


563.95 


.96 


.99 

.992 

.993 


,1 


.19 


Paleontology 


Echinoidea 

Bothriocidaroida,  Cidaroida,  Centrechinoida,  Exocycloida, 
Perischoechinoida,  Echinocystoida,  Perichoechinoida 

Holothurioidea 

Dendrochirota.  Elasipoda,  Aspidochirota,  Molpadonia,  Apoda 

Enteropneusta  and  Linguatula 
Linguatula 
Balanoglossida 


564  MoUusca  and  molluscoidea 


Pelecypoda  (Bivalve  moUusks) 

Prionodesmacea,  Anomalodesmacea,  Teleodesmacea,  Pantodonta 

Crepipoda  ( Polyplacophora,  Amphineura) 

Eoplacophora,    Aplacophora,    Mesoplacophora,    Isoplacophora, 
Teleoplacophora 

Scaphopoda  (Toothshells) 

Gastropoda 

Snails,  slugs,  whelks 

Divide  like  594.3,  e.g.,  fossil  Pteropoda  564.35 


J 

Cephalopoda 

.52 

Nautiloidea  (Nautilus) 

.53 

Amrnonitoidea 

.55 

Vampyromorpha 

.56 

Octopoda 

.58 

Decapoda 

.6 

Molluscoidea 

For  Phoronidea,  see  565.1 

.7  Bryozoa  and  Pterobranchia 


.8 


Brachiopoda 


575 


Decimal  Classification 


Paleontology 


I,  I 


565 


.1 


.2 


3 
.32 

.33 


.34 


.35 


.36 


.27 
.38 


Other  invertebrates 


SUMMAIlY 

565.1 

Wormlike  fossil  animals 

^ 

Arthropoda 

Ji 

Crustacea  and  related  classes 

A 

Arachnida 

J 

Onychophora 

.6 

Progoneata 

.7 

Insecta  (Insects) 

Wormlike  fossil  animals 

Platyhelminthes,  Nemertea,  Nematoidea,  Nemtomorpha,  Acantho- 
cephala,  Eucoelomata,  Annelida,  Phoronidea,  Myzostoma,  Aschel- 
minthes 

Arthropoda 

For  Crustacea  and  related  classes,  see  565.3;  Progoneata,  565.6 

Crustacea  and  related  classes 

Branchiopoda 

Anostraca,  Notostraca,  Conchostrata,  Cladocera 

Ostracoda 

Myodocopa,  Cladocopa,  Podocopa,  Platycopa 

Copepoda 

Eucopepoda  and  Branchiura 

Cirripedia  (Barnacles) 

Thoracia,  Ascothoracica,  Apoda,  Rhizocephala 

Leptostraca 

Nebaliacea,  Rhinocarina,  Ceratiocarina,  Hymenocarina, 
Nahecarida 


565.37-565.38  Eumalacostraca 

Amphipoda,  Isopoda,  Thermosbaenacea,  Tanaidacea 

Cumacea,  Stomatopoda,  Mysidacea,  Decapoda, 
Euphausiacea 


565.39 


.7 

.71 

.72 
73 


.74 


.75 


.76 


.77 


Chelicerata  and  Trilobita 
For  Arachnida,  see  565.4 


.391 

Eurypterida  and  Synxiphosura 

.392 

Xiphosura  (Horseshoe  crabs) 

.393 

Trilobita 

.394 

Pycnogonida 

.4 

Arachnida 

.49 

Architarbi 

^ 

Onychophora 

.6 

Progoneata 

Divide  like  595.6,  e.g.,  fossil  centipedes  565.62 
For  Insecta,  see  565.7 

Insecta  (Insects) 

Synaptera 

Collembola,  Protura,  Entotrophi,  Thysanura 

Orthoptera  and  related  orders 

Dermaptera,  Blattariae,  Phasmatodea,  Mantodea 

Thysanoptera  and  related  orders 

Corrodentia,    Odonata,    Ephemeroptera,    Plecoptera,    Isoptera, 
Embioptera,  Zoraptera 

Neuroptera  and  related  orders 

Megaloptera,  Mecoptera,  Trichoptera,  Strepsiptera 

Hemiptera  and  related  orders 

Anoplura,  Mallophaga,  Homoptera,  Heteroptera 

Coleoptera 

Adephaga,  Polyphaga,  Elateroidea,  Mordelloidea, 
Curculionoidea,  Colydioidea 

Diptera  and  related  orders 

Orthorrhapha,  Cyclorrhapha,  Siphonaptera 


576 


577 


Decimal  Classification 


Paleontology 


565.78 


.79 


.2 


.3 


A 


.5 


.6 


.7 


.8 
.9 


Lepidoptera 

Jugatae,  Frenatae,  Rhopalocera 

Hymenoptera 


566  Vertebrate  paleozoology  ( Chordata ) 

For  Anamnia,  see  567;  Sauropsida,  568;  Mammalia^  569 

567  Anamnia  ( Cyclostomes, fishes, amphibians) 


Agnatha  and  Flacodermi 

Cephalaspidomoiphi  and  Pteraspidomorphi 

Chondrichthyes  ( Sharks,  rays,  skates ) 

Cladoselachii,    Selachii,    Batoidea,    Pleuracanthodii,    Bradyodonti, 
Chiraaerae 


567.4-567.5  Osteichthyes 

Actinopterygii  and  Holostei 

Palaeoniscoidea,  Subholostei,  Semionotoidea,  Pycnodontoidea, 
Aspidorhynchoidea,  Pholidophoroidea 

Teleostei 

Isospondyli,  Ostariophysi,  Apodes,  Heteromi,  Mesichthyes, 
Acanthopterygii 

Labyrinthodontia  and  Lepospondyli 

Apoda 


567.8-567.9  Salientia 
Eoanura,  Proanura,  Anura 

Urodela 

Cryptobranchoidea,  Amblystomoidea,  Salamandriodea,  Proteidea 


.1 
.11 


.12 
.13 

.14 

.15 

.16 

.17 


.18 


.19 


J2 

22 

.23 


568  Sauropsida  (Reptiles  and  birds) 


Reptilia 

Lepidosauria 

Eosuchia,  Rhynchocephalia,  Squamata     • 
For  SerperUes,  see  568.12 

Serpentes  (Snakes) 

Anapsida 

Cotylosauria  and  Chelonia 

Crocodilia 

Protosuchia,  Sebecosuchia,  Mesosuchia,  Eusuchia 

Ichthyopterygia 
Synaptosauria 

Protorosauria  and  Sauropterygia 

Synapsida 

Pelycosauria,  Therapsida,  Ictidosauria 

Pterosauri 

Rhamphorhynchoidea  and  Pterodactyloidea 

Archosauria 

Thecodontia,  Saurischia,  Omithischia 

For  Crocodilia,  see  568.14;  Pterosauri,  568.18 

Aves  (Birds) 

Archaeornithes 

Neomithes 

Hesperomithiformes  and  Ichthyomithiformes 
For  other  orders  of  Neornithes,  see  568.3-568.9 


578 


579 


Decimal  Classification 


568.3 


.4 


.6 
.7 
.8 


.9 


569 


.1 


.12 

.17 

.18 

.2 

.3 


.31 


568.3-568.9  Other  orders  of  Neomithes 
Gruiformes  and  related  orders 

Charadriiformes,  Phororhaci,  Diatrymiformes,  Ciconiiformes 

Anseriformes  and  related  orders 

Procellariiformes,  Pelecaniformes,  Sphenisciformes,  Gaviiformes, 
Colymbiformes 

Falaeognathae 

Caenagnathiformes,  Struthioniformes,  Theiformes,  Casuariiformes, 
Dinornithiformes,  Aepyomithiformes,  Apterygiformes, 
Tinamiformes 

Calliformes  and  Columbiformes 

Psittaciformes,  Picif ormes,  Trogoniformes,  Cuculif ormes 
Passeriformes,  Coraciiformes,  Apodiformes 
Falconiformes,  Strigif  ormes,  Caprimulgiformes 

Mammalia  ( Mammals ) 
Prototheria,  Allotheria,  Theria 

For  Marsupilia,  see  569.2 

Monotremata 

Multituberculata  and  Triconodonta 

Panthotheria  and  Symmetrodonta 
Marsupialia 
Unguiculata  and  Glires 

For  Chiroptera,  see  569.4;  Primates,  569.8 

Edentata 

Palaeanodonta,  Xenarthra,  Pholidota 


.32 

Lagomorpha  and  Rodentia 

.33 

Insectivora 

,34 

Dernioptera 

.35 

Tillodontia 

.36 

Taeniodontia 

S8o 


Paleontology 


569.4 


.7 

.72 


.73 


.74 


.75 


.9 


Chiroptera 

Megachiroptera  and  Microchiroptera 

Cetacea  and  Sirenia 

Archaeoceti,  Odontoceti,  Mysticeti,  Trichechiformes, 
Desmostyliformes 

Paenimgulata 

Pantodonta,   Dinocerata,   Pyrotheria,   Proboscidea,   Embrithopoda, 
Hyracoidea 

For  Sirenia,  see  569.5 

Mesaxonia,  Paraxonia,  Fenmgulata 

Perissodactyla 

Hippomoq)ha  and  Ceratomorpha 

Artiodact)'la 

Suiformes,  Tylopoda,  Ruminantia 

Carnivora 

Creodonta,  Fissipeda,  Pinnipedia 

Protungulata 

Condylarthra,  Litopterna,  Notoungulata,  Astrapotheria, 
Tubulidentata 

Primates 

Prosimii  and  Anthropoidea 
For  Hominidae,  see  569.9 

Hominidae  (Man) 


581 


Decimal  Classification 


570     Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 
[571]       Prehistoric  archeology 

Class  in  913 

572  Human  races  ( Ethnology ) 

Origin,  distribution,  physical  characteristics  of  races 
Class  cultural  anthropology  [formerly  572]  in  390 
For  ethnopsychology,  see  155.82-155.84 

.2  Racial  origins  and  differences 

For  specific  races,  see  572.8;  causes  of  racial  differences,  572.3 

.3  Causes  of  racial  differences 

E£Fects  of  migrations,  environmental  influences,  genetic  sports 

[.4]  Original  home  of  man 

Class  in  398.23 

.7  Primitive  races 

For  specific  races,  see  572.8 

.8  Specific  races 

Divide  hke  420-490,  e.g.,  Semitic  races  572.892 

.9  Races  in  specific  countries 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  572.9 

573  Somatology  (Physical anthropology) 

For  ethnology,  see  572 

Tables,  formulas,  specifications 
Class  statistical  tables  in  312.6 

Organic  evolution  of  man  [formerly  also  573,3] 

Human  genetics  [formerly  575.1] 

Heredity  and  environment  as  factors  in  evolution 
Divide  like  575.1,  e.g.,  factors  affecting  heredity  573.213 
For  variation  in  man,  see  573.22 

582 


.0212 


J2 

21 


Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 


573.22 


.3 


.4 
.5 


J6 


.7 


574 


.09 


Variation  in  man  [formerly  575.2] 

Divide  like  575.2,  e.g.,  mutations  573.229  2 

Prehistoric  man 

Time,  place,  antiquity 

Class  organic  evolution  of  man  [formerly  573.3]  in  573.2 

Environmental  effects  on  physique 
Pigmentation 


573.6-573.8  Anthropometry 

Structures  and  features 

Divide  like  611,  e.g.,  comparative  studies  of  hair  573.678 
For  craniology,  see  573.7 

Craniology 
Abnormal  dimensions 

Dwarfs,  midgets,  giants 

Biology 

For  botaniccd  sciences,   see   580;   zoological  sciences,   590;   special 
biological  fields  and  techniques,  575-579 

Historical  treatment 

Class  regional  and  geographical  treatment  in  574.9 

SUMMARY 


574.1 

Physiology 

.2 

Pathology 

.3 

Maturation 

.4 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

J 

Ecology 

.6 

Economic  biology 

Jt 

Histology  and  cytology 

.9 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

.1 

Physiology 

.11 

Circulation 

.12 

Respiration 

.13 

Nutrition  and  metabolism 

.14 

Secretion  and  excretion 

583 

Decimal  Classification 


574.16 

Reproduction 

► 

574.162-574.165  Asexual  reproduction 

.162 

Parthenogenesis 

.163 

Alternation  of  generations  (Metagenesis) 

.165 

Vegetative  generation 

.166 

Sexual  reproduction 

For  alternation  of  generations,  see  574.163 

.166  2 

Conjugation 

.166  7 

Heraiaphroditism  [formerly  574.167] 

[.167] 

Hermaphroditism 

Class  in  574.166  7 

.17 

Histogenesis 

Microscopic  study  of  germ  cells 

.18 


.19 
.191 


.1913 
.191  32 
.191  33 
.191.34 
.191  35 
.191  36 
.1914 
.1915 
.191  51 
.191  52 


Movements 

Response  to  stimuli,  locomotion 

Physics  and  chemistry  of  vital  processes 
Biophysics 

EflFect  of  physical  agents  on  living  systems 
Class  physics  of  functions  in  574.11-574.18 


574.191  3  -  574.191  7  Terrestrial  factors 
Mechanical  factors 

Gravitational  forces 

Velocity  and  speed 

Acceleration  and  deceleration 

Pressures 

Impact 
Sound  vibrations 
Radiations  and  microwaves 

Hertzian  waves 

Infrared  waves 


584 


Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 


574.191  53 

Visible  light  waves 

.191  54 

Ultraviolet  waves 

.191  55 

Xrays 

.191  56 

Gamma  rays 

.191  57 

Cosmic  rays 

.1916 

Temperatures 

.1917 

Electricity 

.1919 

Space  biology  (Bio-astronautics) 

Divide  like  574.1913-574.1917, 

e.g.,  gravitational  ef 

fects  574.191  932 

.192 

Biochemistry 

.192  1 
.192  12 
.192  14 
.192  5 

.192  53 
.192  54 


.192  56 


.192  58 


.192  6 
.192  7 
.192  9 
.192  93 
.192  94 
.192  96 


For  metabolism,  see  574.13 

Chemical  composition 

Fluids 

Mineral  components 

Enzymes  [formerly  574.193]  and  enzyme-catalyzed 
reactions 

Lipolytic  enzymes 

Lipases,  esterases,  phosphatases 

Saccharolytic  enzymes 

Carbohydrases,  amylases,  cellulases,  maltases, 

emulsins 

Proteolytic  enzymes 
Proteases,  cathepsins 

Oxidizing  and  reducing  enzymes 

Oxidases,  dehydrogenases,  zymases,  catalases 

Vitamins  [formerly  574.194] 
Hormones  [formerly  574.194] 
Biosynthesis  [formerly  574.196] 

Lipids 

Carbohydrates 

Proteins 


0 


585 


[.194] 


[.196] 


.4 


.52 


.53 
.54 

.55 


Decimal  Classification 


574.192  97 

Pigments 

.192  99 

Other  substances 

[.193] 

Enzymes 

Class  in  574.192  5 

Hormones  and  vitamins 

Class  hormones  in  574.192  7;  vitamins  in  574.192  6 

Biosynthesis 
Class  in  574.192  9 

Pathology 

Anomalies,  malformations,  deformations,  diseases 

Maturation 

Embryology  and  gametogenesis 
For  histogenesis,  see  574.17 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

Ecology 

Interrelation  of  organisms  to  environment  and  to  each  other 

Adaptation  to  environment 

Autecology,  synecology,  biogeochemistry 

Nutritive  adaptations 

Adaptations  to  meteorological  factors 

Communities 

Consocies,  associations,  clans,  colonies,  mutualistic  and 
antagonistic  symbioses 


.56 

Reproductive  adaptations 

.57 

Protective  adaptations 

•6 

Economic  biology 

.8 

Histology  and  cytology 

.82 

Histology 

Study  of  minute  structure  of  tissues 

586 


574.87 


.872 


.873 
.873  2 


.873  3 


.873  4 


.874 


.878 


Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 

Cytology  ( Study  of  cells ) 
For  germ  cells,  see  574.17 


Morphology 

For  protoplasmic  structure,  see  574.873;  non-protoplasmic 
structure,  574.874;  membranes,  574.875 

Protoplasmic  structure 

Nucleus 

Chromosomes,  nucleolus,  chromatin,  linin  network, 
nuclear  membrane 

Plastids 

Chromoplasts,  leucoplasts 

Cytoplasm 

Centrosomes,  blepharoplasts,  metaplasmic  bodies 

Non-protoplasmic  structure 

Pigmentation,  vacuoles,  aleurone  grains 


.875 

Membranes 

.876 

Physiology 

.8761 

Nutrition  and  metabolism 

.876  2 

Division 

.876  22 

Direct  division  (Amitosis) 

.876  23 

Indirect  division  (Mitosis) 

Prophase,  metaphase,  anaphase,  telophase  stages  of 
cell  division 


.8764 

Other  functions 

Respiration,  excretion 

.876  5 

Degeneration 

.876  6 

Colonies 

Comparative  cytology 

Comparison  of  plant  cells  with  animal  cells 

5^7 


J 

It' 


Decimal  Classification 


Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 


574.9  Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

.909  Zonal  and  physiographic  treatment 

Divide    like    area    notations    U-IS,    e.g.,    desert    regions 
574.909  54 

Class  insular  biology  in  574.91,  hydrographic  biology  in 
574.92 


.91 

Insular  biology 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  574.91 

.92 

Hydrographic  biology 

.921-.928 

Marine  biology 

Divide  like  551.461-551.468,  e.g.,  Caribbean  Sea  life 

574.923 

.929 


Fresh-water  biology  (Limnetic  biology) 
Add  area  notations  3-9  to  574.929 


93-.99         Geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  574.9 


575 


575-579  Special  biological  fields  and 
techniques 

Organic  evolution 

Origin  of  species  thru  historic  descent  with  modification 

For  organic  evolution  of  man,  see  573.2;  of  plants,  581.38;  of 
animals,  591.38 


.001-.009 


.01 
.016 
.016  2 

.016  3 


Standard  subdivisions 
Class  theories  in  575.01 

Theories 

Modem  theories 

Darwinian  and  neo-Darwinian  theories 

Theories  on  natural  selection  and  survival  of  the  fittest 

Orthogenesis 

Evolution  along  seemingly  predetermined  lines 

588 


575.016  5 


.016  6 


.1 


.11 


.12 


.13 
.131 


.132 
.133 
.134 
.137 


.21 


.22 

.28 


Mutation  theories 

Theories  on  abrupt  hereditary  changes 

Lamarckian  and  neo-Lamarckian  theories 

Theories  on  inheritance  of  acquired  characteristics,  and 
on  hereditary  effects  of  use  and  disuse  of  organs 

Genetics 

Heredity  and  variation  as  factors  in  evolution 
Class  human  genetics  [formerly  575.1]  in  573.21 
For  variation,  see  575.2 

Laws  of  heredity 

Laws  of  Weismann  (chromosome  theory),  Mendel,  Galton 

Hereditary  characteristics 

Inheritance  of  similar  and  divergent  characteristics 
Including  characteristics  of  genes,  genotypes,  phenotypes 

Factors  aflFecting  heredity 

Artificial  mutations 

Inheritable  effects  of  radiation  on  chromosomes  and  genes 

Outbreeding 
Inbreeding 
Species  interfertility 
Atavism 

Variation 

Class  variation  in  man  [formerly  575.2]  in  573.22 

Physiological  aspects 

Cytological  and  embryological  aspects 

Environmental  aspects 


Hybrids 


5S9 


575.29 
.292 


.293 


.7 


J 

.11 


.14 
.15 
.16 


Decimal  Classification 


.162 
.163 
.164 
.165 


Abrupt  deviations 

Mutations 

Inheritable  abrupt  deviations 

For  artificial  mutations,  see  575.131 

Sports 

Noninheritable  abrupt  deviations 

Evolution  thru  sexual  selection  Iformerly  577.8] 

Evolutionary  cycles 

Degeneration,  extinction,  regeneration  of  species 


•9  Origin  and  evolution  of  sexes 

576  Microbiology 


.19 


For  Schizomycetes,  see  589.9;  Eumycophyta,  589.2;  protozoa,  593.1 

General  principles 

Physiology 

Divide  like  581.1,  e.g.,  anaerobic  respiration  576.112  8 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 
Ecology 

Economic  microbiology 

Class  a  specific  application  of  microbiology  with  the  subject, 
e.g.,  fermentation  in  winemaking  663.2 

Beneficial  microorganisms 
Food  microbiology 
Industrial  microbiology 
Deleterious  microorganisms 

Toxic,  pathogenic,  obnoxious  microorganisms 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  like  574.9,  e.g.,  fresh-water  microorganisms  576.192  9 


576.2 
.22 


.23 


A 


Anthropological  and  biological  sciences 


Microorganisms  and  immunity 

Mechanisms  of  immunity 

Antigens  and  production  of  antibodies 

Immune  reactions  (Serology) 

Antigen-antibody  reactions,  e.g.,  agglutination,  precipitation 

Microorganisms  and  pathogenicity 

Mechanisms  of  pathogenicity,  defense  measures  of  host  organisms 


.6 

Ultramicrobes 

.62 

Rickettsiae 

.64 

Viruses 

.648 

Types  of  viruses 

.648  2 

Bacterial  viruses  (Bacteriophages) 

.648  3 

Other  plant  viruses 

.648  4 

Animal  viruses 

577 


.01 

.011 

.013 

.4 
.6 
.7 
A 


General  properties  of  living  matter 

For  physics  and  chemistry  of  vital  processes,  see  574.19 

Philosophy  and  theories 

Origin  and  beginnings  of  life 
Abiogenesis  (Spontaneous  generation) 

Comparison  of  living  and  nonliving  substances 
Comparison  of  vital  and  physical  processes 
Conditions  necessary  for  life 
Vitalism  versus  mechanism 
Degeneration  and  death 

Sex  in  nature 

Sex  differentiation,  selection,  ratios 

Class  evolution  thru  sexual  selection  [formerly  577.8]  in  575.5 


590 


591 


Decimal  Classification 


578 


579 


Microscopes  and  microscopy 

Class  a  specific  application  with  the  subject 


.1 

Types  of  microscopes 

.12 

Simple  iiiicroscope 

.13 

Compound  microscope 

.14 

Ultrainicroscope 

.15 

Electron  microscope 

.4 

Microscopy 

.46 

Photomicrography 

^ 

Slide  preparation 

For  slide  preparation  of  plant  tissues,  see  578.8;  of  animal  tissues, 
578.9 

.62  Fixation  techniques 

Chemical  and  freezing-drying  techniques 

.63  Microtomes  and  microtomy 

Frozen-section  and  section-cutting  techniques 

.64  Stain  techniques 

.65  Mounting  techniques 

«8  Slide  preparation  of  plant  tissues 

Divide  like  578.6,  e.g.,  staining  plant  tissues  578.84 

•9  Slide  preparation  of  animal  tissues 

Divide  like  578.6,  e.g.,  fixation  of  animal  tissues  578.92 

Collection  and  preservation  of  biological  specimens 
.1  Preparing  skeletons 

.2  Preserving  total  specimens 

Embalming,  mummification,  pickling 

•4  Taxidermy 

•6  Techniques  of  collecting  and  transporting 

.7  Arrangement  in  museums 

Ji  Maintenance  in  museums 

59^ 


Botanical  sciences 


580     Botanical  sciences 

For  paleobotany,  see  561 


.74 


Exhibits 

For  arrangement  in  museums,  see  579.7 


.742 
.744 


Herbariums 


Botanical  gardens 


581 


.09 


Botany 

Class  specific  classes,  orders,  families  in  582-589 

Historical  treatment 

Class  regional  and  geographical  treatment  in  581.9 


581.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.8 
.9 


SUMMARY 

Physiology 

Pathology 

Maturation 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

Ecology 

Economic  botany 

Histology  and  cytology 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 


.1 


.11 


Physiology 


SUMMARY 

581.11 
.12 
.13 
.14 

Circulation 

Respiration  and  transpiration 
Nutrition  and  metabolism 
Secretion  and  excretion 

.15 

Genetics 

.16 
.17 
.18 
.19 

Propagation 

Regeneration 

Movements 

Physics  and  chemistry  of  vital  processes 

Circulation 

Absorption  and  translocation  of  water  in  the  xylem  and  solutes 
in  the  phloem,  cytoplasmic  and  protoplasmic  movements, 
capillarity,  osmosis 


593 


Decimal  Classification 


581.12 


Respiration  and  transpiration 

Exchange  and  translocation  of  gases,  catabolic  processes  of 
metabolism 


.121 
.124 
.128 
,129 
.13 


.132 

.133 

.133  4 
.133  42 


.133  43 


Aerobic  respiration 

Intercellular  respiration 

Anaerobic  respiration 

Transpiration 

Nutrition  and  metabolism 

For  catabolic  processes  of  metabolism,  see  581.12 

Digestion 

Assimilation,  storage,  anabolism  of  food 
Food  synthesis 
Photosynthesis 

Sugar  and  starch  synthesis  by  autotrophic  plants 

Chemosynthesis 

Food  synthesis  by  heterotrophic  plants 


.133  45 

Protein  synthesis 

.133  46 

Lipid  synthesis 

.133  5 

Mineral  metabolism 

.133  54 

Macronutrient  elements 

.133  56 


.133  8 


Utilization  of  sulfur,  phosphorus,  iron,  calcium, 
potassium,  magnesium,  sodium  salts 

Micronutrient  elements  (Trace  elements) 

Utilization  of  manganese,  copper,  zinc,  boron, 
molybdenum,  aluminiun,  silicon,  selenium  compounds 

Food  storage 


S94 


581.134 


Botanical  sciences 


581.134-581.139  Results  of  nutrition 

Growth  processes 

For  growth  movements,  see  581.183 


.1341 

Growth  factors 

.13415 

Environmental  factors 

.134  152 

Meteorological  factors 

.134  153 

Light 

.134  2 

Primary  growth 

Growth  initiated  at  apical  meristems 

.134  3 


Secondary  growth 

Growth  initiated  at  lateral  meristems 


.135 


Development 

General  and  postembryomc  development 
For  embryology,  see  581.33 


.139 

Longevity 

.14 

Secretion  and  excretion 

For  transpiration,  see  581.129 

.15 

Genetics 

Heredity  and  variation 

.151 

Physiological,  embryological,  cytological  aspects 

.152 

Environmental  aspects 

.158 

Hybrids 

.159 

Abrupt  deviations 

.159  2 

Mutations 

Inheritable  abrupt  deviations 

.159  3 

Sports 

Noninheritable  abrupt  deviations 

595 


Decimal  Classification 


Botanical  sciences 


581.16 


.183 
.183  2 


.183  3 


.184 


.185 


.19 

.191 

.192 


Propagation 

Divide  like  574.16,  e.g.,  vegetative  generation  581.165 


.17 

Regeneration 

.172 

Histogenesis 

Microscopic  study  of  germ  cells 

.179 

Regeneration  of  parts 

.18 

Movements 

.182 

Hydration  movements 

Movements  in  nonliving  plant  tissues  or  organs  resulting 
from  hydration  or  dehydration  of  cell  walls,  e.g.,  splitting  of 
pods,  opening  of  capsules 

Growth  movements 
Tropisms 

Geotropism,  thigmotropism,  hydrotropism,  chemotropism, 
aerotropism,  heliotropism,  thermatropism,  stereotropism, 
traumatropism 

Nastic  movements 

Epinastic,  hyponastic,  nyctinastic,  photonastic,  thermo- 
nastic  movements 

Turgor  movements 

Movements  caused  by  reversible  changes  in  cell  volume, 
e.g.,  wilting,  opening  and  closing  of  stomates 

Nutation  and  circumnutation 

Movements  caused  by  unequal  rates  of  growth,  e.g.,  twining 

Physics  and  chemistry  of  vital  processes 
Biophysics 

Divide  like  574.191,  e.g.,  effects  of  gamma  rays  581.191  56 

Biochemistry 

Including  its  subdivisions  [formerly  581.193-581.196] 
Divide  like  574.192,  e.g.,  enzymes  581.192  5 
Class  food  manufacture  in  581.133 
For  metabolism,  see  574.13 


r^gi  193-.196]        Subdivisions  of  biochemistry 

Class  in  581.192 


.2 

Pathology 

.21 

Deficiency  diseases 

.22 

Teratology 

Anomalies,  deformations,  atrophies,  hypertrophies 

.23 

Parasitic  diseases 

Forgalhsee5Sl21 

.232 

Diseases  due  to  parasitic  plants 

.232  2 

Bacterial  diseases  of  plants 

.232  6 

Fungus  diseases  of  plants 

.233 

Diseases  due  to  parasitic  animals 

.234 

Viral  and  rickettsial  diseases 

24 

Injuries 

.27 

Galls 

.28 

Control  methods 

J 

Maturation 

.32 

Gametogenesis 

.33 
.332 


.333 
.334 


.36 

.38 


Formation  and  maturation  of  sex  cells 
For  histogenesis,  see  581.172 

Embryology 

Anatomy  of  embryonic  parts 

Anatomy  of  embryonic  tissues  and  stems,  cotyledons, 
plumules,  radicles,  endosperms,  suspensors 

Germination  processes 

Seedling  stages 

Development  of  primary  roots,  stems,  leaves 

Production  and  differentiation  of  sexes 
Evolution 


597 


Decimal  Classification 


Botanical  sciences 


58L4 


.41 


A2 


A3 


.44 


.46 

[.462] 


Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

For  anatomy  of  embryonic  parts,  see  581.332 

Circulatory  organs 

Structure  of  fibrovascular  bundles,  xylem,  phloem,  cambium 
layer,  veins 

Respiratory  organs 

Structure  of  stomates,  lenticels,  guard  cells,  intercellular  spaces 

Digestive  organs 

For  leaves,  see  581.497 

Secretory  and  excretory  organs 
For  stomates  and  lenticels,  see  581.42 

Reproductory  organs 

Reproductory  organs  of  seedless  plants 
Class  in  586.046 


[.463-467]         Reproductory  organs  of  flowering  plants 

Class  in  582.046 


.47 


.49 

.495 
.497 
.498 


Motor  and  integumentary  organs 

Structiu'e  of  epidermis  and  surface  protuberances,  e.g.,  thorns, 
tentacles 

Topographic  anatomy 


Stems 


Leaves  and  fronds 


Roots 


581.5 


.52 


.522 
.522  2 


.522  3 


.526 


.526  3 


.526  4 


.526  5 


Ecology 

Scope:  forest  ecology  [formerly  634.922,  634.94] 

Adaptation  to  environment 

For  a  specific  adaptive  feature,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  nutritive 
adaptations  581.53 

Autecology  ( Individual  ecology ) 
Effects  of  environment  on  plant 

Effects  of  soil,  light,  gases,  liquids  on  plant 

Effects  of  plant  on  environment 

Modification  of  soil  and  air,  prevention  of  erosion 


522  5 

Structural  adaptation 

.522  6 

Dissemination  and  migration 

.524 

Synecology  ( Associational  ec 

.524  2 

Invasion 

.524  3 

Succession 

.524  4 

Zonation 

.524  5 

Alternation 

Formational  ecology  (Physiographic  ecology) 

Influence    of    physical    factors    of    environment    on    plant 
distribution  and  species 

Hydric  formations 

Adaptation    of    hydrophytes    in    fresh    and    salt    water, 
swamps,  heaths,  bogs,  moors 

For  xeric  formations,  see  581.526  5 

Mesic  formations 

Adaptation  of  mesophytes  in  prairie  and  forest  regions 

Xeric  formations 

Adaptation  of  halophytes  and  xerophytes  in  salt  marshes, 
alkaline  soils,  arid  and  semiarid  regions,  dunes,  rocks 


598 


599 


Decimal  Classification 


Botanical  sciences 


581.53 
.533 
.533  3 
.533  4 

.54 

.55 


.56 
.57 
.6 


.63 

.632 

.634 

.64 


.65 
.67 
.69 


.9 


Nutritive  adaptations 
Nutritive  specialization 

Carnivorous  and  insectivorous  plants 
Saprophytic  plants 

Adaptations  to  climatic  and  seasonal  conditions 

Communities 

Socles,  consocies,  clans,  colonies,  mutualistic  and  antagonistic 
symbioses 

Reproductive  adaptations 

Protective  adaptations 

Economic  botany 

Plants  beneficial  and  deleterious  to  man's  needs 


581.63-581.64  Beneficial  plants 
Edible  and  medicinal  plants 
Edible  plants 
Medicinal  plants 

Plants  used  in  industry 


581.65-581.69  Deleterious  plants 
Weeds  [formerly  632.58] 

Allergenic  plants 

Deadly  plants 

Histology  and  cytology 

Divide  like  574.8,  e.g.,  plant  cytology  581.87 
For  germ  cells,  see  581.172 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  like  574.9,  e.g.,  desert  plants  581.909  54 


6oo 


^  582-589  Taxonomic  botany 

In  this  schedule  coordination  and  subordination  are  shown  by 
indention,  not  by  length  of  number 

If  preferred,  class  according  to  a  scheme  oriented  to  the  Univer- 
sal  Decimal  Classification  the  details  of  which  appear  in  Dewey 
Decimal  Classification,  Edition  14,  p.  1893-1906 

582  Spermatophyta  ( Seed-bearing  plants ) 

Use  582.001-582.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  Angiospermae,  see  583-584;  Gymnospermae,  585 


.01-.03 


.04 

.041 

.042 

.043 

.044 

.046 

.046  3 

.046  4 

.046  7 

.047 

.049 


.05-.09 


582.01-582.09  General  principles 
Physiology,  pathology,  maturation 

Divide  like  581.1-581.3,  e.g.,  embryology  582.033 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 
Circulatory  organs 
Respiratory  organs 
Digestive  organs 
Secretory  and  excretory  organs 
Reproductive  organs  [formerly  581.463-581.467] 

Flowers  and  their  parts 

Fruit 

Seeds 
Motor  and  integumentary  organs 

Topographic  anatomy 

Divide  like  581.49,  e.g.,  stems  582.049  5 

Other  general  principles 

Divide  hke  581.5-581.9,  e.g.,  mesic  fonnations  582.052  64 


6oi 


582.1 


.12 


.13 


.14 


.15 


.16 


Decimal  Classification 


Special  groupings 

Class  specific  classes,  orders,  families  in  583-585 


582.12-582.14  Herbaceous  plants 
Seed  plants  without  persistent  woody  tissue 

General  works 

Class  specific  types  in  582.13-582.14 

Flowering  plants 

Class   here   comprehensive   works   on   herbaceous   and  woody 
flowering  plants 

For  woody  flowering  plants,  see  582.15 

Shrubs  and  vines 

Succulent,  carpet,  mat,  cushion,  bush  herbals 


1601-.160  9 


17 


582,15-582.18  Woody  plants 
General  works 

Flowering  and  nonflowering  woody  plants 
Class  specific  types  in  582.16-582.18 

Trees  (Dendrology) 

Use  582.160  01  -  582.160  09  for  standard  subdivisions 

General  principles 

Divide  like  581.1-581.9,  e.g.,  ecology  of  trees  [formerly 
634.94]  582.160  5 

Shrubs 


.18 


Vines 


602 


Botanical  sciences 


p.  583-584  Angiospermae  (Flowering  plants) 

Families  listed  under  orders  are  based  on  Hutchinson,  John, 
The  Families  of  Flowering  Vlants,  1926-34 
Class  comprehensive  works  in  582.13 

583  Dicotyledones  ( Dicotyledons ) 

Divide  by  orders  as  below 

If  preferred,  arrange  alphabetically  by  families 


.1 


,11 


.112 


.114 


115 


,117 


.12 


.121 


Archichlamydeae 

For  ApetalaCy  see  583.9 

Ranales 

Ranunculaceae   (crowfoot  family),  Cabombaceae,  Ceratophyl- 
laceae  (homwort  family),  Nymphaeaceae  (water-Uly 
family) 

Dilleniales 

Crossosomataceae,  Dilleniaceae 

Magnoliales 

Trochodendraceae,  Cercidiphyllaceae,  Magnoliaceae  (magnolia 
family),  Winteraceae,  Schizandraceae,  Himantandraceae, 
Lactoridaceae 

Anonales 

Anonaceae  (custard-apple  family),  Eupomatiaceae 

Berberidales 

Menispermaceae,  Berberidaceae    (barberry  family),  Circaeas- 
teraceae,  Lardizabalaceae,  Sargentadoxaceae 

Rhoeadales 

Papaveraceae  (poppy  family),  Fumariaceae 

Sarraceniales 

Droseraceae,  Sarraceniaceae  (pitcher-plant  family) 


S03 


Decimal  Classification 


583.123 


.13 


.135 


138 


.14 


.141 


.15 


.158 


.16 


.163 


.17 


Cruciales 

Cruciferae  (mustard  family) 

Capparidales 

Capparidaceae,  Moringaceae,  Tovariaceae 

Violales 

Resedaceae  (mignonette  family),  Violaceae  (violet  family) 

Bixales 

Cochlospermaceae,  Canellaceae  (wild  cinnamon  family), 
Samydaceae,  Cistaceae,  Flacourtiaceae,  Bixaceae  ( annatto 
family ) 

Polygalales 

Trigoniaceae,  Polygalaceae,  Vochysiaceae  (San  Juan  family) 

Pittosporales 

Byblidaceae,  Tremandraceae,  Pittosporaceae  ( hedge  laurel 
family ) 

Caryophyllales 

Elatinaceae    (waterwort  family),   Molluginaceae,   Ficoidaceae, 
Portulacaceae  (purslane  family),  Caryophyllaceae  (pink 
family ) 

Tamaricales 

Frankeniaceae,  Fouquieraceae,  Tamaricaceae  ( tamarisk 

family ) 

Theales 

Ochnaceae  (red  ironwood  family),  Ancistrocladaceae,  Diptero- 
carpaceae,  Chlaenaceae,  Theaceae  (tea,  camellia  family), 
Medusagynaceae,  Marcgraviaceae,  Caryocaraceae,  Actini- 
diaceae,  Saurauiaceae 

Guttiferales 

Hypericaceae  ( Saint-John's-wort  family),  Eucryphiaceae, 
Quiinaceae,  Guttiferae  (balsam  fig  family) 

Malvales 

Malvaceae  ( mallow,  cotton  family  ) 

604 


Botanical  sciences 


583.19 


.21 


.214 


.24 


Tiliales 

Sterculiaceae  (coco  family),  Bombacaceae  (silk-cotton  tree 
family),  Scytopetalaceae,  Tiliaceae  (linden  family),  Gonysty- 
laceae 

Geraniales 

Limnanthaceae  (false-mermaid  family),  Linaceae  (flax  fam- 
ily) Zygophyllaceae  (lignum  vitae  family),  Geraniaceae  (gera- 
nium family),  Oxalidaceae  (wood-sorrel  family),  Tropaeolaceae 
(nasturtium  family),  Balsaminaceae  (jewelweed  family) 

Malpighiales 

Humiriaceae,  Erythroxylaceae,  Malpighiaceae 

Rutales 

Rutaceae  (rue  family),  Simarubaceae  (ailanthus  family), 
Burseraceae  ( torchwood  family ) 


.25 


.26 


27 


.279 


.28 


Meliales 

Meliaceae  ( mahogany  family ) 

Olacales 

Opiliaceae,  Olacaceae 

Celastrales 

Empetraceae  (crowberry  family),  Cneoraceae,  Pandaceae,  lea- 
cinaceae,  Salvadoraceae,   Stackhousiaceae,  Celastraceae   (staff- 
tree  family),  Corynocarpaceae,  Cyrillaceae,  Aquifoliaceae 
(holly  family),  Hippocrateaceae 

Rhamnales 

Elaeagnaceae,  Heteropyxidaceae,  Ampelidaceae  (grape 
family),  Rhamnaceae  (buckhorn  family) 

Sapindales 

Akaniaceae,  Sabiaceae,  Staphyleaceae,  Anacardiaceae  (cashew, 
sumac  family),  Connaraceae,  Didiereaceae,  Melianthaceae 
(honey  plant  family),  Aceraceae  (maple  family),  Sapin- 
daceae  (soapberry  family) 


605 


Decimal  Classification 


583.29 


.3 


.32 


.38 


.394 


.397 


A 


.44 


.45 


.453 


.46 


Coriariales 

Coriariaceae 

Resales 

Chailletiaceae,  Calycanthaceae,  Rosaceae  (rose  family) 

Leguminosae 

Caesalpiniaceae  (senna  family),  Mimosaceae  (mimosa  family), 
Papilionaceae  (pea  family) 

Saxifragales 

Adoxaceae  [formerly  583.53],  Crassulaceae,  Cephalotaceae 
( Australian  pitcher-plant  family ) ,  Saxif ragaceae  ( saxifrage 
family ) 

Hamamelidales 

Bruniaceae,  Stachyuraceae,  Buxaceae,  Platanaceae,  Hamameli- 
daceae  (witch-hazel  family),  Eucommiaceae,  Myrothamnaceae 

Cunoniales 

Escalloniaceae,  Grossulariaceae,  Hydrangeaceae,  Brunelliaceae, 
Greyiaceae,  Cunoniaceae 

Myrtales 

Myrtaceae  (myrtle  family),  Lecythidaceae  (Brazil-nut  family), 
Melastomaceae  (meadow-beauty  family),  Combretaceae 
(myrobalan  family),  Rhizophoraceae  (mangrove  family) 

Lythrales 

Punicaceae  (pomegranate  family),  Oliniaceae,  Hydrocaryaceae, 
Halorrhagaceae,  Callitrichiaceae,  Onagraceae,  Lythraceae 
(loosestrife  family),  Crypteroniaceae,  Sonneratiaceae 

Passiflorales 

Malesherbiaceae,  Passifloraceae  (passionflower  family), 
Achariaceae 

Loasales 

Tumeraceae,  Loasaceae 

Cucurbitales 

Cucurbitaceae  (gourd  family),  Begoniaceae  (begonia  family), 
Datiscaceae  ( false  hemp  family ) ,  Caricaceae  ( papaya  family ) 

6o6 


Botanical  sciences 


583.47 


.48 


.5 

.52 


.53 


.55 


.57 


.6 


.67 


.677 


Cactales 

Cactaceae  ( cactus  family  ) 

Umbelliflorae 

Cornaceae  (dogwood  family),  Alangiaceae,  Nyssaceae  (tupelo 
family),  Araliaceae  (ginseng  family),  Umbelliferae  (carrot 
family) 

Metachlamydeae  ( Sympetalae ) 

Rubiales 

Caprifoliaceae  (honeysuckle  family),  Rubiaceae  (madder 
family ) 

Valerianales 

Dipsacaceae  (teasel  family),  Calyceraceae,  Valerianaceae 

(valerian  family) 

Class  Adoxaceae  [formerly  583.53]  in  583.38 

Asterales 

Former  heading:  Compositae  (Composites) 

Common  names:  chicory,  lettuce,  thistles,  calendulas,  ground- 
sels, camomiles,  everlasting  flowers,  asters,  sneezeweed,  iron- 
weed,  ragweed,  sunflowers 

Campanales 

Campanulaceae  (bluebell,  bellflower  family),  Lobeliaceae 
(lobelia  family),  Goodeniaceae,  Stylidiaceae 

Ericales 

Clethraceae    (white-alder  family),   Ericaceae    (heath  family), 
Vacciniaceae  (huckleberry,  wintergreen  family),  Epacridaceae, 
Monotropaceae  (Indian-pipe  family),  Diapensiaceae 
(flowering-moss  family),  Lennoaceae 

Primulales 

Primulaceae    (primrose   family),   Plumbaginaceae    (plumbago 
family ) 

Myrsinales 

Theophrastaceae,  Myrsinaceae  (marlberry  family) 


607 


Decimal  Classification 


583.68 


.686 


.7 


72 


74 


76 


.77 


,79 


.8 


.87 


J88 


Ebenales 

Ebenaceae  ( ebony  family ) ,  Sapotaceae  ( sapodilla  family ) 

Styracales 

Styracaceae  (storax  family),  Symplocaceae  (sweetleaf  family)^ 
Diclidantheraceae,  Lissocarpaceae 

Gentianales 

Gentianaceae  ( gentian,  buck-bean  family ) 

Apocynales 

Asclepiadaceae    ( milkweed    family ) ,    Apocynaceae    ( dogbane 
family ) 

Loganiales 

Oleaceae  ( olive  family ) ,  Loganiaceae  ( Desf ontianeaceae ) 

Polemoniales 

Polemoniaceae    ( phlox    family ) ,    Hydrophyllaceae    ( waterleaf 
family ) 

Boraginales 

Boraginaceae  ( borage,  forget-me-not  family ) 

Solanales 

Convolvulaceae  ( morning-glory  family ) ,  Solanaceae 
( nightshade  family ) 

Personales 

Scrophulariaceae  (snapdragon  family),  Orobanchaceae,  Lenti- 
bulariaceae  (bladderwort  family),  Columelliaceae,  Gesneriaceae 
(gloxinia,  African  violet,  flame  violet),  Bignoniaceae  (catalpa 
family),  Pedaliaceae  (Pedalium,  unicorn-plant  family),  Acan- 
thaceae  (acanthus  family) 

Lamiales 

Including  Globulariaceae  (globe  daisy  family),  Myoporaceae, 
Selaginaceae,  Phrymaceae  ( lopseed  familv) 

Verbenaceae  (Vervain  family) 


6o8 


Botanical  sciences 


583.89 
.899 


.9 

.91 


.917 


.92 


.922 


.925 


.93 


.932 


.933 


•94 


Labiatae  (Mint  family) 

Plantaginales 

Plantaginaceae  (plantain  family) 

Monochlamydeae  (Apetalae) 

Chenopodiales 

Basellaceae,  Phytolaccaceae  (pokeweed  family),  Cynocramba- 
ceae  (dog  cabbage  family),  Chenopodiaceae  (goosefoot  fam- 
ily), Batidaceae,  Amarantaceae  (amaranth  family) 

Polygonales 

Illecebraceae,  Polygonaceae  (buckwheat  family) 

Podostemonales 

Podostemonaceae  (riverweed  family),  Hydrostachyaceae 

Aristolochiales 

Aristolochiaceae.  Cytinaceae,  Hydnoraceae,  Nepenthaceae 
( Indian  pitcher-plant  family) 

Piperales 

Lacistemaceae,  Piperaceae  (pepper  family),  Saururaceae 
(Hzard's-tail  family),  Chloranthaceae 

Laurales 

Monimiaceae,  Lauraceae  (laurel  family),  Gomortegaceae, 
Myristicaceae,  Hemandiaceae 

Proteales 

Proteaceae  (honeyflower  family) 

Thymelaeales 

Geissolomataceae,  Penaeaceae,  Nyctaginaceae  (four-o'clock 
family ) ,  Thymelaeaceae 

Santalales 

Balanophoraceae  ( Cynomorium ) ,  Octoknemataceae,  Lorantha- 
ceae  (mistletoe  family),  Santalaceae  (sandalwood  family), 
Grubbiaceae,  Myzodendraceae 

609 


583.95 


.96 


.962 


97 


.972 


.973 


,974 


.975 


.98 


.982 


.13 


Decimal  Classification 


Botanical  sciences 


Euphorbiales 

Euphorbiaceae  ( spurge  family ) 

Balanopsidales 

Balanopsidaceae 

Urticales 

Ulmaceae    (elm   family),    Barbeyaceae,    Moraceae    (mulberry 
family),  Scyphostegiaceae,  Urticaceae  (nettle  family), 
Cannabinaceae 

Fagales 

Betulaceae  (birch  family),  Corylaceae,  Fagaceae  (beech,  oak 
family ) 

Leitneriales 

Leitneriaceae  ( corkwood  family  ) 

Juglandales 

Juglandaceae  (walnut  family),  Julianiaceae 

Myricales 

Myricaceae  (bayberry  family) 

Casuarinales 

Casuarinaceae  (beefwood  family) 

Salicales 

Salicaceae  (willow  family) 

Garry  ales 

Garryaceae  (feverbush) 


584  Monocotyledones  ( Monocotyledons ) 

Divide  by  orders  as  below 

If  preferred,  arrange  alphabetically  by  families 


Burmanniales 

Burmanniaceae,  Thismiaceae,  Corsiaceae 

6io 


584.15 


21 


.22 


.24 


.25 


.27 


.32 


.37 
.38 


.42 


Orchidales 

Orchidaceae  ( orchid  family ) 

Haemodorales 

Philydraceae,  Haemodoraceae  (bloodwort  family),  Hypoxidaceae, 
Velloziaceae  (tree  lily  family),  Apostasiaceae,  Taccaceae 

Zingiberales 

Musaceae  (banana  family),  Strelitziaceae,  Lowiaceae,  Zingibera- 
ceae  (ginger  family),  Cannaceae  (canna  family),  Marantaceae 
(arrowroot  family) 

Bromeliales 

Bromeliaceae  (pineapple  family) 

Iridales 

Iridaceae  (iris  family) 

Amaryllidales 

Amaryllidaceae  ( amarylUs  family ) 

Dioscoreales 

Roxburghiaceae,  Dioscoreaceae  (yam  family),  Stenomeridaceae, 
Trichopodaceae 

Xyridales 

Xyridaceae  (yellow-eyed  grass  family),  Rapateaceae 

Liliales 

Pontederiaceae,  Cyanastraceae,  Smilacaceae  (cat  briers),  Rusca- 
ceae,  Liliaceae  (lily  family),  Tecophilaeaceae,  Trilhaceae  (triUium 
family) 

Mayacaceae  ( Mayaca  family ) 

Commelinales 

Flagellariaceae,  Commelinaceae  (spiderwort  family) 
For  Mayacaceae,  see  584.37 

Alstroemeriales 

Alstroemeriaceae,  Petermanniaceae,  Philesiaceae 

6ii 


Decimal  Classification 


584.43 


.45 


.5 


.61 


.612 
.613 
.62 


Agavales 

Xanthorrhoeaceae,  Agavaceae 

Jiincales 

Juncaceae  ( rush  family ) ,  Thumiaceae,  Centrolepidaceae, 
Restionaceae 

Palmales 

Palmae  ( palm  family ) 

Pandanales 

Pandanaceae  ( hala  family ) 

Sparganiaceae  ( Bur-reed  family ) 


Typhaceae  (Cattail  family) 

Cyclanthales 

Cyclanthaceae 


.64 


.71 


Arales 

Araceae  ( arum  family ) ,  Lemnaceae  ( duckweed  family ) 

Triuridales 

Triuridaceae 


«72  Najadales 


.721 


.73 


Najadaceae  ( najas  family ) ,  Zamiicbelliaceae 

Alismatales 

Scheuchzeriaceae,  Alismataceae  ( water-plantain  family ) , 
Petrosaviaceae 

Butomales 

Hydrocharitaceae  (frogbit  family),  Butomaceae  (water-poppy 
family) 


6l2 


Botanical  sciences 


584.74 


.743 


.744 


^1 


.84 


.92 


.93 


585 


.1 


Potamogetonales 

Potamogetonaceae  (pondweed  family),  Ruppiaceae 

Aponogetonales 

Aponogetonaceae  (lattice-plant  family),  Zosteraceae 

Juncaginales 

Juncaginaceae  (arrow-grass  family),  Lilaeaceae,  Posidoniaceao 

Eriocaulales 

Eriocaulaceae  ( pipewort  family ) 

Cyperales 

Cyperaceae  (sedge  family) 

Craminales 

Gramineae  and  its  tribes 

Panicoideae 

Paniceae  (millet  grasses),  Andropogoneae  (sugar  cane,  kafir 
com  grasses),  Maydeae  (Indian  corn  grasses) 

Pooideae 

Zoysieae,  Oryzeae  (rice  grasses),  Bambuseae  (bamboo  family), 
Festuceae  ( fescue  grasses ) ,  Phalarideae  ( canary  grasses ) , 
Agrosteae  (fodder  grasses),  Aveneae  (oat  grasses),  Hordeeae 
(wheat,  barley,  rye  grasses),  Clilorideae  (gama  grasses) 

Gymnospermae  ( Naked-seed  plants ) 

Divide  by  orders  as  below 

If  preferred,  arrange  alphabetically  by  families 

Cnetales 

Gnetaceae  ( gnetum  family ),  Welwitschiaceae  (welwitschia 
family),  Ephedraceae  (ephedra,  Mormon  tea  family) 

Coniferales  ( Conifers ) 

Podocarpaceae  (podocarp  family),  Phyllocladaceae  ( phyllocladus 
family),  Taxaceae  (yew  family),  Araucariaceae  (araucaria  family), 
Pinaceae  (pine  family),  Taxodiaceae  (bald  cypress  family), 
Cupressacee  ( cypress  family ) 

613 


Decimal  Classification 


Botanical  sciences 


585.7  Ginkgoales 

Ginkgoaceae  ( maidenhair  trees,  ginkgo  trees ) 

•9  Cycadales  (Cycads) 

Cycadaceae,  Zamiaceae  (sage  palm  family) 

586  Cryptogamia  ( Seedless  plants ) 

Use  586.001-586.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  Pteridophyta,  see  587;  Bryophyta,  588;  Thallophyta,  589 

.01 -.09  General  principles 

Divide  like  581.1-581.9,  e.g.,  anatomy  of  reproductive  organs 
[formerly  581.462]  586.046 

587  Pteridophyta  ( Vascular  cryptogams ) 

.1  Isoetales  (Quillworts) 

Isoetes 

•2  Sphenopsida 

Equisetaceae  ( horsetail  family ) 

Ji  Filicineae 

.31  Filicales  (Ferns) 

Osmundaceae  ( flowering  fern  family ) ,  Schizaeaceae  ( curly 
grass  family),  Gleicheniaceae  (gleichenia  family),  Hymeno- 
phyllaceae  (filmy  fern  family),  Dicksoniaceae  (Dicksonia  fam- 
ily), Cyatheaceae  (cyathea  family),  Polypodiaceae  (polypody 
family),  Marsiliaceae  (water  clover  family),  Salviniaceae 
(salvinia  family) 

.33  Eusporangiated  ferns 

Ophioglossales  ( adder's  tongue,  grape,  rattlesnake  ferns ) , 
Marattiales 

.4  Psilopsida 

Psilotales 

.9  Lycopsida  ( Club  mosses) 

Lycopodiales,  Selaginellales 
For  IsoetaleSy  see  587.1 

614 


588  Bryophyta 

,1  Sphagnales 

Sphagnaceae  (peat  and  bog  mosses) 

.2  Musci  ( True  mosses ) 

Bryales  ( common  mosses ),  Andreaeales  ( black  mosses ) 
For  Sphagnales,  see  588.1 

.3  Hepaticae  (Liverworts) 

Ricciaceae,  Marchantiaceae  (great  liverworts),  Jungermanniaceae 
( scale  mosses ) 

.32  Anthocerotales  (Homworts) 

589  Thallophyta 

.1  Lichenes  (Lichens) 

Symbiotic  associations  of  fungi  and  algae 

.2  Eumycophyta  ( True  fungi ) 

Scope:  mycology 

For  Lichenes,  see  589.1 

.22  Basidiomycetes  ( Basidium  fungi ) 

.221  Lycoperdales  (PufiFballs  and  related  fungi) 

Hymenogastrales    (false    tubers),    Nidulariales    (birdVnest 
fungi),  Phallales  (stinkhorn  fungi) 

.222  Agaricales  ( Mushrooms  and  related  fungi) 

Agaricaceae  (gill  fungi),  Polyporaceae  (pore  fungi) 

.225  Uredinales  (Rust  fungi) 

.227  Ustilaginales  ( Smut  fungi ) 

.23  Ascomycetes  ( Sac  fungi ) 

Plectomycetes,  Discomycetes,  Pyrenomycetes 

Common  names:  yeasts,  Penicillium,  mildews,  cup  fungi,  black 

rot,  ergot 

For  downy  mildews,  see  589.252 

.24  Deuteromycetes  ( Imperfect  fungi ) 

Moniliales  ( Hypomycetales ) ,  Sphaeropsidales,  Melanconiales 

615 


Decimal  Classification 


589.25 
.252 
.26 
.28 


.29 


.3 


.41 


.43 


.44 


.45 


.47 


.48 


.62 


Phycomycetes  ( Molds ) 

Peronosporales  ( Downy  mildews ) 
Saprolegniales  ( Water  molds ) 
Mucorales  and  other  Phycomycetes 

Mucorineae  (black  mold),  Entomorphthorales  (fly  fungi), 
Chytridiales  (chytrids) 

Myxomycophyta  ( Slime  molds ) 

Stemonitaceae  and  Arcyriaceae 

Algae  (Phycology) 

For  Cyanophyta,  see  589.8 

Rhodophyta  (Red  algae) 

Bangioideae  and  Florideae  ( red  seaweeds,  sea  mosses ) 

Pyrrophyta  ( Dinoflagellates ) 

Desmomona dales,  Prorocentrales,  Gymnodiniales,  Amphilo- 
thales,  Kolkwitziellales,  Dinophysiales,  Peridiniales, 
Rhizodiniales,  Dinococcales,  Dinotrichales 

Euglenophyta  ( Euglenoids ) 

Euglenaceae,  Colaciaceae,  Astasiaceae,  Peranemaceae 

Phaeophy ta  ( Brown  algae ) 

Ectocarpales  ( kelps ) ,  Sphacelariales,  Cutleriales,  Tilopteridales, 
Chordariales,  Sporochnales,  Desmarestiales,  Dictyosiphonales, 
Laminariales,  Fucales  (seaweeds,  rockweeds) 

Chlorophyta  (Green  algae) 

Conjugales,  Charales,  Volvocales,  Chlorococcales,  Ulotrichales, 
Siphonales,  Cladophorales,  Chaetophorales,  Oedogoniales 

Chrysophyta  ( Golden  algae ) 

Xanthophyceae  ( yellow-green  algae )  and  Chrysophyceae 
For  Bacillariophyceae,  see  589.62 

Bacillariophyceae  (Diatoms) 
Centrales,  Pennales,  phytoplankton 

For  a  specific  phytoplankton,  see  the  subject,  e.g., 
Dinoflagellates  589.43 

6i6 


589.7 


.8 


.9 


Botanical  sciences 


Schizophyta  ( Fission  plants ) 

For  Schizomycetes,  see  589.9;  Eumycophyta,  589.2;  Cyanophyta, 
589.8 

Cyanophyta  ( Blue-green  algae ) 

Chroococcaceae,  Chamaesiphonaceae,  Clastidiaceae,  Stigonemata- 

ceae,  Nostocaceae,  Rivulariaceae,  Scytonemataceae, 

Oscillatoriaceae 

Common  names:  Myxophyceae,  Schizophyceae,  Cyanophyceae 

Schizomycetes  (Bacteriology) 

Use  589.900  1  -  589.900  8  for  standard  subdivisions 


.901-.909  General  principles 

Divide  like  581.1-581.9,  e.g.,  anaerobic  respiration 
589.901  21 


.92 


.93 


.94 


.95 


.96 


.98 


.99 


Actinomycetales 

Mycobacteriaceae,  Actinomycetaceae 

Chlamydobacteriales 
Chlamydobacteriaceae 

Caulobacteriales 

Nevskiaceae,  Gallionellaceae,  Caulobacteriaceae,  Pasteuriaceae 

Eubacteriales 

Nitrobacteriaceae,  Rhizobiaceae,  Pseudonomadaceae,  Acetobac- 
teriaceae,  Azotobacteriaceae,  Micrococcaceae,  Neisseriaceae, 
Parvobacteriaceae,  Lactobacteriaceae,  Enterobacteriaceae. 
Bacteriaceae,  Bacillaceae 

Thiobacteriales 

Rhodobacteriaceae,  Beggiatoaceae,  Achromatiaceae 

Myxobacteriales 

Archangiaceae,  Sorangiaceae,  Polyangiaceae,  Myxococcaceae 

Spirochaetales 
Spirochaetaceae 


617 


Decimal  Classification 


590     Zoological  sciences 

For  taxonomic  paleozoology,  see  562-569 


.74 


.742 
.744 


.09 


.1 


.11 

.12 
.13 

.14 
.15 


.16 


.17 


Exhibits 

For  arrangement  in  museums,  see  579.7 

Museums 
Zoological  gardens 


591  Zoology 


Class  specific  classes,  orders,  families  in  592-599 

Historical  treatment 

Class  regional  and  geographical  treatment  in  591.9 


SUMMARY 

591.1 

Physiology 

.2 

Pathology 

3 

Maturation 

.4 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

J 

Ecology 

J6 

Economic  zoology 

Ji 

Histology  and  cytology 

S 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Physiology 

For  human  physiology,  see  612 

Circulation 

Respiration 

Nutrition  and  metabolism 

Secretion  and  excretion 

Genetics 

Heredity  and  variation 

Divide  like  581.15,  e.g..  mutations  591.159  2 

Reproduction 

Divide  like  574.16,  e.g.,  parthenogenesis  591.162 

Histogenesis 

Microscopic  study  of  germ  cells 

6i8 


Zoological  sciences 


591.18 

.19 
.191 


.192 


[.193-.196] 


Movements 

Response  to  external  stimuli,  locomotion 

Physics  and  chemistry  of  vital  processes 
Biophysics 

Divide  like  574.191,  e.g.,  effects  of  gamma  rays  591.191  56 

Biochemistry 

Including  its  subdivisions  [formerly  591.193-591.196] 
Divide  like  574.192,  e.g.,  enzymes  591.192  5 
For  metabolism,  see  591.13 

Subdivisions  of  biochemistry 
Class  in  591.192 


.2 

Pathology 

.3 

Maturation 

.32 

Gametogenesis 

Formation  and  maturation  of  sex  cells 

For  histogenesis,  see  591.17 

.33 

Embryology 

.34 

Metamorphoses 

.36 

Production  and  differentiation  of  sexes 

.38 

Evolution 

.4 

Morphology  and  descriptive  anatomy 

For  human  anatomy,  see  611 

.41 

Circulatory  organs 

.42 

Respiratory  organs 

•43 

Digestive  organs 

.44 

Secretory  and  excretory  organs 

.46 

Reproductory  organs 

.47 

Muscular,  skeletal,  integumentary  organs 

.48 

Organs  of  nervous  system 

.49 

Topographic  anatomy 

619 

Decimal  Classification 


Zoological  sciences 


591.5 
,51 


.52 

.53 


.54 

.542 


.543 


.55 


.56 

.57 
.59 

.6 


.69 


Ecology 

Behavior  patterns  in  nature 

For  specific  patterns,  see  the  subject,  e.g.,  hibernation  591.543 

Migrations 
Nutritive  adaptations 

Including  food  chains  and  cycles 

Adaptations  to  meteorological  factors 
Adaptations  to  climatic  conditions 
Adaptations  to  storms,  rain,  drought 

Adaptations  to  seasonal  changes 
■  Hibernation  and  estivation 

Communities 

Aggregations,  mutualistic  and  antagonistic  symbioses 

Reproductive  adaptations 

Protective  adaptations 

Communication  and  production  of  sound 

Economic  zoology 

Animals  beneficial  and  deleterious  to  man's  needs 

Poisonous  animals 

Histology  and  cytology 

For  germ  cells,  see  591,17 

Regional  and  geographical  treatment 

Divide  like  574.9,  e.g.,  animals  of  desert  regions  591.909  54 


^  592-599  Taxonomic  zoology 

In  this  schedule  coordination  and  subordination  are  shown  by 
indention,  not  by  length  of  number 

592  Invertebrates 

Use  592.001-592.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa,  see  593;  MoUusca  and 
moUuscoidea,  594;  other  invertebrates,  595 

.01-.09  General  principles 

Divide  hke  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  poisonous  invertebrates  592.069 

593  Protozoa,  Parazoa,  Metazoa 

,1  Plasmodroma  and  Mastigophora 

Chysomonadina,  Cryptomonadina,  Phytomonadina,  Euglenoidina, 
Chloromonadina,  Dinoflagellata,  Rhizomastigina,  Protomonadina, 
Polymastigina,  Hypermastigina 


m 


620 


.11 

Sarcodina  and  Rhizopoda 

•113 

Proteoinyxa 

.115 

Mycetozoa 

Eumycetozoa,  Sorophora 

.117 

Amoebina 

.118 

Testacea 

.12 

Foraminifera 

.13 

Actinopoda 

.132 

Heliozoa 

.14 

Radiolaria 

.17 

Ciliophora 

.172 

Ciliata,  Protociliata,  Euciliata 

Holotricha,  Spirotricha,  Chonotricha,  Peritri 

.175 

Suctoria 

•19 

Sporozoa 

Telosporidia,  Acnidosporidia,  Cnidosporidia 

621 

Decimal  Classification 


593.4 

Porifera  (Sponges) 

.42 

Calcispongiae 

Asconosa,  Syconosa 

.44 

Hyalospongiae 

Hexasterophora,  Amphidiscophora 

.46 


.5 


.6 


.7 


.73 


.9 

.91 


.93 


Desmospongiae 

Camosa,  Choristida,  Epipolasida,  Hadromerina,  Poecilosclerina, 
Haplosclerina,  Keratosa 

Coelenterata 

For  Anthozoa,  see  593.6;  Hydrozoa  and  related  orders,  593.7 

Anthozoa 

Alcyonaria,  Ceriantharia,  Antipitharia,  Dodecacorallia 
Common  names:  sea  anemones,  corals,  sea  fans,  sea  pens 

Hydrozoa  and  related  orders 

Hydroida,  Trachylina,  Milleporina,  Stylasterina,  Siphonophora 
Common  names:  jellyfish,  hydras,  medusas,  hydroid  polyps 

Scyphozoa 

Lucernariidea,  Charybdeidea,  Corona,  Semaeostomeae, 
Rhizostomeae 

Ctenophorae 

Tentaculata,  Nuda 

Common  names:  sea  walnuts,  comb  jellies 

Echinodermata,  Enteropneusta,  Linguatula 

Crinoidea  ( Sea  lilies ) 

Flexibiha,  Articulata,  Comatulida 

Asteroidea  (Starfish) 

Phanerozonea,  Spinulosa,  Forcipulata 


622 


Zoological  sciences 


593.94 


.95 


.96 

.99 

.992 
.993 


Ophiuroidea 

Phrynophiurida,  Laemophiurida,  Gnathophiurida, 
Cliilophiurida 

Common  names:  brittle  stars,  basket  stars 

Echinoidea 

Cidaroida,  Centrechinoida,  Exocycloida,  Perischoechinoida, 
Echinocystoida,  Perichoechinoida 

Common  names:  sea  urchins,  sand  dollars 

Holothurioidea  ( Sea  cucumbers ) 

Dendrochirota,  Elasipoda,  Aspidochirota,  Molpadonia,  Apoda 


Enteropneusta  and  Linguatula 
Linguatula 
Balanoglossida 

594  Mollusca  and  molluscoidea 

Use  594.000  1  -  594.000  9  for  standard  subdivisions 

.001-.008  Standard  subdivisions  of  Mollusca 

,01-.09  General  principles  of  Mollusca 

Divide  like  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  ecology  of  mollusks  594.05 


.1 


.19 


.32 


594.1-594.5  Specific  classes,  orders,  families  of 
Mollusca 

Pelecypoda  ( Bivalve  mollusks ) 

Prionodesmacea,  Anomalodesmacea,  Teleodesmacea 
Common  names:  clams,  mussels,  oysters,  shipworms 

Crepipoda  ( Polyplacophora,  Amphineura) 

Eoplacophora,  Aplacophora,  Mesoplacophora,  Isoplacophora, 
Teleoplacophora 

Scaphopoda  ( Toothshells ) 

Gastropoda 

Snails,  slugs,  whelks 

Prosobranchia 

Archaeogastropoda,  Mesogastropoda,  Neogastropoda 

623 


Decimal  Classification 


Zoological  sciences 


594.35 


.58 
.6 


.71 


.72 
.73 
.8 


595 


Pteropoda  and  Sacoglossa 

Common  names:  sea  slugs,  sea  lemons,  sea  hares 


.36 

Acoela 

Notaspidea  and  Nudibranchia 

.37 

Tectibranchia 

.38 

Pulinonata 

Basommatophora  and  Stylommatophora 

J 

Cephalopoda 

.52 

Nautiloidea  (Nautilus) 

.55 

Vampyromorpha 

.56 

Octopoda 

Common  names:  octopuses,  cuttlefish,  squids,  devilfish 

Decapoda 

Molluscoidea 

For  PhoTonidea,  see  595.176 

Bryozoa 

Common  names:  sea  mats,  moss  animals 

Gymnolaemata 

Cyclostomata,  Trepostomata,  Cryptostomata,  Ctenostoma 

Phylactolaemata 
Pterobranchia 
Brachiopoda  ( Lamp  shells ) 

Other  invertebrates 


SUMMARY 

595.1 

Wormlike  animals 

.2 
.3 

Arthropoda 

Crustacea  and  related  classes 

.4 

Arachnida 

.5 

.6 
.7 

Onychophora 
Progoneata 
Insecta  (Insects) 

624 

595.1 
.12 
.121 

.122 

.123 

.124 


.13 


.131 


.16 


.17 


.174 


Wormlike  animals 

Platyhelminthes  ( Flatworms ) 

Cestoidea 

Cestodaria,  Cestoda  ( tapeworms ) 

Trematoda  ( Flukes ) 

Monogenea,  Aspidogastrea,  Digenea 

Turbellaria  (Planarians) 

Acoela,  Rhabdocoela,  Alloiocoela,  Tricladida,  Polycladida 

Nemertea 

Anopla,  Enopla 

Nematoidea  ( Roundworms ) 
Phasmidia,  Aphasmidia 

Nematomorpha  ( Horsehair  worms) 
Gordididea,  Nectonematoidea 


.133 

Acanthocephala 

Eoacanthocephala,  Metacanthocephala 

.135 

Chaetognatha  and  Entoprocta 

.14 

Annelida  (Segmented  worms) 

For  Myzostoma,  see  595.178 

.142 

Archiannelida 

.15 

Hirudinea  (Leeches) 

Rhynchobdellida,  Gnathobdellida,  Pharyngobdellida 

Oligochaeta  (Earthworms) 

Plesipora,  Ophisthopora,  Prosopora 

Polychaeta 

Errantia,  Sedentaria,  Aplacophora 

Gephyrea 

Echiuroidea,  Sipunculoidea,  Priapuloidea 

625 


Decimal  Classification 


595.176 
.178 
.18 


3 

.32 


.33 


.34 


.35 


.36 
.37 
.371 


.372 


Phoronidea 
Myzostoma 

Aschelminthes 

Tardigrada  ( water  bears ) ,  Rotatoria  (wheel  animalcules), 
Gastrotricha,  Echinodera 

For  Nematomorpha,  see  595.131;  Nematoidea,  595.13 

Arthropoda 

For  Crustacea  and  related  classes,  see  595.3;  Progoneata,  595.6 

Crustacea  and  related  classes 

Branchiopoda 

Anostraca,  Notostraca,  Conchostraca,  Cladocera 

Ostracoda 

Myodocopa,  Cladocopa,  Podocopa,  Platycopa 

Copepoda 

Eucopepoda  and  Branchinra 
Common  names :  cyclops,  fish  lice 

Cirripedia  ( Barnacles ) 

Thoracica,  Ascothoracica,  Apoda,  Rhizocephala 

Liptostraca 
Eumalacostraca 

Amphipoda  ( Sand  fleas ) 

Gammaridea,  Hyperiidea,  Caprellidea,  Ingolfiellidea 

Isopoda 

Flabellifera,  Valvifera,  Asellota,   Phreatoicidea,  Epicaridea, 
Oniscoidea  ( sow  bugs,  wood  lice ) 


.373 

Thermosbaenacea 

.374 

Tanaidacea 

.381 

Cuinacea 

626 


Zoological  sciences 


595.382 


.4 
.42 


.43 

.44 

.45 

.46 

.47 

.48 

.5 

.6 


.61 


Stomatopoda 

Common  names:  sea  mandes,  glass  crabs,  mantis  shrimps, 
squillas,  sea  onions 


.383 

Mysidacea  (Opossum  shrimps) 

.384 

Decapoda 

.3841 

Macnira  (Lobsters,  crayfish) 

.384  2 

Brachyiu-a  (Crabs) 

.384  3 

Natantia  (Shrimps) 

.384  4 

Anomura  (Hermit  crabs,  king  crabs) 

.385 

Euphausiacea 

.39 

Chelicerata 

For  Arachnida,  see  595.4 

.392 

Xiphosnra  (Horseshoe  crabs) 

.394 

Pycnogonida  (Sea  spiders) 

Colossendeomorpha,  Nymphonomorpha,  Ascorhyncho- 
morpha,  Pycnogonomorpha 

Arachnida 

Acari  ( Mites,  ticks ) 

Notostigmata,  Holothyroidea,  Parasitiformes,  Trombidiformes, 
Sarcoptiformes,  Tetrapodili 

Phalangida  (Harvestmen,  daddylonglegs) 

Araneida  ( True  spiders ) 

Palpigradi  (Whip  scorpions) 

Scorpiones  (Scorpions) 

Pseudoscorpiones  (Fake  scorpions) 

Solifugae  (Weasel  spiders) 
Onychophora 
Progoneata 

For  Insecta,  see  595.7 

Diplopoda  ( Millipedes ) 
Pselaphognatha,  Chilognatha 


627 


Decimal  Classification 


.62 

Opisthogoneata 

Chilopoda  (centipedes) 

.63 

Syiiiphyla 

.64 

Pauropoda 

.7 


.701-709 


71 


72 

721 
722 
724 
725 
726 


73 

731 
732 
733 
734 

735 

736 

737 

738 

74 

742 

744 


Insecta  ( Insects ) 

Use  595.700  1  -  595.700  8  for  standard  subdivisions 

General  principles 

Divide  like  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  insect  morphology  595.704 

Synaptera 

CoUembola  ( springtails ) ,  Protura,  Entotrophi,  Thysanura 
( bristletails ) 

Orthoptera  and  related  orders 

Dermaptera  (Earwigs) 

Blattariae  ( Cockroaches ) 

Phasmatodea  ( Walking  sticks ) 

Mantodea  (Mantises) 

Orthoptera 

Common  names:  grasshoppers,  crickets,  locusts,  katydids 

Thysanoptera  and  related  orders 

Thysanoptera  (Thrips) 

Corrodentia  (Book  lice,  bark  lice) 

Odonata  (Dragonflies,  damselflies) 

Ephemeroptera  (Mayflies) 

Plecoptera  (Stoneflies) 

Isoptera  (Termites) 

Embioptera 

Zoraptera 
Neuroptera  and  related  orders 

Megaloptera  ( Ant  lions ) 

Mecoptera  ( Scorpion  flies ) 

628 


Zoological  sciences 


595.745 

Trichoptera  (Caddis  flies) 

.746 

Strepsiptera 

.747 

Neuroptera 

Common  names:  lacewings,  snake  flies,  dobson  flies 

.75 

Hemiptera  and  related  orders 

.751 

Apterous  insects  (Lice) 

.7512 

Anoplura  (True  lice) 

.7514 

Mallophaga  (Bird  lice) 

.752 

Homoptera 

Common  names:  aphids,  cicadas,  leaf  hoppers,  scale  insects 

.754 

Heteroptera  ( True  bugs ) 

.76 

Coleoptera  ( Beetles ) 

.762 

Adephaga 

.764 


.765 

.767 

.768 

.769 

.77 

.771 


.774 


.775 


Caraboidea,  Gyrinoidea,  Cupoidea,  Rhysodoidea 

Polyphaga 

Hydrophiloidea,  Staphylinoidea,  Cucujoidea,  Cantharoidea, 
Dryopoidea,  Dascylloidea,  Histeroidea,  Tenebrionoidea, 
Cerambycoidea,  Scarabaeoidea 

Common  names:  burying  beetles,  larder  beetles,  leaf  beetles, 
dung  beetles,  June  beetles,  rose  chafers 

Elateroidea  (Wireworms,  click  beetles) 
Mordelloidea  (Ship-timber  and  blister  beetles) 
Curculionoidea  (Weevils) 
Colydioidea  ( Powder-post  and  ladybird  beetles  ) 
Diptera  and  related  orders 
Orthorrhapha 

Common  names:   midges,  gnats,  mosquitoes;   crane,  moth, 
horse,  bee,  robber  flies 

Cyclorrhapha 

Common  names:  fruit,  vinegar,  house,  blow,  Tachina,  louse 
flies 

Siphonaptera  (Fleas) 

629 


Decimal  Classification 


595.78  Lepidoptera 

Including  Jugatae,  Frenatae  (moths) 

.789  Rhopalocera  (Butterflies) 

.79  Hymenoptera 
.796  Formicidae  (Ants) 

.798  Vespidae  (True  wasps) 

.799  Apidae(Bees) 

596  Chordata  ( Vertebrates ) 

Use  596.001-596.008  for  standard  subdivisions 

For  Anamnia,  see  597;  reptiles  and  birds,  598;  Mammalia,  599 

.0 1-.09  General  principles 

Divide  like  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  comparative  anatomy  of 
vertebrates  596.04 

J2  Tunicata  (Sea  squirts  and  sea  grapes) 

Ascidiacea,  Larvacea,  Thaliacea 

597  Anamnia  ( Cyclostomes,  fishes,  amphibians ) 

Use  597.001-597.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

.01-.09  General  principles  of  fish 

Divide  like  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  protective  adaptations  of  fish 
597.057 


a 

3 


.31 


.35 


Cyclostomata  (Lampreys) 
Chondrichthyes 


.38 


597.31-597.35  Elasmobranchii 
Selachii  (Sharks) 

Heterodontoidea,  Notidanoidea,  Galeoidea,  Squaloidea 

Batoidea 

Common  names:  skates,  rays,  torpedoes,  guitarfishes,  sawfishes 

Chimaerae  (Chimeras) 


630 


Zoological  sciences 


597.4 
.41 
.42 
.44 

.46 

.47 
.48 


.51 

.52 


.53 


.55 


597.4-597.5  Osteichthyes 
Actinopterygii  and  related  orders 

Amioidea  (Bowfins,  river  dogfishes) 

Polypterini  (Ganoids) 

Acipenseroidei 

Common  names:  sturgeons,  paddlefishes,  spoonbills 

Crossopterygii  ( Lobe-finned  fishes ) 
For  Lepisosteidae,  see  597.47 

Lepisosteidae  ( Gars ) 
Dipnoi  ( Lung  fishes ) 

Teleostei 

Divide  by  orders  as  below 

If   preferred,    arrange    alphabetically    by    orders 

Apodes  ( Morays  and  true  eels) 

Ostariophysi 

Cyprinoidea,  Siluroidea 

Common  names:  carps,  suckers,  barbels,  loaches,  catfishes 

Mesichthyes 

Haplomi,  Iniomi,  Cyprinodontes,  Synentognathi,  Thoracostei, 
Salmopercae 

Common  names:  pikes,  killifishes,  top  minnows,  garfishes,  flying 
fishes,  halfbeaks,  sticklebacks,  pipefishes,  sea  horses,  pirate 
perch 

Isospondyli 

Clupeoidea,  Salmonoidea,  Opisthoproctoidea,  Osteoglossoidea, 
Stomiatoidea,  Gonorhynchoidea 

Common  names:  herrings,  salmon,  arapaimas,  dragonfishes, 
trout,  tarpons,  lantern  fishes 


631 


Decimal  Classification 


597.58 


.6 


.7 


.8 


598 


.1 


.11 

.112 

.119 

.12 

AS 

[.139] 
.14 


Acanthop  tery  gii 

Berycoidea,    Zeoidea,    Percoidea,    Carangoidea,    Scombroidea 
Trachinoidea,    Blennioidea,    Anacanthini,    Chaetodontoidea 
Plectognathi,  Heterosomata,  Scorpaenoidea,  Batrachoidea, 
Pediculati,  Gobioidea,  Anabantoidea,  Mugiloidea,  Polyne- 
moidea,  Ammodytoidea,  Echeneoidea,  Xenopterygii, 
Allotriognathi,  Opisthomi,  Synbranchii 

Common  names:  snappers,  John  Dorys,  perches,  basses,  gobies 
mackerels,  blennies,  pompanos,  tunas,  albacores,  bonitos, 
swordfishes 

Amphibia 

For  Apoda,  see  597.7;  Salientia,  597.8-597.9 

Apoda  (Caecilians) 


597.8-597.9  Salientia 
Anura  ( Frogs  and  toads ) 

Amphicoela,  Opisthocoela,  Anomocoela,  Procela,  Diplasiocoela 

Urodela  ( Salamanders,  newts,  mud  puppies ) 

Crytobranchoidea,  Amblystomoldea,  Salamandroidea,  Proteidea 

Reptiles  and  birds 
Reptilia  ( Reptiles ) 

Scope:  herpetology 

For  Amphibia,  see  597.6 

Lepidosauria 

For  Serpentes,  see  598.12 

Lacertilia  ( Lizards ) 

Rhynchocephalia  (Tuataras)  [formerly  598 A  39] 
Serpentes  (Snakes) 
Chelonia  (Turtles,  tortoises) 

Pleurodira  and  Cryptodira 

Rhynchocephalia  ( Tuataras ) 
Class  in  598.119 

Crocodilia  (Crocodiles,  alligators) 

632 


Zoological  sciences 


598.2 


.201 

.2013 
.207 
.207  2 
.207  23 
.207  3 
.209 


.29 
.291 


Aves  (Birds) 

For  specific  orders  of  birds,  see  598.3-598.9 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Protective  measures 

Study  and  teaching 

Research 

Birdbanding  and  census  taking 

Bird  watching 
History  of  ornithology 

Class  regional  and  geographical  treatment  in  598.29 


.21-28  General  principles 

Divide  like  591.1-591.8,  e.g.,  bird  migrations  598.252 


.292 
.292  2 
.292  3 
.292  4 
.293-.299 


Regional  and  geographical  treatment 
Zonal  and  physiographic  treatment 

Divide  like  574.909,  e.g.,  birds  in  desert  regions  598.291  54 

Special  groupings 

Land  birds 

Shore  birds 

Water  birds 
Geographical  treatment 

Add  area  notations  3-9  to  598.29 


•3 


.33 


598.3-598.9  Specific  orders  of  birds 

Gruiformes  and  related  orders 

Including  Mesoenatides,  Turnices,  Grues,  Heliomithes, 
Rhynocbeti,  Eurypygae,  Cariamae,  Otides 

Common  names:  cranes,  limpkins,  rails,  gallinules,  coots 

Charadriiformes 

Charadrii,  Lari,  Alcae 

Common  names:  gulls,  skimmers,  terns,  pufiBns,  auks,  munes, 
jacanas,  oyster  catchers,  plovers,  tumstones,  woodcock,  snipe, 
sandpipers,  curlews,  avocets,  stilts,  phalaropes 


633 


Decimal  Classification 


Zoological  sciences 


598.34 


.42 


.43 


.64 

.65 


Ciconiiformes 

Ardeae,  Balaenicipites,  Ciconiae,  Phoenicopteri 

Common  names :  herons,  bitterns,  egrets,  storks,  ibises, 
spoonbills,  flamingos 

Anseriformes  and  related  orders 

Including  Anhimae  and  Anseres 

Common  names:  swans,  geese,  ducks,  mergansers,  screamers 

Procellariiformes 

Common  names;  albatrosses,  shearwaters,  fulmars,  petrels 

Pelecaniformes 

Phaethontes,  Pelecani,  Fregatae,  Odontopteryges 

Common  names:  tropic  birds,  pelicans,  gannets,  boobies, 
cormorants,  darters,  snakebirds,  man-o'-war  birds 


.44 

Spheniscif ormes  ( Penguins ) 

.442 

Gaviiformes  (Loons) 

.443 

Colymbiformes  (Grebes) 

^ 

Palaeognathae 

.51 

Struthionif ormes  (Ostriches) 

.52 

Rheiforines  (Rheas) 

- 

.53 

Casuariifonnes  ( Cassowaries,  ( 

3nius) 

.54 

Apterygif ormes  ( Kiwis ) 

.55 

Tinamif ormes  (Tinamous) 

.6 

Galliformes  and  Columbiformes 

.61 

Galli 

Common  names:   curassows,  guans,  grouse,  quails,  pheasants, 
turkeys,  domestic  chickens 

Opisthocomo  (Hoatzins) 
Columbiformes 

Pterocletes  and  Columbae 

Common  names :  sand  grouse,  pigeons,  doves 


598.7 


.72 


.73 
.74 


Ji 


.81 

.812 

.813 

.82 

.822 

.823 

.83 

.832 

.833 

.84 

.842 

.843 

.85 

.852 

.853 

.86 

.862 


Psittaciformes 

Common  names:  parrots,  parakeets,  macaws,  lories 

Piciformes 

Galbulae  and  Pici 

Common  names:  jacamars,  pufFbirds,  barbets,  honey  guides, 

toucans,  woodpeckers,  flickers,  piculets 

Trogonif ormes  (Trogons) 
Cueuliformes 

Musophagi  and  Cuculi 

Common  names:  plantain  eaters,  cuckoos,  roadrunners,  anis 

Passerif ormes  (Passerine,  perching  birds ) 

Divide  by  families  as  below 

If  preferred,   arrange   alphabetically   by  families 

Tyrannidae  ( Flycatchers ) 

Alaudidae  ( Larks ) 

Hirundinidae  (Swallows) 

Paridae  (Titmice) 

Sittidae  (Nuthatches) 

Certhiidae  ( Creepers ) 

Chamaeidae  (Wren-tits) 

Cinclidae  (Dippers) 

Troglodytidae  (Wrens) 

Mimidae  (Thrashers  and  mockingbirds) 

Turdidae  (Thrushes) 

Sylviidae  ( Gnatcatchers  and  kinglets) 

Motacillidae  (Wagtails  and  pipits) 

Bombycillidae  (Waxwings) 

Ptilogonatidae  ( Silky  flycatchers ) 

Corvidae  (Crows,  magpies,  jays) 

Laniidae  (Shrikes) 


634 


635 


Decimal  Classification 


598.863  Stumidae  ( Starlings ) 

.87  Vireonidae  (Vireos) 

.872  Parulidae  ( Wood  warblers ) 

.873  Ploceidae  ( Weaver  finches ) 

.88  Icteridae  (Blackbirds) 

.882  Thraupidae  (Tanagers) 

.883  Fringillidae 

Common  names:  grosbeaks,  finches,  sparrows,  buntings 

.89  Coraciiformes 

Alcedines,  Meropes,  Coracii,  Bucerotes 

Common  names:  kingfishers,  rollers,  todies,  motmots,  bee  eaters, 
hoopoes,  hornbills 

•899  Apodiformes 

Apodi  and  Trochili 

Common  names:  swifts,  hummingbirds 

•9  Falconif ormes  ( Birds  of  prey ) 

Including  Cathartae  and  Falcones 

Common  names:  hawks,  falcons,  buzzards,  vultures,  ospreys, 
eagles 

.97  Strigiformes  (Owls) 

.99  Caprimulgiformes 

Steatornithes  and  Caprimulgi 

Common  names:  oilbirds,  frogmouths,  potoos,  goatsuckers 

Mammalia  ( Mammals ) 

Use  599.001-599.008  for  standard  subdivisions 


599 


.01-09  General  principles 

Divide  hke  591.1-591.9,  e.g.,  physiology  of  nervous  system 
599.018 


636 


Zoological  sciences 


SUMMARY 

599.1 

Monotremata 

2 

Marsupialia 

3 

Unguiculata  and  Glires 

.4 

Chiroptera  (Bats) 

S 

Cetacea  and  Sirenia 

J6 

Paenungulata 

.7 

Mesaxonia,  Paraxonia, 

Ferungulata 

A 

Primates 

.9 

Hominidae  (Man) 

599.1 


.31 


.32 
.322 

.323 

.323  2 

.323  3 
.323  4 


.33 


.34 


Monotremata 

Common  names:  spiny  anteaters,  platypuses 

Marsupialia 

Common  names:    opossums,   opossum  rats,  kangaroos,   marsupial 
mice,  wallabies,  bandicoots,  phalangers,  koalas,  wombats 

Unguiculata  and  Glires 

For  Chiroptera,  see  599.4;  Primates,  599.8 

Edentata 

Xenarthra  and  Pholidota 

Common  names:  armadillos,  anteaters,  sloths,  pangolins 

Glires 

Lagomorpha 

Common  names:  pikas,  hares,  rabbits 

Rodentia  (Rodents) 

Sciuromorpha 

Common  names:  sewellels,  squirrels,  beavers 

Myomorpha 

Common  names:  rats,  mice,  lemmings 

Hystricomorpha 

Common  names:  porcupines,  guinea  pigs,  cavies,  agoutis, 
chinchillas,  hamsters 

Insectivora 

Common  names:  solenodons,  moles,  shrews,  desmans,  tenrees 

Dermoptera  ( Flying  lemurs) 

637 


Decimal  Classification 


599.4 


.51 


.53 


.55 


Chiroptera  ( Bats ) 

Megachiroptera  and  Microchiroptera 

Cetacea  and  Sirenia 

Mysticeti 

Common  names:  baleen  whales,  whalebone  whales,  finbacks, 
humpback  whales 

Odontoceti 

Common  names :  sperm  whales,  beakt  whales,  cowfish, 
narwhals,  white  whales,  dolphins,  porpoises 

Sirenia  (Sea  cows) 

Common  names:  manatees,  dugongs 


.6 

Paenungnlata 

For  Sirenia,  see  599.55 

.61 

Proboscidea  ( Elephants ) 

.62 

Hyracoidea 

Common  names:  conies,  dassies,  rock 

.7 

Mesaxonia,  Faraxonia,  Feriingulata 

.72 

Perissodactyla 

.725 

Equidae  (Horses,  asses,  zebras) 

.727 

Tapiridae  (Tapirs) 

.728 

Rhinocerotidae  ( Rhinoceroses ) 

.73 

Artiodactyla 

.734 

Suiformes 

.735 
.735  5 
.735  7 


Common  names:  pigs,  boars,  wart  hogs,  babirussas, 
peccaries,  hippopotamuses 

Ruminantia  ( Ruminants ) 
Tragulida  (Chevrotains) 
Cervoidea 

Common  names:  giraffes,  okapis,  deer,  elk,  moose, 
reindeer,  caribou 


638 


599.735  8 


.736 


Zoological  sciences 


Bovoidea 

Common  names:  antelopes,  cattle,  oxen,  buffaloes,  bison, 
elands,  bongos,  kudus,  gazeUes,  sheep,  goats,  musk  oxen 

Tylopoda 

Common  names:  camels,  llamas,  alpacas,  vicunas,  guanacos 


.74 

Carnivora 

.744 

Fissipeda  (Land carnivores) 

.744  2 

Feloidea 

.744  22 

Viverridae 

Common  names:  civets,  genets,  mongooses,  fossa 

.744  26 

Proteles  (Aardwolves) 

.744  27 

Hyaenidae  (Hyenas) 

.744  28 

Felidae  (Cats) 

.7444 

Canoidea 

.744  42 

Canidae 

Common  names:  wolves,  jackals,  foxes,  dogs,  coyotes 

.744  43 


.744  46 
.744  47 


.745 
.746 

.747 
.748 


Procyonidae 

Common  names:  raccoons,  coatis,  kinkajous, 
bassarisks,  pandas 

Ursidae  (Bears) 

Mustelidae 

Common  names:   badgers,  weasels,  minks,  martens, 
wolverines,  skunks,  otters 

Pinnipedia  (Marine  carnivores) 

Otariidae  (Eared  seals) 

Common  names:  fur  seals,  sea  lions,  sea  bears 
Odobenidae  (Wah*uses) 

Phocidae  (True  seals) 

Common  names:  earless  seals,  elephant  seals 


639 


Decimal  Classification 


599,8 


.81 


.82 


.88 

.882 


.884 


.9 


Primates 

For  Hominidae,  see  599.9 

Prosimii 

Lemuriformes,  Lorisiformes,  Tarsiiformes 

Cebidae,  Callithricidae,  Cercopithecidae 
Common  names:  monkeys,  marmosets,  tumarins 


599.88-599.9  Hominoidea 
Pongidae  ( Apes ) 
Hylobatinae 

Common  names:  gibbons,  siamangs 

Ponginae 

Common  names :  gorillas,  cliimpanzees,  orangutans,  baboons 

Hominidae  (Man) 


640 


600 


600  Technology  (Applied  sciences) 


[.74] 


[.78] 


601 
602 


.7 


.8 

603 

604 

605 

606 
[.4] 


607 


.3 

.34 


Museums  and  exhibits 
Class  in  607.34 

Apparatus  and  instrumentation 
Class  in  602.8 

Philosophy  and  theory 

Miscellany 

Identification  marks 

Class  patents  and  inventions  in  608.7 

Apparatus,  instrumentation  [both  formerly  600.78] , 
techniques 

Dictionaries,  encyclopedias,  concordances 

Serial  publications 
Organizations 

Fairs,  expositions,  temporary  exhibits,  competitions 

Class  fairs,  expositions,  temporary  exhibits  in  607.34,  competitions 
in  607.39 

Study  and  teaching 

Industrial  research  (Products  research) 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  607.2 

Other  educational  aspects 

Museums  and  exhibits  [both  formerly  600.74] 

Including  fairs,  expositions,  temporary  exhibits   [all  formerly 
606.4] 


641 


Decimal  Classification 


607.35-.38 


Collecting,  review,  programed  teaching,  use  of 
equipment 

Divide  like  standard  subdivisions  075-078,  e.g.,  questions  and 
answers  607.36 


.39  Competitions  [formerly  606A]  and  awards 

.4-.9         In  specific  continents,  countries,  localities 

Add  area  notations  4-9  to  607 

608  Collections,  anthologies^  patents,  inventions 
.7  Patents  and  inventions 

Add  area  notations  1-9  to  608.7 

609  Historical  and  geographical  treatment 


610     Medical  sciences 

.6  Organizations  and  professions 

.69  Medical  professions 

For  nursing  profession,  see  610.73 


•695 


.695  2 
.695  3 
.696 
.7 
.72 


.73 


.730  69 
.730  692 


Specific  medical  professions 

Class  medical  records  librarians  in  362.1,  medical  mission- 
aries in  266.025,  medical  secretaries  in  651.374  1 

Physicians  and  surgeons 
Medical  technicians 
Physician-patient  relationships 
Study,  teaching,  nursing  practice 

Historical  and  descriptive  research 
Class  experimental  medicine  in  619 

Nursing  profession 

For  home  nursing,  see  649.8 

Personnel 

Professional  nurses 


642 


Medical  sciences 

610.730  693 

Practical  nurses 

.730  698 

Other 

Attendants,  aides,  orderlies 

.732 

Private  duty  and  special  nursing 

.733 

Institutional  nursing  and  ward  management 

.734 

Red  Cross  and  other  public  health  nursing 

If  preferred,  class  in  614.073 

.734  3 

Community  and  district  nursing 

Services  of  visiting  nurses 

611 


.734  6  Occupational  health  nursing  (Industrial 

nursing) 

734  9  Disaster  nursing 

736  Specialized  nursing 

If  preferred,  class  with  the  specialty,  e.g.,  surgical  nursing 

617.073 

.736  2  Pediatric  nursing 

.736  5  Geriatric  nursing 

736  7  Surgical  and  gynecological  nursing 

736  77  Surgical  nursing 

.736  78  Obstetrical  nursing 

.736  8  Psychiatric  nursing 

,736  9  Communicable  disease  nursing 

Human  anatomy 

Use  611.001-611.009  for  standard  subdivisions 

,01  Abnormal,  prenatal,  microscopic  anatomy 

For  pathology,  see  616.07 

.012  Teratology 

Congenital  anomalies,  deformities,  monstrosities 


.013 


Anatomic  embryology 


643 


611.018 
.0181 


.018  2 


Decimal  Classification 


Cytology  and  histology 
Cytology  (Study  of  cells) 


611.018  2-611.018  8  Histology 
Connective  tissues 

Areolar,  collagenous,  elastic,  reticular,  adipose,  pigmented 
cells,  fibers,  ground  substances 


.018  3 


.018  4 


.018  5 


.018  6 


.018  7 


.018  8 


Cartilaginous  tissues 

Hyaline,  elastic,  fibrous  cartilage 

Osseous  tissues 

Spongy  and  compact  bone  cells  and  tissues,  red  and 
yellow  bone  marrow  (medulla),  periosteum,  endosteum 

Blood  and  lymph  elements 

Blood  plasma,  red  corpuscles  (erythrocytes),  white  cor- 
puscles (leucocytes),  platelets  (thrombocytes),  lymph 
plasma,  lymphocytes 

Muscular  tissues 

Smooth  ( nonstriated,  involuntary ) ,  skeletal  ( striated, 
voluntary),  cardiac  (striated,  involuntary)  muscle  tissues 

Epithelial  tissues 

Serous  and  mucous  membranes;  simple  squamous,  col- 
umnar, stratified  squamous  epithelia 

Nerve  tissues 

Neurons,  interstitial  nerve  tissues  ( neuroglia,  neurilemma, 
satellite  cells),  meninges,  sheaths 

611.1-611.9  Gross  anatomy 


611.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 


SUMMARY 

Cardiovascular  organs 

Respiratory  organs 

Digestive  organs 

Lymphatic  and  glandular  organs 

Urogem'tal  organs 

Motor  and  integumentary  organs 

Neuroanatomy 

Regional,  surgical,  topographical  anatomy 

644 


Medical  sciences 


611.1 

.11 
.12 


Cardiovascular  organs 

Pericardium 

Heart 

Ventricles,  auricles,  endocardium,  myocardium 
For  pericardium,  see  611.11 


611.13-611.15  Blood  ves 

.13 

Arteries 

.14 

Veins 

.15 

Capillaries 

.2 

Respiratory  organs 

.21 

Nose  and  nasal  accessory  sinuses 

.22 

Larynx 

Epiglottis,  glottis,  laryngeal  muscles 

.23 

Trachea  and  bronchi 

.24 

Lungs 

.25 

Thoracic  pleura 

.26 

Diaphragm 

.27 

Mediastinum 

.3 

Digestive  organs 

.31 

Mouth 

.313 

Tongue 

.314 

Teeth 

.315 

Palate 

.316 

Salivary  glands 

.317 

Lips 

.318 

Cheeks 

.32 

Pharynx,  tonsils,  esophagus 

.33 

Stomach  and  pylorus 

645 


Decimal  Classification 


Medical  sciences 


611.34 


.341 


.345 
.347 


Intestines 

For  rectum,  see  611.35 

Small  intestines 

Duodenum,  jejunum,  ileum 

Cecum  and  vermiform  appendix 
Large  intestines 

Colon  and  sigmoid  flexure 
For  cecum,  see  611.345 


.35 

Rectum,  anus,  perineum 

.36 

Biliary  tract 

Liver,  gall  bladder,  bile  ducts 

.37 

Pancreas  and  islands  of  Langerhans 

.38 

Peritoneum 

Mesentery,  omentum,  coelum 

.4 

Lymphatic  and  glandular  organs 

.41 

Spleen 

.42 

Lymphatic  system 

For  lymphatic  glands,  see  611.46 

.43 

Thynms  gland 

.44 

Thyroid  and  parathyroid  glands 

.45 

Adrenal  glands 

.46 

Lymphatic  glands 

.49 

Breasts  and  mammary  glands 

.6 

Urogenital  organs 

.61 

Kidneys  and  ureters 

.62 

Bladder  and  urethra  [formerly  also  61 1.67] 

.63 

Testicles,  prostate,  scrotum 

.64 

Penis 

.65 

Ovaries  and  Fallopian  tubes 

.66 

Uterus  and  cervix 

646 

611.67 


.718 


.72 


Vagina,  hymen,  vulva 

Class  urethra  [formerly  611.67]  in  611.62 


.7 

Motor  and  integumentary  organs 

.71 

Bones 

.711 

Of  spinal  coluiim 

611.712-611.713  Of  c 

.712 

Ribs 

.713 

Sternum 

.715 

Of  brainpan 

.716